BUSINESS PROJECT 1 Literature Review

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BUSINESS PROJECT 1 Literature Review by Mind Map: BUSINESS PROJECT 1 Literature Review

1. world bank research

1.1. Congestion

1.1.1. summary

1.1.1.1. The urban agglomeration of Cairo, designated as the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA), is the largest urban area in Egypt, Africa and the Middle East and amongst the most populous metropolises of the world. In 2006, its population reached 17 million people spread across the governorates of Cairo, Giza and Qalyobiya and a number of new cities.

1.1.1.2. traffic congestion remains a serious problem in the GCMA with substantial adverse effects on

1.1.1.2.1. travel time

1.1.1.2.2. vehicle operation costs

1.1.1.2.3. air quality

1.1.1.2.4. public health

1.1.1.2.5. business enviroment

1.1.1.2.6. business operation

1.1.1.3. study area

1.1.1.3.1. GCMA

1.1.1.3.2. 6th of october

1.1.1.3.3. 15th of may

1.1.1.3.4. 10th of ramadan

1.1.1.3.5. el-obour

1.1.1.3.6. badr

1.1.1.4. trafic varialbility causes

1.1.1.4.1. Among the numerous causes of travel time variability, traffic influencing events are major contributors. The most notable event type is vehicle breakdowns, which occur at a daily rate that is substantially higher than other traffic influencing events along all surveyed routes. It was also observed that higher frequencies of accidents, security checks and breakdowns occurred more on urban primary highways compared to the urban primary arterial routes. The analysis also reveals the substantial occurrence of both random microbus stops and random edestrian crossings on most surveyed routes.

1.1.1.5. qualitative assesment

1.1.1.5.1. The network-wide qualitative assessment was performed through a consultative workshop involving a panel of experts. Through a structured approach known as Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a list of 35 causes of traffic congestion in the GCMA was compiled. The causes of traffic congestion in the GCMA were classified into “operational” and “strategic”. Through the NGT, the panel of experts ranked the operational causes by degree of importance as follows: traffic management and control, design features of the road network, law observance and enforcement, awareness of road etiquette and manners, parking supply and behavior, traffic demand related factors, traffic influencing events andwork zones.

1.1.1.6. Congestion costs

1.1.1.6.1. direct costs

1.1.1.6.2. quantitative

1.1.2. part 2

1.1.2.1. surveys

1.1.2.1.1. good charts and graphs

1.1.3. part 3

1.1.3.1. causes of congestion

1.1.3.1.1. area types

1.1.3.1.2. Traffic influencing events

1.1.3.1.3. causes

1.1.4. part 4

1.1.4.1. Estimation of Congestion

1.1.4.1.1. annex 9

1.1.4.1.2. method used

1.1.4.1.3. annex 10

1.1.4.1.4. p 121

1.1.4.1.5. annex 11

1.1.4.1.6. p 122

1.1.4.1.7. p123

1.1.4.1.8. feul Costs

1.1.4.1.9. CO2 P 125

1.1.4.1.10. P 127 summary

1.1.4.1.11. sensitivity analysis P 129

1.1.4.1.12. TOTAL CONGESTION COSTS FOR GCMA P129

1.1.4.1.13. P 139

1.1.4.1.14. P 142 zonal distribution

1.1.4.1.15. P 148

1.1.4.1.16. P 152 Conclusion

2. IBM

2.1. good wide business view with many cases adresed, interoperability, costumer view,

2.2. congestion tax, stockholm

2.3. london public transit

2.4. payment on use

2.5. taxes on miles

3. EU MEMO

3.1. society benefits, security

3.2. new business for ITS market

4. WB ITS note 1

4.1. what is ITS

4.2. USES

4.3. 9 parts

4.3.1. Traveler Information

4.3.2. Traffic Management

4.3.3. Demand Management

4.3.4. Road Management

4.3.5. Advanced Driving Assistance

4.3.6. Electronic Financial Transactions

4.3.7. Commercial Vehicle Management

4.3.8. Public Transport Management

4.3.9. Incident and Hazard Response

4.4. ITS cultures

4.4.1. Europe

4.4.1.1. social

4.4.1.2. seamless connection

4.4.1.3. failed so far to develope wireless transformation of information

4.4.2. USA

4.4.2.1. Vehicle infra-structure integration

4.4.2.1.1. The most important new program in the U.S. is called “Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration.” The objective of this program is to create an integrated, intercommunicating surface transportation system. The system will use wireless communications, primarily DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) to link the infrastructure and its managers with vehicles and their drivers. It will gather and share information about the transportation system to help improve the performance of the infrastructure, vehicles, and drivers. This effort currently includes U.S. DOT, state transportation departments, and auto manufacturers.

