note thinking broader than pr or hr or marketing or advertising
excellence in communication management for organizations
when and why are the efforts of communication practitioners effective?
how do organizations benefit from effective public relations?
why do organizations practice public relations in different ways?
literature review of relevant research from, communications, public relations, management, organizational pyschology, sociology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, feminist studies, political science, decision making, culture / anthropology
first general theory of public relations, to be tested in field research, having a theory provides a way to do deductive research, to test hypotheses and refine research based knowledge
How does communication affect the achievement of organizational objectives?, What makes an organization effective?, How must public relations be practiced to contribute the most to organizational effectiveness?, How should the communication function be organized for it to contribute the most to organizational effectiveness?, strategic management of individual communication programs: the program level of analysis, some organizations do not manage communication programs strategically: more reactive and seat of pants, intuition, habit, history
Excellence must also be considered along with effectiveness, excellence provides a normative model for comparison, excellent communication programs are effective
What organizational conditions bring about excellent communication departments?
What is effective communication worth to an organization?, remember when this was written: 1992, measurement and ROI questions were just beginning to surface, measurement is a major focus today for PRSA: "The Business Case" initiative, How can the pr practitioner demonstrate to upper management the economic value of pr activity?, Barcelona Declaration and ongoing work
public relations is the management of communication between an organization and its publics, broader than specific techniques or departments, advertising, marketing, organizational communication, newsletters, employee information, orientation of new employees, training, public relations, integrated marketing communication, overall planning, execution and evaluation of an organization's communication with both internal and external publics, publics are groups that affect the ability of an organization to meet its goals, enhance, constrain, a mediatorial function, information to publics, information from publics to management, communication manager can keep dominant coalition and key decision makers in touch with key environmental information, attitudes, issues..., thus communication managers should be included among the decision makers who make up the dominant coalition, participate at the policy level
Philosophical assumptions about public relations, people have different ideas about purpose and effects of public relations, manipulation, dissemination of information, resolution of conflict, promotion of understanding, a key issue, symmetrical, assymetrical, theories are most associated with a modernist conception of scientific knowledge, idea is to use methodology to attain value free knowledge, unbiased, true, versus other kinds of knowledge, intuition, supersition, religious faith, tradition, how do we develop these kinds of theories for public relations?, theory about contribution of communication to an organization, theory about how to segment and target publics, theory about issues management, theory about interaction of public relations with marketing, theory about interaction with public affairs and government, scientists think about two levels of theories, presuppositions, ideas that undergird the practice and shape expectations, role of pr in society, pragmatic social role: pr is a useful practice, something that adds value to a client by helping to meet their objectives, no need for code of conduct or ethical stance, all about getting results for client, neutral social role: public relations, like society itself, is a neutral object of study. researchers can discover how practitioners view their social role and what their motivations are, just something of research interest, conservative social role: public relations maintains a system of privilege by defending the interests of the economically powerful, assumes ability of pr to have powerful affect on society, asymmetrical, i know what is good for you and i will tell you and convince you, radical social role: public relations leads to social improvement, reform and change, assumes ability of pr to have powerful affect on society, asymmetrical, i know what is good for you and i will tell you and force you to change, idealistic social role: public relations is a mechanism by which organizations and publics interact in a pluralistic system to manage their interdependence and conflict, this is the presupposition and theory of this book, public relations should be practiced to, serve the public interest, develop mutual understanding between organizations and their publics, contribute to informed debate about issues in society, symmetrical, idealistic presuppositions guide this book, as opposed to asymmetrical presuppositions of conservative and radical views, dialogic, interdependent, constructionist values, democracy, Critical social role, public relations as a communication system is part of a larger organizational or societal system, these systems are, constructed, can be deconstructed, can be reconstructed, public relations scholars and practitioners can and should criticize public relations for, poor ethics, negative social consequences, ineffectiveness, should suggest changes to resolve these problems, it doesn't have to stay the way it is, pr is a profession and a function that can be constantly improved, laws / propositions, if an organization is credible, then it will be more persuasive when it communicates, if a public is involved with the consequences of what an organization does, then it will communicate more actively with the organization, if an organization is socially responsible, then it will meet less interference from government, excellent public relations programs are effective, they are based on idealist and critical social role presuppositions, research indicates that symmetrical public relations is more effective than asymmetrical, this may reflect a more feminine value system, as opposed to a masculine set of values, pr is not only a technical practice, excellent public relations embodies a worldview that defines the communication function in organizations as, symmetrical, idealistic, critical, managerial, strategic, beyond technical, policy level
