Hollie's Lifespan Map

FCS 105 Lifespan Map

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Hollie's Lifespan Map by Mind Map: Hollie's Lifespan Map

1. Infancy

1.1. Physical

1.1.1. Throughout the first year of life the growth and development is astounding. By 3 months an infant is rolling over and grasping their rattle. By 6 months they're sitting without support, 7 months they're standing with support, 8 months grasping with thumb and finger, 11.5 standing alone, and by a year walking. Fine and gross motor skills get more fine tuned and an infant can do so much more. The senses get better and by the first birthday the infant's weight has tripled as has the length.

1.2. Cognitive

1.2.1. Within the cognitive aspect thee are three main theories: Piaget's Sensorimotor theory and the Information Processing Theory. There is also language to think about. According to Piaget, infants learn through direct contact. They are active explorers and think with their hands, mouths, and eyes. The Information Processing Theory uses a computer as a metaphor for the human brain, the structure is basically the same. As for language it is an innate ability that unfolds in a socially rich environment. Learning to talk must be supported and scaffolded. First word: Hi

1.3. Social Emotional

1.3.1. There are many aspects of the social emotional portion of infancy including but not limited to: personality, attachment, temperament, and emotion. Here we discuss Erikson and Freud. Eriksons theory is Basic Trust vs. Mistrust within the first year. If worked out positively than the infant will be able to trust those around him/her. If it turns out negatively than the infant won't be able to trust anyone. Freud's stage was called the Oral stage. His theory focuses on this because the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth. Attachment styles also either promote or dissuade an infants trust in his/her caretakers. The way an infant reacts to his/her caretaker gives an idea on how the infant will react to other important people in his/her life.

2. Early Childhood

2.1. Physical

2.1.1. In early childhood the body's growth begins to slow, they start to lose baby teeth, and the hemisphere's of the brain begin to lateralize. The dominant side of the brain becomes apparent through handedness. Motor skills continue to increase.

2.2. Cognitive

2.2.1. Cognitive development in early childhood is defined by Piaget's Preoperational stage. There are gains in mental representation although the limitations are egocentric thought, conservation, and hierarchical classification. With age make-believe play becomes more complex and sociodramatic play becomes the norm. Language has leaped significantly from toddlerhood. Children can adjust their conversations to fit a variety of things.

2.3. Social Emotional

2.3.1. Erikson's stage is Initiative vs. Guilt. With Initiative there is purpose, there is an eagerness to try new tasks. Guilt is an overly-strict conscience. Self-awareness, self-concept, and self-esteem is developing and is usually quite high. Emotional concept is also improving. Peer sociability is divided into three main groups: non-social activity, parallel play, and social interaction. Parental influence is still high in these early stages, from punishment to peer relations.

3. Middle Childhood

3.1. Physical

3.1.1. Body Growth in Middle Childhood has slowed into regular pattern, bones lengthen, muscles very flexible, and all permanent teeth arrive. Motor Skills increase though girls are more adept at fine motor skills whereas boys are better at gross motor skills.

3.2. Cognitive

3.2.1. By this point, according to Piaget, children are in the Concrete Operational stage. Their achievements are: conservation, classification, sariation, and spatial reasoning. Vocab has increased fourfold during school years.

3.3. Social Emotional

3.3.1. Erikson's stage for Middle Childhood is Industry vs Inferiority. Developing a sense of competence of useful skills vs. pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability. Self-conscience emotions are goverened by a sense of personal responsibility. Children's peer groups are governed by proximity and similarity.

4. Adolescience

4.1. Physical

4.1.1. There are three phases of adolescence: Early, rapid pubertal changes; Middle, puberty nearly complete; and Late, full adult appearance. Body growth starts to change depending on sex. Growth spurts start at age 10 for girls and age 12.5 for boys. Body proportions start to change, boys get broader shoulders while girls get wider hips. Sexual maturation is characterized by the menarche and breasts for girls and the spermarche and voice change for boys.

4.2. Cognitive

4.2.1. In brain development for adolescence pruning continues, growth and myelination speed up, and neurotransmitter response changes.

4.3. Social Emotional

4.3.1. Teenagers moods change and their relationship with their parents involves conflict. There are consequences to the timing of puberty, early maturation for girls is harder than late maturation and it is the exact opposite for boys.

5. Early Adulthood

5.1. Physical

5.1.1. Biological aging process has begun, senescense.

5.2. Cognitive

5.2.1. Early adults suffer pluralistic ignorance, we tend to assume others are having sex sooner than we are.

5.3. Social Emotional

5.3.1. Erikson's stage is Intamacy vs. Isolation. Without intimacy, the negative outcome (isolation) will result in loneliness and self-absorption. At this point most people are looking for a life-long partner.

