Europe's Early Middle Ages

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Europe's Early Middle Ages by Mind Map: Europe's Early Middle Ages

1. Charlemagne

1.1. Charlemagne or Charles the Great

1.1.1. He came into power in 768 c.e.

1.1.1.1. He was crowned the king of the Romans in 800c.e. on Christmas day

1.1.2. His father Pepin the Short put himself into power by throwing out the last of the Merovingian kings

1.1.2.1. The Pope agreed to this because his father stopped a Muslim army in 732

1.1.3. He was part of the Carolingian Empire

1.1.3.1. He gave rulers freedoms and he sent out agents called missi dominici to make sure his people were treated fairly

1.1.3.2. He tried to make life better for his people

1.2. Charlemagne's Renaissance

1.2.1. Charlemange tried to improve education for all of his citizens

1.2.2. He developed new schools in monasteries that taught people the Latin classics

1.2.2.1. This was known as the Carolingian Renaissance which lasted until his death at the age of 72 (He had ruled for 47 years)

1.2.2.1.1. After his death many weak rulers couldn't stop the Viking invasions and the peace he built up dissapeared

1.2.3. He tried to renew the development of architecture and art

1.3. His personality

1.3.1. He was hardheaded and merciless

1.3.1.1. After a war with Saxons he commanded that they revert to Christianity

1.3.1.1.1. When they refused he ordered his men to kill 4000 of the Saxons

1.3.2. He loved science and literature

2. The Romans

2.1. Roman culture

2.1.1. The Romans built buildings with great architecture and art

2.1.1.1. Rulers built up the pax romana or Roman peace which lasted 2 centuries

2.1.2. Rome had laws

2.1.2.1. all people were allowed a fair trial

2.1.2.2. People inside the Roman Empire were protected from war and invaders

2.1.2.3. Rome had taxes, slaves, and woman had no rights

2.2. The fall of Rome

2.2.1. In 410 c.e. Goths conquered Rome

2.2.1.1. Only the Eastern Roman Empire survived

2.3. After the Fall

2.3.1. Many of Rome's accomplishments were lost for many years

2.3.1.1. roman culture survived because of certain individuals who kept it alive

2.3.1.1.1. Monks in monasteries kept the history of Rome alive

2.3.2. Barbarians pushed out the populations of the native land: the barbarians began to destroy towns and roads which fell into disrepair

2.3.2.1. The last Roman Emperor was pushed out of Rome in 800

2.3.2.1.1. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans, and Rome began to become a civilization again

2.4. Why Rome fell

2.4.1. Internal forces

2.4.1.1. Slaves started to be used for free work

2.4.1.2. Romans spent too much money on entertainment

2.4.1.3. Diseases killed many Roman soldiers

2.4.2. external forces

2.4.2.1. New religios made it less appealing to defend their empire

2.4.2.2. Germanic attacks weakened the empire's forces

2.5. Roman Legacy

2.5.1. They left art architecture, drama, literature, sports, mythology, philosophy, laws and a government system which is still used today

2.6. Roman Language

2.6.1. The Romans kept stories alive by writing books

2.6.1.1. poets and scribes wrote many books which filled great libraries

2.6.2. the Romans spoke primarily Latin and Greek

3. The Franks

3.1. Germanic Peoples

3.1.1. Established settlments

3.1.2. Were farmers, and many had a weapon called a Francisca

3.1.3. They conquered much of Gaul

3.1.4. Both genders wore jewellery and they wore their hair long

3.1.5. Frank meant 'free'

3.2. The Merovingians

3.2.1. Ruled for over 300 years

3.2.2. Clovis I was the most successful leader

3.2.2.1. He founded France and made Paris its capital

3.2.2.2. After his death, the family was divided into 3 kingdoms ruled by each of his children

3.2.2.2.1. They were unsuccessful kingdoms because of infighting and royal murders

3.3. The Laws of the Franks

3.3.1. The Salic Code had a monetary value on everything from people to property

3.3.1.1. If a person was killed or a piece of property was a damaged, a fine called wergild must be paid

3.3.1.2. In a murder a family could refuse to take the wergild and could kill the murderer legally or request him or her to be killed

3.3.2. A persons strength was measured the length of their hair

3.3.3. 1 gold solidi is worth $50 today

3.4. Everyday life Among the Franks

3.4.1. The Franks had social classes from the poorest people to the richest people

3.4.1.1. 60% of the people were serfs or peasants who owned farms under their local rulers command

3.4.1.1.1. Things like drought, storms, lords stealing their crops, and merchants raising prices when food was scarce created great hardship for serfs