Organizational effectiveness, managed interdependence is what managed communication offers, and this leads to organizational effectiveness, organizations are effective when they reach their goals, goals must be appropriate for the environment, or strategic constituencies will not work with the organization's goals, stakeholders, publics, no organization attains autonomy, public relations departments help the organization to manage their interdependence by building stable, open and trusting relationships with strategic constituencies, quality of these relationships is a key concern
The management level of public relations, to contribute to organizational effectiveness public relations practitioners must be part of the policy and decision making level of the organization, not just technicians, advising senior management on the publics, stakeholders, environment..., internal information, external information
public relations should be practiced strategically in order to contribute to organizational effectiveness, this is a quality of excellent communication management, this is a normative theory: it says how things ought to be, rather than just describing and explaining how things are, focus is on groups/publics that present the most threat and the most opportunity to the organization, current approaches to segmenting markets and publics don't fit with my approach, my concept of publics has a different purpose than marketing publics, better to segment on the basis of similar response to an organization's behavior or communication activity, how do groups respond to any problems in our relationship with them, what kinds of conflict are we experiencing with each public?
realism with regard to possible outcomes, communication programs seldom change behavior in the short term, although they may do so over a longer period, Communication programs change behavior in the short term under very specific conditions, simple behavior, program aimed at well-segmented public, supplemented by interpersonal support among members of that public, executed flawlessly, more significant objectives take longer programs to achieve effect
12 characteristics of excellent organizations, empower people by giving them autonomy and allow them to make strategic decisions, attention to personal growth of employees, attention to quality of work life, emphasize, interdependence rather than independence, integration rather than segmentation, balance teamwork and individual effort, eliminate hierarchical, bureaucratic structures and develop organic structure, decentralize decision making, manage without managers as much as possible, avoid stratification of employees, integrate the organization by using, leadership, collaboration, culture, rather than structure, have an innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, intrapreneurship, stay close to strategic constituencies through symmetrical communication, have leaders who rely on networking and management by walking around rather than authoritarian systems, leaders provide a vision and direction, create order out of chaos, which sometimes comes with empowering people in an organic structure, have strong, participative cultures, employees share a sense of mission, integrated by a strong culture that values, human resources, organic structures, symmetrical communication, practice strategic planning, identify opportunities, identify constraints, practice social responsibility, support for women and minorities, quality is a priority, effective operational systems, exists in a collaborative societal culture: has external environment support, collaboration, participation, trust, mutual responsibility
modernism, rationality vs superstition, tradition, faith, intuition, remove subjectivity from thinking, escape prejudice, become objective, systematic methods, science can create a golden world, logical positivism, rationalization of organizations
postmodernism, rejection of meta-narrative, science has led us to the brink of destruction, fragmentation, deconstruction, science is a human undertaking, humans impose fundamental beliefs about the world on their thinking and observing, Gadamer: we are prejudice, consciousness through language, Kuhn: Structure of scientific revolutions, Kant: noumenal and phenomenological world, we perceive through faculties, not direct contact with reality, Heisenberg principle: observing changes the phenomenon
post-postmodernism, recovery of community, beyond objectivism and relativism, Stanley Fish: interpretive communities, Habermas: ideal speech situation, colonization of the life world, instrumental rationality, MacIntyre: traditions in good order
science can be totally objective
science can be kept neutral of values
science can discover "truth"
most pr practitioners do not have a scientific approach to the field
most people think about pr in non-scientific ways
we need to introduce more careful thought to both groups, practitioners, observers
think about worldviews as shaping frameworks, ways of thinking about what is going on, theories: frameworks for describing, explaining, predicting, intervention, meta-narratives, paradigms, framework through which perceptions are screened, (think about your study of Craig's traditions of communication theory)
organizational theory as a worldview, machines, organisms, brains, cultures, political systems, flux and transformation, instruments of domination, institutions
evaluating worldviews, internal criteria, coherence, relevance, freedom from contradiction, ability to address recalcitrant issues, external criteria, pragmatism: what are the consequences of holding this worldview?, ability to solve important problems, connection to broad historical sweep, explanatory power, parsimony, ethics, help people find a right relationship to themselves, their neighbor, and the universe, build caring and loving relationships, produce a reunified human culture
which worldview generates public relations programs that best resolve conflict in society, resolve national and international issues, make organizations more socially responsible, make organizations more effective?