6. Late Adulthood

6.1. Physical

6.1.1. Old age is divided into 3 categories: young old, old old, and oldest old. Functional age is competence and performance and may not be the chronological age. Life expectancy has increased in the US. Aging is based on Primary aging and Secondary aging. Things you cannot control compared to things you can control.

6.2. Cognitive

6.2.1. Common psychological disorders are depression and dementia. Alzheimer's, another disorder, is a progressive brain disorder. 15 to 25 percent of those over age 65 show some symptoms of psychological malady.

6.3. Social Emotional

6.3.1. Erikson's final stage is Ego Integrity vs. Despair. Feeling whole, complete, and satisfied with life vs. feeling bitterness and unaccepting of coming death. Housing arrangement may change in late adulthood as well as temperment, or marriage. A stressful time for many during this time is widowhood. Relationships with adult children change drastically, the elder is needing emotional support, though shies away from dependency.

7. Death/Dying

7.1. Physical

7.1.1. The phases of dying are Agonal phase, clinical death, and mortality. Brain death means all activity in brain and brain stem has ceased.

7.2. Cognitive

7.2.1. Concepts of death are: permanence, inevitability, cessation, applicability, and causation. Children’s understanding of death, most develop adult-like concept of death by middle childhood. Adolescents’ understanding of death, logically understand death, but have problems applying idea to their real lives. Adults understanding of death depend on which time period they are in and who they think about dying.

7.3. Social Emotional

7.3.1. Kübler-Ross’s Theory of grief has five stages: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance. Grief processes are avoidance, confrontation, and restoration.

8. Prenatal

8.1. Physical

8.1.1. On the physical side of prenatal development there are three stages of growth. The Germinal Stage is from fertilization to two weeks, the Embryonic Stage is from two weeks to eight weeks, and the Fetal Stage is from eight weeks to birth. During the Germinal Stage the cell divides and gets ready to attach to the Placenta. In the Embryonic Stage the major organs and basic anatomy develop. The Fetal Stage is the longest and most dramatically changing in development.

8.2. Cognitive

8.2.1. Throughout the Prenatal period the brain becomes increasingly sophisticated. The hemispheres grow increasingly fast and the neurons are coated with myelin which helps the speed of the transmissions of messages.

8.3. Social Emotional

8.3.1. In the early stages the mother may be unaware that they are pregnant. The baby is increasingly active and by four months the mother will be able to feel the movement. Months later others may feel the kick of the fetus.

9. Toddlerhood

9.1. Physical

9.1.1. In toddlerhood the child gains 75% of their height by age 2 and their weight quadruples. Their body proportions also change. Their head is now only 20% of their body and their legs are 50%. The body grows in two ways, cephalocaudal and proximodistal. The brain has billions of neurons and those that are not stimulated die, it is called synaptic pruning. As a child develops regions in his/her brain become specialized. The gross and fine motor skills improve and become a dynamic system. The senses improve as well as depth perception.

9.2. Cognitive

9.2.1. The cognitive aspect of toddlerhood continues to improve along the lines of infancy.

9.3. Social Emotional

9.3.1. Erikson's second stage in social/emotional development is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. If spun positively than a child will be able to roam and explore with confidence and independence. If turned out negatively than the child will be ashamed of his/herself, depend heavily on his/her caretakers, and have no self-confidence. Freud's second stage was the Anal stage. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training, the child has to learn to control his/her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.

10. Middle Adulthood

10.1. Physical

10.1.1. Everything changes in middle adulthood. Vision and hearing become worse. The skin starts to change: wrinkles appear; there's sagging in the face, arms, and legs; and age spots appear. Muscles decline and the body gains fat. There's a loss in bone density and height shrinks. Menopause also happens.

10.2. Cognitive

10.2.1. Problem-centered vs. Emotion-centered coping. Problem-centered means you identify and appraise problems before choosing the best solution. Emotion-centered means you control distress when the situation changes. The 3 C's of hardiness are control, commitment, and challenge.

10.3. Social Emotional

10.3.1. Erikson's theory is Generativity vs. Stagnation. One is either committed beyond the self or self-absorbed. Gender identity seems to blend together and as people get older they adopt masculine or feminine traits respectively. Many seem to have a mid-life crisis around this time because everything has been changing. I don't expect to have a midlife crisis or have a hard time with menopause.