Managing technology integration into schools: A South African perspective

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Managing technology integration into schools: A South African perspective by Mind Map: Managing technology  integration into schools: A South African perspective

1. Introdution

1.1. Why technical

1.1.1. Parents,employers and society demands it

1.1.2. More and more jobs will require technical competency

1.2. Why South Africa

1.2.1. Some successful statements were made from a developed countries perspective. Developing countries need to take part in this debate

1.2.2. most economically developed countries of Africa, and government has the highest proportion of the investment in education.

1.2.3. with highest level of informationization in Africa, their educational informatization experience could serve as a model for many developing countries

2. Technology in schools in developed countries

2.1. Objectives of the article

2.1.1. Establish the current status of technology in schools

2.1.2. Identify existing strategies followed by school principals in under-resourced schools

2.1.3. Propose innovative management strategies

2.2. Three reasons for teaching of technology at school level identified by ISTE in1998

2.2.1. (1)  parents demand it

2.2.2. (2)  employers demand it

2.2.3. (3)  society demands it

2.3. standards for the training in technology of pre-service teachers.

2.3.1. In USA

2.3.1.1. NCATE: teacher training should include -basic computer concepts -personal and professional use of technology -applications for technology in education

2.3.1.2. ISTE,1998c: -basic computer and technology concepts -personal and professional use of technology - applications for technology in education

2.3.1.3. O’Donnell Dooling (1999) : "teachers consider involving other learners, parents or members of the community when teaching technology that teachers strive towards the more effective integration of computer technology into the whole school curriculum"

2.3.1.4. Adams and Jansen(1997): Despite the improvement of the use of technology in classrooms in the USA, the limited use of this technology in order to improve teaching and learning.

2.3.2. In UK

2.3.2.1. National Curriculum (Department of Education,1995): Divides technology into - Design and technology - Information technology – users must use IT resources to solve problems and support their learning in different contexts - Know the impact of IT in workplace and community

2.3.3. In Australia

2.3.3.1. Launched “Teacher Learning Technologies Competencies Project : Pre-service Education ” (ACFCE, 2000a)

2.3.3.2. Improve the knowledge, skills and attitudes of teachers regarding the integration of technology into the curriculum.

2.3.3.3. Launched “Teacher Learning Technologies Competencies –Project : Minimum Standards- Learning Technology (Queensland), ACFC“

2.3.4. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

2.3.4.1. – National Standards for Technology in Teacher Preparation - National Educational Technology Standards for Students - ISTE Recommended Foundations in Technology for All Teachers

3. Technology in schools in a developing country(South Africa)

3.1. Situation

3.1.1. 14th most wired country in the world , yet fewer than 1% of its schools have Internet access -----in 1997 82% schools do not have any educational media at all ----DESA,1998 More than 85,000 teachers in the country are unqualified or underqualified ---ETDP,2000 In the 40th place out of 75 countries -----Harvard Network Readiness Index(Badenhorst,2002)

3.2. Make IT effectively into school introduction

3.2.1. Haupt and Mintoor (1997)

3.2.1.1. -Improving the technological skills of teachers -Enhancing teachers’ ability to use the computer as a tool in problem solving -Making technology available in schools

3.2.2. Mentz (2000)

3.2.2.1. The lack of trained teachers is one of the main obstacles in the way of effectively introducing technology into schools in South Africa.

3.2.3. Plumstead (Futurekids, 1999)

3.2.3.1. -The training of teachers in technological skills as a prerequisite for the transition of South Africa into a developed country -The introduction of technology for purposes of school management, teaching preparation and internal communication as the most important fields of application.

3.2.4. Chiles (1997)

3.2.4.1. -The lack of training in technology skills -Changing employer attitudes, emphasize the necessity of introducing computers and technology at a faster pace into schools

3.2.5. Holman (1998)

3.2.5.1. The introduction of computers and relevant software may be a cost-effective solution

3.3. What's CTE

3.3.1. Computer technology education : implies knowledge of a computer, including the development of, nature of, underlying principles of and conceptual clarity about a computer. It also means an understanding of the processes associated with computer technology as well as the effective use of information systems relevant to any given task

4. Introduction of technology into schools: methodology and results of the survey

4.1. Survey information

4.1.1. - Telephone survey - 52 principals, representing 26,417 learners - 49 schools

4.2. Questions

4.2.1. 1.The number of computers available for administrative and teaching & learning purposes 2.the way in which computers were used 3.the training level of educators ranking of the importance of access to computers 4.obstacles preventing the successful implementation of technology in schools 5.strategies to speed up the effective implementation of technology in schools

4.3. Questionnaire results

4.3.1. Result 1: •46%: had computers in schools for administrative purposes •19%: had computers for purposes of teaching and learning,and majority of the 19%: -computers were used effectively -the educators responsible for computer training were well trained 88%: viewed access to computers by learners as very important with average of 4.79 out of 5

4.3.2. Result 2: • insufficient financial support by the Dept of Education • untrained teachers • lack of electricity • socio-economic status of the community • insufficient security, vandalism and theft • curriculum constraints • unfavorable teacher-learner ratio • lack of computer labs

4.4. Strategies

4.4.1. • financial support by the Dept of Education

4.4.2. • partnerships between schools and the private sector

4.4.3. • training of teachers in computer technology

4.4.4. • training of parents in computer technology

5. Managing a process of integrating technology into schools:recommendations

5.1. Level 1

5.1.1. Dept of education: • Technology • Infrastructure

5.1.2. School: • Maintenance • Motivation & support • Liaison • Creating a culture of acceptance & ownership

5.1.3. Outcomes: • Electrical textbooks • Save mail and transport expense • Better communication • Effective school administration

5.2. Level 2

5.2.1. Dept of education: • Computer technology • Co-operation with tertiary institutions •Facilities and infrastructure

5.2.2. School: • Create environment to expose teachers to technology • Support staff in acquiring skills

5.2.3. Outcomes: • Teachers prepared to meet challenges that teaching and learning poses • Learners benefit as a result of networking among teachers

5.3. Level 3

5.3.1. Dept of Education: • Curriculum resources • Infrastructure

5.3.2. School: • Support teacher:classroom management • Teaching learners • Optimal use of technology • Support staff in acquiring skills

5.3.3. Outcomes: Technology-literate Society

5.4. Level 4

5.4.1. Dept of Education: • Infrastructure • Training of teachers

5.4.2. School: • Supporting teachers in acquiring skills • Financial support private sector • Support teachers regarding new initiatives

5.4.3. Outcome: Full integration of technology

6. Conclusion

6.1. Needs of a Competitive Society

6.1.1. Education

6.1.2. Principle

6.1.3. Changes