which worldview provides for public relations that are logical, coherent, unified and orderly, that are effective in solving organizational and human problems, and helps organizations build caring and loving relationships with other individuals and groups?
department of state model vs department of defense model, common pr worldview is asymmetrical, goal is for our side to win, metaphors we live by: lakoff and johnson, crush the other side, gather our ammunition, blow them out of the water, prepare our attack, catch them by surprise, research does not support the effectiveness of this approach, use of communication to manipulate publics for the benefit of organizations, steers practitioners towards actions that are, unethical, socially irresponsible, ineffective, organization knows best and publics benefit from cooperating with it, public relations is a process that centers on exerting symbolic control over certain aspects of the environment and the evaluative predispositions, attitudes and subsequent behaviors of relevant publics, control perspectives: Bible and dominion, seven presuppositions, internal orientation: we see others from inside our own perspective, rather than seeing us as they see us, vs interdependence: boundaries are permeable, organizations cannot isolate themselves, interpenetration, transactional relationship, closed system: information flows out of the organization but not into it, vs open system: free exchange of information with other systems, efficiency: efficiency and control of costs are more important than innovation, vs innovation: new ideas and flexible thinking rather than tradition and efficiency, elitism: leaders of the organization know best., vs equity: people have equal opportunity and are respected as fellow human beings. Anyone, regardless of education or background may provide valuable input into an organization, conservatism: change is undesirable. outside efforts to change the organization should be resisted. pressure for change is considered subversive, vs interest-group liberalism: political system is a mechanism for open negotiation among interest or issue groups. Citizen groups champion interests of ordinary people against unresponsive government and corporate structures, (see Craig theory tradition: critical theory), tradition: provides stability and maintains culture, central authority: power should be concentrated in the hands of a few top managers. employees should have little autonomy. organizations should be managed as autocracies, vs autonomy: people have freedom and power to influence their own behavior, be innovative, constructive, and find self-fulfilment. Leads to satisfaction and engagement, vs decentralization: collective management, coordination rather than dictate., vs responsibility: concern with consequences of behavior on others, attempt to eliminate adverse consequences, vs conflict resolution: through negotiation, communication, compromise, not force, manipulation, coercion or violence, healthy and unhealthy cultures of response to crisis, unhealthy organizations, self-intlated, narcissistic, only aware of impact on themselves, not others, healthy organizations, positive self-regard, dimensions, relationship to nature, unhealthy organizations seek to dominate and subjugate, healthy organizations see stakeholders in environment as fellow human beings, try to alleviate impact of crisis on stakeholders, nature of reality and truth, unhealthy organizations use defense mechanisms to avoid responsibility, healthy organizations accept responsibility, human nature, unhealthy organizations see "them" vs "us", good guys and bad guys, black and white thinking, bifurcations, healthy organizations recognize their own strengths and weaknesses and strengths and weaknesses of others, human activities, unhealthy organizations are fatalistc and passive. do something just because we've done it before., healthy organizations are proactive and strategic, accept guilt and anxiety induced by crisis in order to act against them, human relationship, unhealthy organizations see relationships as competitive and individualistic, healthy organizations view relationship as cooperative, with a dimension of competition, self-interest of the organization can be maintained even in a symmetrical relationship, mixed motives, corporations are not charities, can good guys finish first?, ethical behavior towards constituencies can lead to maximization of profit, golden rule: treat others the way you would like them to treat you, norm of reciprocity, if I