History GCSE

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History GCSE by Mind Map: History GCSE

1. The Treaty of Versailles

1.1. Woodrow Wilson

1.1.1. wanted freedom of the sea's

1.1.2. 14 points

1.1.2.1. no secret treaties

1.1.2.2. the reduction of armaments

1.1.2.3. germans to leave belgium

1.1.2.4. french territory returned to france

1.1.2.5. polish need access to sea

1.1.2.6. assocation of nations to be created

1.1.2.7. SELF DETERMINATION

1.2. George Clemenceau

1.2.1. chairmen

1.2.2. germans desturcted areas they were in causing millions of damage, exprected to pay

1.2.3. french wanted german land, saar

1.3. Lloyd George

1.3.1. wanted a balence between woodrow and clemenceau

1.3.2. blame Germans for the war

1.3.3. Didn't want to punish too harsh- KEY TRADE PARTNER **

1.3.4. Wanted Britain to stay in the league as the biggest naval leader

1.3.5. wanted german fleet sunk

1.4. The real terms of the treaty

1.4.1. War Guilt - had to accept blame for the war

1.4.2. Reparations - becuase of war guilt the allies demanded payment £6600million

1.4.3. Military

1.4.3.1. No Air force

1.4.3.2. No tanks

1.4.3.3. No submarines

1.4.3.4. navy limited 15'000 men

1.4.3.5. no. of ships limited

1.4.3.6. army limited to 100'000

1.4.3.7. no conscription

1.4.4. demilitarised rhineland

1.4.5. polish corridor so poles had access to sea

1.4.6. alsace lorraine to french

1.4.7. the saar was under control of league

1.4.8. french recieve coal from coal fields in saar

1.5. how hitler distroyed the t of v?

1.5.1. march 1935 - hitler started re-arming and build an air force

1.5.2. june 1935 - britain signd navel treaty saying it could 35% of britains naval force

1.5.3. march 1936 - re-occupation of rhineland

2. The League of Nations

2.1. created to

2.1.1. preserve world peace

2.1.2. Encourage trade

2.2. successes- 1920s

2.2.1. the aaland islands - sweden and finland wanted islands between them it was decided finland should have them sweden accpeted this, it only worked becuase they accpeted the outcome. Success due to countries accepting league's authority

2.2.2. economic collapse of hungary and austria - both were reaching bandruptcy and the leage gave out loans so they could begin economic recovery - the leagues action was prompt and effective

2.3. faliures-1920s

2.3.1. vilna was claimed by lithuania and poland - Poland was a key ally against Germany. France had own interests in mind rather than league's

2.3.2. corfu - survors were shot, italy wanted comensation - the league put pressure on the greeks to accept italys demands - the league backed down with the major country

2.4. weaknesses

2.4.1. usa didnt join

2.4.1.1. america didnt agree with the t of v

2.4.1.2. worried about the economic cost

2.4.1.3. didn't want to be involved in european problems

2.4.1.4. they thought american troops would have to help in every little battle

2.4.1.5. against the US constitution

2.4.2. couldent react quickly as it was too big

2.4.3. didnt have an armed force

2.4.4. couldn't do anything to deal with large powers such as italy and japan

2.4.5. only worked well countries which would co-operate

2.4.6. not all countrys would co-operate with the leagues authority

2.4.7. Trade sanctions only REAL punishment- uneffective due to being able to trade with USA

2.4.8. New node

2.5. Failures of 1930s

2.5.1. Manchuria

2.5.2. Abbyssinia

2.6. New node

3. USA 1919-1941

3.1. Economy booom 1920's

3.1.1. had suffered no finacial or physical damage from the war

3.1.2. taxes were cut

3.1.3. industires fulrished

3.1.4. agriculture decliened because of over production

3.1.5. worlds leading nation

3.1.6. rich in raw materials

3.1.7. new industries to meet demand of consumers

3.1.8. rising wages and cheaper goods

3.1.9. mass production - products could be made cheaper

3.1.10. weak unions - companys refused to employ union workers

3.1.11. traditional industires could not boom and declined such as textiles, coa

3.1.12. agriculture did not prospore after the war becuase of over production, blacks generaly worked on the farms and the south rural towns

3.2. Prohibition

3.2.1. why was it introduced?

3.2.1.1. many germans ran the brewers in the usa and there was a lot of anti-german hysteria after the first world war.

3.2.1.2. it already exsisted in some states and was effective

3.2.1.3. there were many campaigners and so many politicans supported it

3.2.1.4. moral reasons - many people aruged it created social problems such as violence, poverty and crime

3.2.2. the effects

3.2.2.1. people started making their own alcohol this was called moonshine but the result could be poisonous

3.2.2.2. smuggling it was easy to bring alcohol threw the miles of frontiers

3.2.2.3. it created a lot of new orgaised crime, as many gangsters were attracted by large profits

3.2.2.4. many policemen and judges were bribed so they operate with no fear of arrest

3.2.3. Why was Prohibition Repealed?

3.2.3.1. goverement were spending millions keeping alcohol off the streets during the depression but the money could be better spent in helping the poor

3.2.3.2. millions could be made in taxes from the sale of alcohol

3.2.3.3. also over the years goverment officals shut down more distilleries each year and more arrests

3.3. The new deal

3.3.1. Hoover did nothing when the economy slowed down as they thought business could help themselves. He realised he had to do something but he was too late.

