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Chapter 2-Forces
by Melissa Schultz
# Chapter 2-Forces

## Vectors

### magnitude and direction

### can be used to find net force

### Examples: weight, velocity, force

### measured using two methods

### arrows drawn tip to tail

## Measurements

### Newtons = kg * m/s^2

### Weight = mass * gravitational field strength

### mass = kg

### average g (gravitational field strength) on earth = 9.80 N/kg

## Newton's Laws

### 1. Inertia - object moves until forces change its movement, or at rest till forces move it

### 2. Force vector = mass scalar * acceleration vector

### 3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction; within an interaction pair of 2 objects

## Field Forces

### Gravitational

### Electromagnetic

### Strong

### Weak

## Contact Forces

### Normal

### Friction

### Tension

## Free Body Diagrams: show all forces on object

### can be drawn and measured using vectors

## Lab

### Distance and time

### Velocity and time

## Blogs

### Hurricane forces

### Earthquake forces

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Polar method: descriptive, vector arrow with angle to horizontal

Step method: x hat and y hat, make triangle of x and y components, use SOH CAH TOA

Equilibrium, moving at constant speed and direction, staying at rest

Internal forces

External forces

Newton's Law: any two objects exert gravitational forces on each other that are related to distance and mass, F = G*m1*m2 / r^2, G = universal gravitational constant

Kinetic

Static

ideal pulley or cord

typically studied in biomechanics