give to the other, they may give to me, excellent organizations realize that they will get more of what they want if they give publics some of what they want, differential power may skew the practice of this, if I have enough power, i don't care if you are positive towards me, powerful organizations may have no incentive to practice the norm of reciprocity, but publics gain power through organizing into activist groups, activist groups cost organizations money, reputation, time, legal resources, distraction, reciprocity is part of social responsibility, which stabilizes the social system, if the social system becomes unstable, organizations have difficulty accomplishing their goals, therefore it is in the best interests of the more powerful organization to act according to the norm of reciprocity even if there is no immediate power compelling it to act in this way, blending self-interest with public interest, Rhetorical studies and the norm of reciprocity, Kenneth Burke, rhetoric of identification, Jurgen Habermas, ideal speech situation, trancendent ethics, transcending subjectivism through communal dialogue and agreements, Booth's typology, sub-rhetoric, deceive, obscure, evade, mere rhetoric, sincere selling of any cause, rhetoric B, Aristotelian, discovering available means of persuasion in any situation, invention, not attached to ends, a focus on means, study of all means available to all sides, issue remains as to the way in which public good is determined, rhetoric A, discover and refine, in a critical exchange, our ends, our purposes, our values, acknowledgement of competing and conflicting values, goals, ends, Gender differences in worldview, men are more concerned with competition, rights and fairness, women are more concerned with relationships, responsibility and equity, (consider feminization of the field of public relations), (consider emerging literature about role of nurturance and relationships in management)
four models, press agentry, publicity in the media in any way possible, public information, journalists in residence disseminate objective but only favorable information, two way asymmetrical, research is used to develop messages to persuade publics to behave as the organization wants, two way symmetrical, research and dialogue to, manage conflict, improve understanding, build relationships with publics, both may change, understandings, behaviors, one does not need control over the environment in order to survive and live comfortably within it, mixed motives
public relations has a role in society, not just on behalf of a business or organization
presuppositions, pragmatic social role, bottom line, what my client wants, results oriented practice, marketing objectives, "don't hobble me with ethical codes", (note: pragmatism is not a bad thing, in philosophy it refers to an approach that asks about consequences of beliefs), conservative social role, maintain and defend the status quo, defend the privileges of the economically powerful, overcome threats to the status quo, radical social role, contribute to social change, provide management with outside perspective, establish links between groups in society, contribute to solution of social problems, knowledge and information provide power and influence, idealistic social role, codes of conduct, pr serves the public interest, mutual understandings between publics and organizations, contributes to informed debate about issues in society, facilitates a dialogue between organizations and their publics, peaceful resolution of conflict between groups in society, pluralist and progressive society, diversity of views, efforts at reconciliation, social progress, neutral social role of pr scholarship, pr is an object for scientific study, asks interesting questions about motivation, goals, objectives, activities, is a descriptive study, critical social role, Marx-ist foundations, money and power are behind actions, organizations and society are constructed in a way to preserve the money and power of the ruling elite, deconstruction, reconstruction, reification / illusion, ideological criticism, political criticism
public relations is technique, not theory
tactics but not strategy
culture cannot be, authoritarian, manipulative, controlling of others, asymmetrical
worldview cannot, see pr as asymmetrical, as neutral or advocacy, as solely technical
worldview must, see pr as symmetrical, idealistic, managerial
ethics and competing pr worldviews
how do communication managers demonstrate the value of their actions to management?
