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NLPA Review of Grammar by Mind Map: NLPA Review of Grammar
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NLPA Review of Grammar

sentences

general properties

composed of phrases

goverend by grammar

word order and morphology determined by syntax

usually contain a verb (in some languages, implied)

represent: statements, questions, commands

a grammatical unit

components

phrases, groups of words that function as a single unit in the structure of a sentence

clauses

phrase structure

phrase structure

common english phrase structure, noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase

grammatical categories

nouns and pronouns

nouns refer to physical or abstract objects

properties, number, case, gender

morphology, regular, cat : cats, boat : boats, irregular, child : children, sheep : sheep

pronouns are like nouns but act more like "variables" or placeholders

determiners and adjectives

determiners, the / that / a / empty, new / previous referent, unique or generic, the car / a car / cars

adjectives, properties or attributes of nouns, positive, comparative, superlative, good / better / best, quantifiers, some, all, any, many, ...

verbs

represent action, change, or state

properties, tense, agreement, auxiliary

sometimes collapsed with adjectives, "red" = "is red", "red car" = "car which is red"

adverbs

modify verbs

analogous to adjectives, but for verbs

prepositions

grammatical functions

in, on, at, ...

conjunctions

words that connect phrases or sentences, me and you, You get a good grade if you answer the questions well.

words

smallest element of natural language that carries a meaning when uttered in isolation

"minimal free form" (Bloomfield)

grammatical classes

main classes, nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, articles

substitution test, The (red/big/*on/*is) car is on the lot.

words and their properties are compiled into dictionaries or lexica

mental dictionary

computer dictionary

printed dictionary

morphology

different words are related by morphology

dog -> dogs, go -> going

few forms in English, more in German, even more in Finnish

a morpheme is the smallest unit carrying meaning (but can't necessarily stand on its own), -ing, un-, pre-

a root is the most basic unit from which different words may be derived by inflection

inflection is the modification of a root for specific grammatical purposes, light, lighting, lighted, sehen, gesehen, sieht

derivation is a more general modification of a root, construct, deconstruct, sehen, versehen

a lexeme is a collection of words derived from a root by inflection

compounding means sticking two or more words together, garage door opener, overtake, Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän

other classes

function words / content words

stop words

linguistics

Classical question: Is a sentence grammatical?

"Rationalist" vs "empiricist" approaches

Capability vs performance distinction

some enormously complex theories and lots of religion

in practice, the empiricist approach is the one primarily used

large corpora

statistics

machine learning

nevertheless, much of the terminology of classical linguistics is still used in empiricist language processing

linguistics deals with language at several levels

phonology / orthography, rules for the composition of words out of phonemes and syllables, possible: "ka" impossible: "ksa" (Japanese), possible: "crag" impossible: "crngrorng" (English)

morphology, rules for the composition of words out of morphemes, go : went / go : *goed, gehe / ging : gehe : *gangte

grammar / syntax, rules for the composition of sentences out of words, The cat sees the dog. / *The cat dog the sees., Gestern sah ich Peter. / *Gestern ich sah Peter.

discourse, rules for how sentences relate to each other, can be quite complex, Example, Alice: Is John back yet?, Bob: There is no green car in the parking lot, Implies, John drives a green car., John left on an errand in his car., you can lie at the discourse level, Example, A criminal hides on a boat with a priest. The priest wants to hide the criminal without literally lying., A second boat with police on it comes in the opposite direction and asks the priest whether he has seen the criminal., The priest answers "He is not far away.", The police go on assuming that the criminal must be on another boat ahead.