4.4.2.2. 511 project

4.4.2.2.1. traffic info, weather, ---

4.4.3. japan

4.4.3.1. VICS

4.4.3.2. ETC

4.4.3.2.1. Japan’s emphasis on ETC deployment has mainly been to reduce congestion at toll barriers, with less emphasis on improving the efficiency and reliability of collection. Deployment of ETC was relatively late in Japan due to its insistence on having a nationally interoperable system. However, this was undoubtedly a good long-term approach. Japan is encouraging the spread of ETC by discounting electronically collected tolls and by subsidizing the purchase of ETC transponders (making their cost less than US $50). Between May 2003 and May 2004, the number of ETC transponders in service in Japan tripled from 1 million to 3 million, and, as of May 2004, nearly 20% of tolls were being paid electronically.

4.4.3.3. DSRC

4.4.3.3.1. Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC), which is used for ETC, is also being deployed for use with VICS. The intention is to use this communications infrastructure as a basis for multiple other ITS applications.

4.4.4. Developing Countries

4.4.4.1. All three regions have introduced basic traffic signal systems, traffic surveillance systems using CCTV, and traveler information systems based on variable message signs (VMS). As expected, systems that provide a high rate of return on investment have the greatest likelihood of being introduced. These include electronic toll collection and fare payment systems, commercial vehicle tracking systems, and busmanagement systems.

4.5. Benefits of ITS

4.5.1. Resolution of traffic problems

4.5.1.1. Mobility

4.5.1.2. Traffic Congestion

4.5.1.3. Environmental Impact

4.5.1.4. Reducing Fatalities and Crash Severity

4.5.1.5. Managing the Transportation Infrastructure

4.5.2. improved services for users and increased efficiency of the transportation system and its operators

4.5.2.1. Reducing Travel Uncertainty

4.5.2.2. Increasing Security

4.5.2.3. Increasing Efficiency for Operators

4.5.2.4. With ETC, drivers establish an account with a toll agency and receive an electronic transponder that identifies their vehicle and their account

4.5.2.5. Increasing efficiency for users

4.6. Kinds of ITS

4.6.1. ITS which provides society-wide benefits

4.6.2. ITS which enhances reliability and business efficiency

4.7. key factors for leapfrogging

4.8. additional incentives

4.8.1. Knowledge economy

4.8.1.1. A knowledge economy is an economy that places importance on the role of knowledge as an important production factor along with labor and capital.

4.8.1.2. There is also a strong need for research & development, education, information exchange, and technology transfer

4.8.2. fostering IT technology

4.8.2.1. However, there are some cases in which the demand for IT-related equipment, including ITS equipment, can help to foster new domestic industries for manufacturing this equipment. This works best in developing countries which already have at least some base IT industry in place.

4.8.3. Assisting regional integration

4.8.4. Greater Desimentation of IT

4.9. Prerequesites

4.9.1. Additional Knowledge

4.9.2. institutional prerequesies

4.9.3. Technological Prerequisites

4.10. Innovative Approaches for Developing Countries

4.10.1. Affordable ITS

4.10.2. ITS enhancing reliability and business efficiency

4.10.3. PPP

5. WB ITS note 2

5.1. ITS implementation

5.1.1. stage 1

5.1.1.1. Benefit Overview Model: ITS and Benefits/Motivations

5.1.1.1.1. Decision making

5.1.1.1.2. Adoption

5.1.2. stage 2

5.1.2.1. Stage 2 – Application Selection Models: ITS applications and Requirements

5.1.2.1.1. Understanding Major Requirements Before Starting

5.1.2.1.2. Appl icat ion Select ion Models: ITS Applications and Requirements

5.2. Appendix system configuration for each type of ITS

6. WB ITS note 3

6.1. constraints facing developing countries

6.2. later comes advantage

6.2.1. cheaper equipment

6.2.2. no need for separate ITS communication infrastructure

6.2.3. IS + ITS at the same time

6.2.4. previous experience of developed countries

6.2.5. help from developing countries

6.3. step by step in note 5

6.4. inovative approaches

6.4.1. affordable ITS : Use of existing infrastructure

6.4.1.1. The innovative use of these resources provides a promising and cost-effective way to deploy ITS both by the public and the private sectors