closed system perspective
internal considerations are responsible for effectiveness
open system perspective
public relations as boundary spanning, more about effectiveness than efficiency (in this definition)
(assuming internal unity and alignment)
manage the dependencies that create constraints on organizational actions
organizations are in a constant struggle for autonomy, resisting external control, but the reality of interdependency continually undermines this goal, organizations do not control all of the conditions necessary for the achievement of goals, stakeholders, public affairs, organizations and leaders cannot create plans as if they were autonomous and in control of all of the conditions, scarcity of resources, increasing heterogeneity, erosion of confidence, growing movement for corporate accountability, social responsibility, transparency, stakeholders have more power through activist activities and organizing activities, leads to competition for power
good relationships make organizations more effective because they allow more freedom than they would have with bad relationships
by giving up autonomy to build relationships, organizations gain more autonomy than they would have had
systems perspective, interace between organization and environment, sets of inter-relating elements, systems, suprasystems, subsystems (nested systems), all systems affect all other systems, actions in one system affect other systems, growth, decline, equilibrium, homeostasis, interact successfully with environment in a way that promotes stability and growth, inputs, throughputs, outputs, communication is central in how an organization works with inputs and generates outputs, need to monitor system, choose response wisely, need to pay attention to quality of communication system, structural functionalism, design based on awareness and response to external environment, what works in this setting, Senge: how does an organization continue to generate its desired results in the face of a changing environment, organizational learning, organizational life cycles, dinosaur organizations: heading for extinction, what is the most efficient form of organization?, (Zalabak will consider bureaucratic types and relationship to external conditions of the organization, functional structures: effective because adapted to external conditions, generate desired results, difference between doing it right and doing the right things, doing it right means maintaining a given structure, doing the right things means seeing that the structure supports the results sought, public relations effectiveness is not fully explained by systems theory, (at least in his view at that time), organizational learning approaches fit well with thoughts about helping organizations have an accurate view of their environment in order to adapt for effectiveness
competing values, means and ends, achievement relative to priorities of innovation versus cost and quality versus quantity, factor analytic processes sought to reduce the dimensions in research in this model, profits can be made by cutting costs or producing new products, human resources are trained and act cohesively, adaptability and readiness lead to growth, planning and goal setting lead to productivity, information management and communication leads to internal stability and control, public relations fits into this model in terms of training and communication management
strategic constituencies, how well are we managing the groups that are most important to our survival and thriving, particularly those that could become enemies, those that have the resources we need and are dependent on, effectiveness is securing these resources
goal attainment, reaching our goals, clear, time related, measurable, rational systems model, organizations exist for a purpose, but how do those purposes relate to the purposes of other organizations and social actors?, how might the purposes of senior management be different from other parts of the organization?, satisfy the demands of the strategic constituencies in the environment?, other groups cooperate with resources and support, increase autonomy by lessening dependencies?, avoid limiting our purpose to senior management goals, scan the environment to, identify powerful outside groups, those that can constrain, those that can enhance, bring information into the organization, help senior managers act on that information, manage conflicting demands and constraints
formalization, do we recognize the relationships and assign people to coordinate this relationship
intensity, how much time, money and attention will we give to the relationship
reciprocity, reciprocal interactions, mutual attention to interaction
standardization, extent to which the interaction becomes fixed, regular meetings
there must be at least as much variety in the organization as exists outside the organization, if the organization wants to build effective relationships with the environment
costs of, activism, regulation, litigation, low productivity of employees, satisfied customers, stockholders
This chapter is a major argument for the validity and reliability of the four model scheme. It offers insight into the development of the current model theory, and also how it has been tested. The model is both positive and normative, and when practiced, produces the most positive results for an organization.
(consider similarity to bob craig chart)
allows for a research endeavor by giving focus and hypotheses
warnings about models and categories, all models are "false" in the sense that no representation can capture reality perfectly, Weber's "ideal types" may not be actual in any particular case, a useful fiction for making sense of complex reality, use with awareness of limitations, develop critical skills in knowing limits, applicability, need for supplemental and replacement models, categories, theories...
