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History GCSE by Mind Map: History GCSE
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History GCSE

The Treaty of Versailles

Woodrow Wilson

wanted freedom of the sea's

14 points, no secret treaties, the reduction of armaments, germans to leave belgium, french territory returned to france, polish need access to sea, assocation of nations to be created, SELF DETERMINATION

George Clemenceau

chairmen

germans desturcted areas they were in causing millions of damage, exprected to pay

french wanted german land, saar

Lloyd George

wanted a balence between woodrow and clemenceau

blame Germans for the war

Didn't want to punish too harsh- KEY TRADE PARTNER **

Wanted Britain to stay in the league as the biggest naval leader

wanted german fleet sunk

The real terms of the treaty

War Guilt - had to accept blame for the war

Reparations - becuase of war guilt the allies demanded payment £6600million

Military, No Air force, No tanks, No submarines, navy limited 15'000 men, no. of ships limited, army limited to 100'000, no conscription

demilitarised rhineland

polish corridor so poles had access to sea

alsace lorraine to french

the saar was under control of league

french recieve coal from coal fields in saar

how hitler distroyed the t of v?

march 1935 - hitler started re-arming and build an air force

june 1935 - britain signd navel treaty saying it could 35% of britains naval force

march 1936 - re-occupation of rhineland

The League of Nations

created to

preserve world peace

Encourage trade

successes- 1920s

the aaland islands - sweden and finland wanted islands between them it was decided finland should have them sweden accpeted this, it only worked becuase they accpeted the outcome. Success due to countries accepting league's authority

economic collapse of hungary and austria - both were reaching bandruptcy and the leage gave out loans so they could begin economic recovery - the leagues action was prompt and effective

faliures-1920s

vilna was claimed by lithuania and poland - Poland was a key ally against Germany. France had own interests in mind rather than league's

corfu - survors were shot, italy wanted comensation - the league put pressure on the greeks to accept italys demands - the league backed down with the major country

weaknesses

usa didnt join, america didnt agree with the t of v, worried about the economic cost, didn't want to be involved in european problems, they thought american troops would have to help in every little battle, against the US constitution

couldent react quickly as it was too big

didnt have an armed force

couldn't do anything to deal with large powers such as italy and japan

only worked well countries which would co-operate

not all countrys would co-operate with the leagues authority

Trade sanctions only REAL punishment- uneffective due to being able to trade with USA

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Failures of 1930s

Manchuria

Abbyssinia

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USA 1919-1941

Economy booom 1920's

had suffered no finacial or physical damage from the war

taxes were cut

industires fulrished

agriculture decliened because of over production

worlds leading nation

rich in raw materials

new industries to meet demand of consumers

rising wages and cheaper goods

mass production - products could be made cheaper

weak unions - companys refused to employ union workers

traditional industires could not boom and declined such as textiles, coa

agriculture did not prospore after the war becuase of over production, blacks generaly worked on the farms and the south rural towns

Prohibition

why was it introduced?, many germans ran the brewers in the usa and there was a lot of anti-german hysteria after the first world war., it already exsisted in some states and was effective, there were many campaigners and so many politicans supported it, moral reasons - many people aruged it created social problems such as violence, poverty and crime

the effects, people started making their own alcohol this was called moonshine but the result could be poisonous, smuggling it was easy to bring alcohol threw the miles of frontiers, it created a lot of new orgaised crime, as many gangsters were attracted by large profits, many policemen and judges were bribed so they operate with no fear of arrest

Why was Prohibition Repealed?, goverement were spending millions keeping alcohol off the streets during the depression but the money could be better spent in helping the poor, millions could be made in taxes from the sale of alcohol, also over the years goverment officals shut down more distilleries each year and more arrests

The new deal

Hoover did nothing when the economy slowed down as they thought business could help themselves. He realised he had to do something but he was too late.

Emergancy banking act, Banks closed for 4 days., If banks opened everyone would rush to get their money out, if they stayed closed people would have no money to spend., Some banks were closed but the stronger ones stayed opened and received government backing so people would be more confident.

Securites Act + Exchange Commision, He wanted to reform harmful practises of the stock exchange., New act forced companies to provide full information on their company, Commission formed with powers., Investors had greater confidence., 1 step in building america

Helping the farmers, problem - over production and prices low, solution pay farmers for not producing, goverment controlled surplus crops, AAA established to try and reduce production long term, short term - cotton farmers told to plough crops into field., Setup CCC- Civilian Conservation Corps.

Helping the unemployed, goverment provided jobs to young men in country side, CCC, like army, wear uniform, pay v low forced labour, Many useful jobs such as river banks, fighting forest fires, fish farming, 200 million trees planted, Setup FERA grants for state gov to help unemployed., Roosevelt didn't think they had the right to go on dole., Wanted them to work

helping industry, ~NRA to create partnerships between gov. and industry, do away with child labour, low wages, employment code, code guarrentes fair prices, fair wages, good work conditions,, PWA to do large construction projects, put skilled workers to use, give boost to trade unions

helping home-owners, threat of moragages, HOLC home-owners low interest corp, lower interest and be able to pay what they can afford

help to depressed areas, valley of tennesse river - depressed area, agriculture hit frequently as floods and soil errosion, TVA setup to regenerate area., Planned series of dams setup to create jobs and electrcity

fireside chats, roosevelt used radio to communicate with the people, broadcasting to the nation but speaking like if he was talking to his friends, natural simple langauge, impression of being caring and approachable, sense of nation facing problems together

alphabet agencies, aaa - agricutural adjustment agency, ccc - civilian conserative corps, fera- fedral emergancy relief act, nra - national recovery act, pwa - public works admin, holc - home-owners lo-interest corp, tva - tennessee valley authority, ra - resettlement admin, wpa - works progress admin

critisims of the new deal, not helping poor enough, farther coughlin was radio priest was dissillounised by the new deal because it did not help people affected by depression., Huey long a politican was up for election at same time, used dirty tricks, franicas townsend - townsends plan was to give money to over 60 to retire, costs a lot of money and that would come from the wealthy, republicans policy was not to interfere with business.

Red Scare

americans were scared of communists because of the russain revolution of 1917.

americans believed in strongly democracy and were capitalists (veered minor right- wing)

gov. responed by deporting 10'000 immigrants

all immigrants were being accused of being communists and some were being falsey accused.

Wall street crash

Americans invested money into shares hoping to get a good return on there money.

Buying on the margin means only investing 10% and the bank invest the rest. Then he could sell and get the profit

Banks lended so much because they thought it would keep on rising.

The economy risen so much it had to fall at some point. Foreign trade was declining and so was arguiculture.

Road to War

League of Nations

Manchuria, Showed Hitler that League would do nothing

Appeasement

Reasons to follow appeasement, An attempt to keep peace, Hitler was a reasonable politician, People believed treaty was too harsh

Naval Treaty

Poland

Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland contained many ethnic germans, Hitler Claimed Ethnic Germans treated as Second Class Citizens, Sudetenland was key for Czechoclovakia- Defences against Germany

Reasons against appeasment, Would make Britain and France weak, giving into all of Hitler's demands

Anschluss (Union of Germany and Austria), Banned by Treaty, Broken as Britain and France Did not intervene

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Aggreement between Hitler and Stalin

Poland to be divided in two- Germany and Soviet union

To retliate Britain signed Anglo-Polish Alliance- protecting Poland from Germany in an invasion

Ultimatum

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