it is something you're born with, unlike knowledge or specific skills that you can learn
Like "CPU power" or "memory capacity" of a computer.
it is some identifiable factor that affects performance on many mental tasks
"idiot savants" are not considered intelligent, even if they are good at some specific mental tasks
this has been challenged by the theory of "multiple intelligences"
we can use "innateness" and "task independence" as defining properties of "intelligence"
"Intelligence is a quantiative measure of an innate quality that increases performance on [a wide range of unrelated] mental tasks."
capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.
manifestation of high mental capacity
the faculty of understanding
from Latin: "intelligere" - to choose between
most of these people developed IQ tests or had something to say about it
Alfred Binet, Judgment, otherwise called "good sense," "practical sense," "initiative," the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances ... auto-critique., 1857-1911 (French) Paris, First "intelligence test" (1911)
Cyril Burt, Innate general cognitive ability, 1883-1971 (British) University College, London, Studies on the heritability of intelligence.
Howard Gardner, To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving — enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product — and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems — and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge., 1943- (American) Harvard, Theory of Multiple Intelligences
David Wechsler, The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment, 1896-1981 (American) Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Robert Sternberg, Goal-directed adaptive behavior, 1949 (American) Oklahoma State, over 1000 articles on intelligence and creativity
mental: "of or pertaining to the mind"
mind: "the totality of conscious and unconsciious mental processes and activities"
thank you dictionary!
limited compute resources
classical view of intelligence
deduction and induction
trying to explain all of human intelligence through logic falls flat
common trope in SciFi ("Mr. Spock")
limitations of logic, fails to take into account randomness (but logic is a special case of Bayesian probabilistic reasoning), computations can be very expensive, so the brain may not be able to carry them out, traditional logic doesn't deal well with time, incorrect information, belief, etc.; AI has developed more complex "logics", where does it come from? Is it hard-wired? How?
Generically: given some start state and some constraints, reach some goal state.
When it is a mental process, it is often the same as "planning".
Solve the problem mentally before solving it physically, since physical exploration is more costly than mental exploration.
Long term planning involves decision making about probabilities, expectations, and risks, as well as preferences.
Retain past experiences and apply them to new situations.
There are two fundamentally different kinds of learning, episodic memory, skill learning
You can lose episodic memory while still retaiing skill learning.
Transform complex physical realities into a stream of symbols, and back.
recognize objects in 3D scenes
recognize objects from the sounds they make
identify objects by touch or smell
understand spoken language
produce spoken language (far more complex than playing the piano!)
walk upright (small errors mean death)
handle and manipulate tools