the public be fooled
the public be informed
synchronic, synchronize the public with our goals
diachronic, negotiate a state of affairs that benefits both the organization and the public
press agentry / publicity, Buffalo Bill Cody, Calamity Jane, Daniel Boone, Andrew Jackson, PT Barnum, there is a sucker born every minute
public information model, Ivy Lee, explaining misunderstood and complicated facts to a popular audience
asymmetrical, Creel Committee, begin to use social scientific methods to research publics, use findings to craft messages, Edward Bernays
symmetrical, telling the truth, interpreting the client and the public to each other, management understanding the viewpoints of employees and neighbors as well as neighbors and employees understanding the viewpoints of management, develop understanding, (note Gadamer and hermeneutics)
positive theories describe, understand problems
normative theories guide, solve problems, may not be practiced anywhere, argues that if practiced it would lead to effective outcomes
how can we measure, how much each model is used, are you trying to change attitudes and behavior or facilitate communication and understanding, Grunig questionairre, eight items for each model addressing these dimensions, purpose of public relations, control vs adaptation as a goal, role of public relations as, advocacy, dissemination, mediation, one way versus two way communication, media relations, use of research, research language, factor analysis, exploratory, confirmatory, one factor, two factor, intercoder reliability, chronbach's alpha, testing the operational definitions and questionairre items, reliability, validity, the effectiveness of each model
organizations do not always match form to environment, form is skewed by internal factors rather than simple adaption to effective interaction with the environment, power-control model: a coalition of the most powerful people in that organization, the dominant coalition, chooses the behaviors, organizational culture, dimensions, authoritarian vs democratic, reactive vs proactive, combinations, systematized: authoritarian and reactive, entrepreneurial: authoritarian and proactive, interactive: democratic and reactive, integrated: democratic and proactive, other schemas, authoritarian vs participative, potential of the public relations department, schema for public relations in the organization
office / role
professional expectations, professions, a set of professional values, membership in strong professional organizations, adherance to professional norms, an established body of knowledge or theory to guide practice, technical skills learned through professional training, semi-professions
public relations as an emerging profession, role ambiguity, organizations and people have different expectations, send different roles to the practitioner, positive: allows for some autonomy: if people aren't sure what you do, you can choose and set the expectations
practitioners can change their role from technician to manager
Broom theory based roles, expert prescriber, diagnosis and treatment, management implements their recommendations, management offers passive dependency, communication facilitator, go between, mediator, problem solving process facilitator, systematic thinking towards solutions, active engagement of others, essential in two way symmetrical model, rated highest in satisfaction: adequacy, efficacy, expertise, communication technician, technical service provider, implements decisions made by others, journalist in residence
Ferguson empirical based roles, problem solver manager, journalist technical communicator, researcher, staff manager, good will ambassador, meeting organizer, personnel industrial relations, public community relations
Dozier, public relations manager, public relations technician, media relations specialist, communication liason
factor analysis: how many dimensions does it take to describe the various roles that public relations practitioners are sent to take on?, proposition 1: variance in practitioner role activities can be parsimoniously accounted for through two basic organizational roles: manager and technicians, (well, that took a long time and alot of work to figure out, I could have told you that based on my experience), (well yes you could have, but you wouldn't have any research base of evidence to support that claim, so my experience and opinions would be as good as yours), (ok, so this becomes a valid and reliable finding that can provide a basis for management activity and further research)
requirement for increased rigor and social science practice in public relations activity, seat of the pants, intuition, research based recommendations, driven from outside the profession, social science based evaluation
using evaluation research, preparation, dissemination, impact
Dozier, scientific impact, seat of the pants, dissemination, clip file counting
evaluation is part of the feedback loop in an open systems model, inputs as well as outputs, changes in the environment that may affect ability of the organization to thrive or survive
for evaluation to work well, there must be quantifiable goals in place, knowledge, attitudes, behavior
proposition 2: practitioners enacting the public relations manager role will engage in both scientific and informal program evaluation and environmental scanning with greater frequency than practitioners not enacting the managers role
proposition 3: enactment of the public relations technician role is not related to frequency of scientific and informal program evaluation and environmental scanning activities
proposition 4: practitioner involvement in management decision making is a separate function of manager role enactment and of the practitioners use of research (scanning and evaluation)
management decision making relates to public relations practice, boundary spanning function: creating accurate perceptions both ways, management can make better decisions when this function is present, pr practitioners help management make decisions that adapt to changes in the environment
participation in decision making grants pr practitioners status and helps resist encroachment of the field by those trained in other disciplines, new policies, major problems, new programs, implementations, review of results
organizations that practice closed system behaviors are likely to relegate pr people to technician roles
proposition 5: practitioners are more likely to enact the manager role in organizations where the environment is unstable, threatening or both
proposition 6: practitioners are more likely to enact the technician role where the environment is stable and nonthreatening
proposition 7: manager role enactment and research activities are decreased and practitioner involvement in decision making is reduced in organizations where the dominant coalition holds a closed systems ideology
proposition 8: manager role enactment is more frequent in organizations practicing the two way symmetric and asymmetric models of public relations
proposition 9: manager role enactment is less frequent in organizations practicing the press agentry or public information models of public relations
proposition 10: technician role enactment is more frequent in organizations practicing the press agentry and public information models of public relations
proposition 11: the management role is favored in organizations where the dominant coalition is relatively open to the organization's environment
proposition 12: the technician role is favored in organizations where the dominant coalition is relatively closed to the organization's environment
proposition 13: the management role is favored where the negotiated belief structure of the dominant coalition is contested or dialectical
proposition 14: the technician role is favored where the negotiated belief structure of the dominant coalition is limited or contextual
how are doctors trained, accredited
people just hang out a shingle?, catch me if you can movie: flying airplanes
what is a profession?