3.3.2. Emergancy banking act

3.3.2.1. Banks closed for 4 days.

3.3.2.2. If banks opened everyone would rush to get their money out, if they stayed closed people would have no money to spend.

3.3.2.3. Some banks were closed but the stronger ones stayed opened and received government backing so people would be more confident.

3.3.3. Securites Act + Exchange Commision

3.3.3.1. He wanted to reform harmful practises of the stock exchange.

3.3.3.2. New act forced companies to provide full information on their company

3.3.3.3. Commission formed with powers.

3.3.3.4. Investors had greater confidence.

3.3.3.5. 1 step in building america

3.3.4. Helping the farmers

3.3.4.1. problem - over production and prices low

3.3.4.2. solution pay farmers for not producing

3.3.4.3. goverment controlled surplus crops

3.3.4.4. AAA established to try and reduce production long term

3.3.4.5. short term - cotton farmers told to plough crops into field.

3.3.4.6. Setup CCC- Civilian Conservation Corps.

3.3.5. Helping the unemployed

3.3.5.1. goverment provided jobs to young men in country side

3.3.5.2. CCC, like army, wear uniform, pay v low forced labour

3.3.5.3. Many useful jobs such as river banks, fighting forest fires, fish farming

3.3.5.4. 200 million trees planted

3.3.5.5. Setup FERA grants for state gov to help unemployed.

3.3.5.6. Roosevelt didn't think they had the right to go on dole.

3.3.5.7. Wanted them to work

3.3.6. helping industry

3.3.6.1. ~NRA to create partnerships between gov. and industry

3.3.6.2. do away with child labour, low wages

3.3.6.3. employment code

3.3.6.4. code guarrentes fair prices, fair wages, good work conditions,

3.3.6.5. PWA to do large construction projects

3.3.6.6. put skilled workers to use

3.3.6.7. give boost to trade unions

3.3.7. helping home-owners

3.3.7.1. threat of moragages

3.3.7.2. HOLC home-owners low interest corp

3.3.7.3. lower interest and be able to pay what they can afford

3.3.8. help to depressed areas

3.3.8.1. valley of tennesse river - depressed area

3.3.8.2. agriculture hit frequently as floods and soil errosion

3.3.8.3. TVA setup to regenerate area.

3.3.8.4. Planned series of dams setup to create jobs and electrcity

3.3.9. fireside chats

3.3.9.1. roosevelt used radio to communicate with the people

3.3.9.2. broadcasting to the nation but speaking like if he was talking to his friends

3.3.9.3. natural simple langauge

3.3.9.4. impression of being caring and approachable

3.3.9.5. sense of nation facing problems together

3.3.10. alphabet agencies

3.3.10.1. aaa - agricutural adjustment agency

3.3.10.2. ccc - civilian conserative corps

3.3.10.3. fera- fedral emergancy relief act

3.3.10.4. nra - national recovery act

3.3.10.5. pwa - public works admin

3.3.10.6. holc - home-owners lo-interest corp

3.3.10.7. tva - tennessee valley authority

3.3.10.8. ra - resettlement admin

3.3.10.9. wpa - works progress admin

3.3.11. critisims of the new deal

3.3.11.1. not helping poor enough

3.3.11.2. farther coughlin was radio priest was dissillounised by the new deal because it did not help people affected by depression.

3.3.11.3. Huey long a politican was up for election at same time, used dirty tricks

3.3.11.4. franicas townsend - townsends plan was to give money to over 60 to retire

3.3.11.5. costs a lot of money and that would come from the wealthy

3.3.11.6. republicans policy was not to interfere with business.

3.4. Red Scare

3.4.1. americans were scared of communists because of the russain revolution of 1917.

3.4.2. americans believed in strongly democracy and were capitalists (veered minor right- wing)

3.4.3. gov. responed by deporting 10'000 immigrants

3.4.4. all immigrants were being accused of being communists and some were being falsey accused.

3.5. Wall street crash

3.5.1. Americans invested money into shares hoping to get a good return on there money.

3.5.2. Buying on the margin means only investing 10% and the bank invest the rest. Then he could sell and get the profit

3.5.3. Banks lended so much because they thought it would keep on rising.

3.5.4. The economy risen so much it had to fall at some point. Foreign trade was declining and so was arguiculture.

4. Road to War

4.1. League of Nations

4.1.1. Manchuria

4.1.1.1. Showed Hitler that League would do nothing

4.2. Appeasement

4.2.1. Reasons to follow appeasement

4.2.1.1. An attempt to keep peace

4.2.1.2. Hitler was a reasonable politician

4.2.1.3. People believed treaty was too harsh

4.2.2. Naval Treaty

4.2.3. Poland

4.2.4. Czechoslovakia

4.2.4.1. Sudetenland contained many ethnic germans

4.2.4.2. Hitler Claimed Ethnic Germans treated as Second Class Citizens

4.2.4.3. Sudetenland was key for Czechoclovakia- Defences against Germany

4.2.5. Reasons against appeasment

4.2.5.1. Would make Britain and France weak, giving into all of Hitler's demands

4.2.6. Anschluss (Union of Germany and Austria)

4.2.6.1. Banned by Treaty

4.2.6.2. Broken as Britain and France Did not intervene

4.3. Nazi-Soviet Pact

4.3.1. Aggreement between Hitler and Stalin

4.3.2. Poland to be divided in two- Germany and Soviet union

4.3.3. To retliate Britain signed Anglo-Polish Alliance- protecting Poland from Germany in an invasion

4.4. Ultimatum

4.5. New node