4. The Vikings

4.1. The year 855

4.1.1. Vikings attacked Paris

4.1.1.1. They looked for plunder and glory

4.1.2. Viking raids hit low countries in Europe and roamed into the Mediterranean

4.1.2.1. Peace obtained from the rule of Charlemagne was shattered

4.2. The Viking Reputation

4.2.1. Merciless warriors who killed anybody and everybody they found

4.2.1.1. Were believed to be sent by god to punish them for their sins

4.2.1.2. Local rulers payed taxes called denegeld to the Vikings so that they wouldn't attack

4.3. Everyday Life Among the Vikings

4.3.1. Vikings were farmers and fishermen from Scandanavia

4.3.1.1. Men and woman had equal rights in Viking society

4.3.1.1.1. Women could own property, divorce husbands and sue in court

4.3.1.2. Many farmers had slaves called thralls who had no rights under the law and could be killed at any time

4.3.1.3. Many Vikings were woodworkers and smiths and had a rich culture in art and design

4.3.1.3.1. Skalds were people who kept stories and history in tact along with poems

4.3.2. Vikings began attacks because farmlands could not sustain enough food for the growing population. Many of these farms were located along fjords

4.4. Viking Law and Government

4.4.1. Law speakers job was to memorize and recite laws as needed

4.4.1.1. Most criminals were fined but some more dangerous criminals were declared an outlaw, or a person who could be killed at any time legally and the killer would receive their property

4.5. The End of the Viking Age

4.5.1. In the eleventh century European leaders learned how to deal with Viking invasions

4.5.1.1. One leader gave up the Danelaw to Viking leaders to protect their land from other Vikings

4.5.1.2. People in Scandanavia became Christian which discouraged their attacks

5. The Anglo-Saxons and The Celts

5.1. The Celts

5.1.1. When Roman soldiers left Britain in the fifth century, the Angles, Saxons and Jutes pushed out the Celtic peples

5.1.1.1. They pushed the Celts into Wales, Cornwall and Scotland and across to Ireland

5.1.1.2. The Celtic language and culture disappeared and the Anglo-Saxons ruled

5.2. Anglo-Saxon England

5.2.1. Anglo-Saxons were farmers, and men and women shared all of the hard work

5.2.1.1. The Anglo-Saxons were also storytellers who created epics like Beuwolf

5.2.2. Alfred the Great learned how to fight the Vikings and when he died he left the kingdom united and prosperous

5.2.2.1. However, after awhile England suffered from Viking attacks until the time of William the Conqueror

5.3. The Pivotal Role of the Irish

5.3.1. The Celts who settled in the British islands practiced Druidism, or nature worship

5.3.1.1. Communities on the coast acted as safe havens for people fleeing from the Vikings

5.3.2. They fought many battles, kept slaves, and human sacrafices

5.3.2.1. St.Patrick brought Christianity to Ireland and developed a respect for learning

5.3.2.1.1. Irish monks spread Christianity and spreading knowledge throughout the kingdom

5.3.2.1.2. Monasteries produced books copying many classics onto "parchment" or sheepskin

6. The Mediterranean World

6.1. European History

6.1.1. Started thousands of years ago in the Mediterranean

6.1.2. The Greeks believed in philosophy: the pursuit of ideas

6.1.2.1. Alexander the Great spread Greek culture far across Europe

6.1.2.1.1. In about 150 B.C.E, Greek empires fell to the Romans

6.2. Resources

6.2.1. Had everything to sustain life including fertile soil, rainfall and sunshine, and a mild climate

6.2.1.1. A surplus of food helped populations grow in small cities

6.3. The Transportation Route

6.3.1. The Mediterranean Sea formed a large route where people could trade and learn from each other

7. URL's for Pictures

7.1. The Romans

7.1.1. http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/rmhttp/schools/primaryhistory/images/romans/the_roman_army/r_birdoswald_fort.jpg

7.2. The Franks

7.2.1. http://csmh.pbworks.com/f/1188875164/warriorgothic.jpg

7.3. The Anglo-Saxons and Celts

7.3.1. http://www.gpwu.ac.jp/~biddle/who_are_the_british_files/image008.jpg

7.4. The Vikings

7.4.1. http://lib.lbcc.edu/handouts/images/Vikings/vikings3.jpg

7.5. Charlemagne

7.5.1. http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mcgee411/GHTOUT/c6-charlemagne3.jpg

7.6. The Mediterranean World

7.6.1. http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/ClasDram/images/03/mapgreekphoeniciancolonies.jpg