who is a professional?
benefits of being identified as a profession?
how do professions relate to org and pr communicators?
Grunig and Hunt, a set of professional values, hierarchy, serving others, personal economic gain, autonomy, membership in strong professional organization that can provide accreditation/legitimacy, Public Relations Society of America, APR certification, International Association of Business Communicators, ABC certification, adherance to professional norms, an intellectual tradition associated with an established body of knowledge, technical skills acquired through long periods of prescribed professional education
what kinds of training prepare a person for professional service in the field of public relations?
history of educational standards, August 1973 Commission on Public Relations Education: Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Report in 1975: A design for public relations education, social dimension: "our divided society cries out for communication, conciliation and community", vs publicity approach, vs "retreads" from other fields of communication (like SCA!), desire to move beyond technician role to management role, contribute direction and insight, values rather than just production, Coursework areas, Comm Theory, Comm processes, writing for mass media, copy editing, media and campaigns, case studies, internship, additional courses in comm or management, research methods, focus areas, coprorate, government, non-profit, doctoral programs would produce more qualified pr teachers, add to the research base of knowledge, 1982: Graduate education, formalizing the practice, formalizing the preparation/education, practitioners and educators must work together, coursework areas, research and theory, communication processes, public relations management, specializations: govt, corporate, non-profit, thesis: extended project, difference between masters and doctoral studies, masters focuses on competence, doctoral on research and original contributions, research methodology, data analysis, theory driven research, preparation for teaching, 1983: undergraduate education, coursework recommended, professional education, technical production, historical/institutional, communication processes and structure, public relations studies, principles and theories, ethics, communication principles, strategic planning, evaluative research, management principles, goal setting, program implementation, internship, keep practice embedded in broader understanding of management and strategic practice, theory and research, assessing the social environment context, formulating objectives and communication strategies, conducting evaluative research on program performance, doing cost-benefit analysis to justify the public relations effort (ROI), 1986 task forces, Task Force on Demonstrating Professionalism, Body of Knowledge Task Force, define and categorize the subject matter of public relations, codifying the material (naming and listing the body of knowledge), helps provide professional legitimacy, guides educators and practitioners in focus of reading, education, identify areas where there is a lack of research based knowledge
Jackson 1988 notes, essential function of "building and improving human relationships", an art applied to a science, serving the public interest
present low state of public relations, continued lack of accreditation requirements for practitioners, lack of participation in professional organizations, lack of licensure requirement, continued diversity of definitions about what public relations is, representation of pr as disinformation and deception
PRSA statement 1982, management function, public opinion, anticipating, analyzing, interpreting, ongoing research (scanning), planning, effort to influence or change public policy, setting objectives, budgeting, recruiting and training staff, need to delineate how this functions along with other managerial personnel, is pr the overarching function?, is every executive doing pr?
grunig's four models, press agentry, public information, two way asymmetrical, two way symmetrical, public relations efforts which are based on research and that use communication to manage conflict and to improve understanding with strategic publics, publics that can constrain or enhance the organization's ability to reach its goals, different from marketing, publicity, seeking win-win solutions between adversarial organizations