Phonological Disorders Ch.9

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Phonological Disorders Ch.9 by Mind Map: Phonological Disorders Ch.9

1. Treatment

1.1. Intervention Approaches:

1.1.1. Minimal opposition Contrast Therapy Help children understand the difference between words that are seporated by only one phoneme

1.1.2. Multiple Oppositions Therapy: Helps the child understand the differences in each individual phoneme so that there is less collapse.

1.1.3. Cycles therapy: Continually going over one set of phonemes for a continuous persiod of up to 6 hours a week and onece that time has been reach the set is changed to a new phoneme.

1.1.4. Maximal Oppositions Therapy: Focuses on the more complex phonological targets which will bring out the most change in the child

1.1.5. Phonological Awareness Therapy: Help the child diferenciate and understand the difference is sounds of different phonemes.

2. What is it?

2.1. Definition: is and impariment of an individual's phonological system that results in a significant problem with speech-sound production

2.2. Articulation Disorder: emphasizes the impact of the disorder on the individual's ability to articulate certain speech sounds effectivly

2.3. Prevalence: 4-13% of children are affected by a phonological disorder (4 in every 100 children).

2.4. Serface representation: What is produced by the individual: (articulation(

2.5. Underlying representation: (phonology)

2.6. Allophones: the variations of a single phoneme.

2.7. International Phonetic Alphabet: phonetic alphabet that describes and classifies each speech sounds on the basis of how and where it is produced in the speech mechanism.

2.8. Articulatory Phonetics: a classification by the action of and articulator to produce a secific sound.

2.8.1. Vowel: little to no obstuction of air Height frontness Roundness Tension

2.8.2. Consonant: when the airflow is obsturcted to produce a sound Place of articulation Manner of articulation Voicing

2.9. Coarticulation: the clasification of articulatory characteristics and how they vary in context and how they overlap.

2.10. Assimilation: how neighboring sounds take on the sounds of one and other.

3. Classification

3.1. Four major symptoms:

3.1.1. Expressive Phonology: difficulty in producing specific speech sounds

3.1.2. Phonological Awareness: lack of understanding how sounds make up sentences and spoken units.

3.1.3. Phonological Processing: no able to retreive or understand phonological information

3.1.4. Word Learning and Word Retrieval: trouble retrieveing words withing the language and being able to articulate them properly

3.2. Types of Speech-Sound Disorders:

3.2.1. Phonological disorder: difficulty in articulating intellagiable laguage by age 9

3.2.2. Speech Differences: difficulty that occurs after age nine and is a relfection of a natice laguage. Sometimes due to illness

3.3. Subtypes:

3.3.1. Speech Delay: children between the ages of 2 and 9 have a low intelegability and frequent errors in phonolgical production.

3.3.2. Questionable Residual errors: children between the ages of 6 and 9 who have phonological disabilities still resulting after speech therapy.

4. Identification and Description

4.1. Referral:

4.1.1. typically made by a parent, pediatricain, or educator as they are all able to tell when a child is not using phonological sounds correctly.

4.2. Screening:

4.2.1. Caregiver Interview and Case History: gain a general sense of the childs communication history.

4.2.2. Oral Mechanism Screening: evaluates the function of speech producers and their effectiveness

4.2.3. Hearing Screeening: is a measure taken to rule out that hearling impairments can be the cause of the Phonological disorder

4.2.4. Language screening/evaluation: Evaluates the child's grammar and vocabluary to asses thier intellagability

4.3. Diagnosis:

4.3.1. Taking all the evidence and combining the findings to asees to overall diagnosis.

5. Defining Characteristics

5.1. Small phonetic inventory:

5.1.1. Has a very low phonetic vocabulary when compared to others in their age group

5.2. Phoneme Collapse:

5.2.1. When a child uses one phoneme for multiple phonemes.

5.3. Target-Substitute Relationship:

5.3.1. When a child substitues one phoneme for an other one such as /g/ for /d/ in "doggie" replaced with "goggie".

5.4. Reduced Intelligibility:

5.4.1. When their phoneme inventory is so low that native speakers of their language can not even understand what they are trying to say.

5.5. Special Population:

5.5.1. Down Syndrome

5.5.2. Hearing Loss

5.5.3. Cleft Palate