6.4.1.2. Practice 1:

6.4.1.2.1. Road Conditions Monitoring System with GSM

6.4.1.3. Practice 2:

6.4.1.3.1. Use of Mobile Phones for Incident Response

6.4.1.4. Practice 3:

6.4.1.4.1. Road Traffic Information

6.4.1.5. Practice 4:

6.4.1.5.1. Information Collection and Delivery Systems That Rely on People

6.4.2. Step-by-Step Approach: Flexible Approach to ITS Deployment

6.4.2.1. Pract ice 5:

6.4.2.1.1. Simul taneous Construction of ITS Systems

6.4.2.2. Practice 6:

6.4.2.2.1. Step-by-Step Architecture

6.4.3. ITS Enhancing Reliability and Business Efficiency

6.4.3.1. private sector can be interested in this type of business

6.4.3.2. practice 7:

6.4.3.2.1. Public Transport and Cargo Monitoring System

6.4.4. PPP

6.4.4.1. The public sector focuses on the infrastructure part of the work, and the private sector focuses on the vehicle part

6.4.4.2. can more easily be borne by the private sector (e.g., market risks) and some of the risks can more easily be handled by the public sector

6.4.4.3. Especially in the case of ITS, the system itself is a hybrid of information technology and various traffic technology. Breakthroughs may occur by putting together cross-functional teams to tackle old issues

6.4.4.4. PRACTICE 8:

6.4.4.4.1. Road Design and Maintenance Management by Private Companies

6.5. NOTES

6.5.1. INCENTIVES TO PRIVATE SECTOR

6.5.2. Promote Joint Effor ts between Various Areas and Organizations

6.5.3. General Promotion of ITS

7. WB ITS note 4

7.1. The purpose of this ITS Technical Note 4 is to introduce the subject of ITS standards to decision makers in developing countries who are planning to introduce ITS as part of their transportation system

7.2. types of standards

7.2.1. Voluntary Consensus Standards

7.2.2. Industry Consortia

7.2.2.1. Bluetooth use in ITS

7.2.2.2. ITS Databus

7.2.2.2.1. IDB

7.2.3. Regulatory Standards

7.3. ITS standards

7.3.1. De Facto ITS Standards

7.3.1.1. failure

7.3.2. Consensus ITS Standards

7.4. Approaches for Developing Countries

8. note 5:

8.1. system architecture

8.1.1. A very important part of the system architecture is the identification and description of the interfaces between major ITS components. These interfaces allow the major components of an overall intelligent transportation system to communicate with one another and to work together. Many important ITS standards are written to make these interfaces consistent

8.1.2. Defines •The user services that ITS systems and applications are expected to perform. •The entities where these functions exist. •Information flows and data flows that connect functions and entities

8.1.3. user services

8.1.3.1. User Services User services describe the activities that ITS systems and applications perform or support. Typical user services include providing traveler information, managing traffic, electronically collecting tolls, helping drivers perform better (especially in emergency situations), responding to traffic incidents, managing public and private vehicle fleets, etc.

8.2. characteristics of large system

8.2.1. ITS as a whole is too large and complex to install all at once even in the wealthiest and most technical advanced countries. In most countries, including both developed and developing countries, the right approach is to introduce ITS gradually and in stages, focusing first on the parts of ITS that provide the greatest value in proportion to cost.

8.2.2. •Compatibility •Expandability •Interoperability •Integration •Standardization

8.3. standard Architectures

8.3.1. In addition, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) includes a working group on ITS architecture (WG1) in its technical committee on ITS (TC204).

8.3.2. ISO is good

8.4. for developing countries

8.4.1. steps

8.4.1.1. •Define the user services to be provided by the ITS •Define the processes (activities and functions) required to provide the user services (logical architecture) •Define the physical entities (subsystems and terminators) that make up an ITS. •Define the architecture flows that connect the subsystems and terminators (physical architecture)

9. ITS in developing conutries

9.1. vehicles per capita per income

9.2. international accident reduction

9.3. ITS structure graph

9.4. the emense development of communication pave the way for ITS systems

9.5. importance of staging