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Medically important bacteria (intracellular) by Mind Map: Medically important bacteria
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Medically important bacteria (intracellular)



infection transmitted by insects, infects the eggs (like dingy)

cannot generate their own energy

fragile plasma membrane

short bacilli

gram negative but poorly stained

Best seen using Giemsa stain


Rocky mountain spotted fever, R. Rickettsii, infection through bites by dog or wood ticks, infects local endothelial cells and multiply, spreads to other parts through blood, Clinical presentation, incubation period 7 days, High grade fever after incubation, Macular rash appears first on the extremities, The rash quickly becomes petechial or hemorrhagic, may lead to death if untreated

Lousebourn typhus (epidemic typhus), caused by R. prowzekii - transmitted by human body louse, symptoms develop after 8 days, presents with high fever, chills, severe headache, and stupor, rash may occur and may not, May infect the CNS and may cause myocarditis, activation of latent disease cause mild symptoms (Brill-Zinsser disease)

Maurine typhus (endemic typhus), Caused by R. typhi, similar to epidemic typhus but symptoms are milder, rodents are the reservoir, infection transmitted to humans by rat fleas

other spotted fever, R. conori, R. seberica


skin biopsy

direct immunoflurescence test in tissue Bx

Detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA or indirect immunoflurescence assay


Doxycycline is the drug of choice including children

Azithromycin in pregnany women

bacteria are intracellular because

no cell wall

unable to generate their own energy

unable to multiply outside the cell

intracellular life cycle

infects endothelial cells

enter endothelial cells through endocytosis

elementary bodies are formed

multiply inside the endosome

migrate to cell wall and cause cell death releasing large number or organisms in the blood and lymphatic system



some are normal flora of the mouth and the genitourinary tract

lack cell wall peptidoglycan but is enclosed in trilaminar plasma membrane

the smallest bacteria (can pass through bacterial filters and can contaminate cell cultures)

facultative anaerobes from small fried egg colonies after 10 days if incubation

intracellular but can grow in artificial media and take long time

highly polymorphic in shape

gram negative but difficult to stain


M. pneumoniae, transmitted by droplets and cause reparatory tract infection, present as atypical pneumonia, but sometimes can cause bronchitis, otitis media and pharyngitis, cause more than 20% or pneumonia, attach themselves though the P1 protein to the host cell sialic acid rich glycolipids, up to 1 week incubation, clinical presentation, after incubation period the patient presents with atypical pneumonia with fever, productive cough, malaise, and chest auscultation, self limiting and recovery usually in 10 days, antibodies specific for membrane glycolipids and P1 protein cross react with I antigen on RBCs which known as cold agglutinin (because they react best with RBCs at low temperature, causing haemolytic anaemia), diagnosis, most common: serology, gram stain is not helpful, PCR is good, treatment, Doxycycline is drug of choice, Azithromycin is alternative

Genital mycoplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum, urethritis in men, endometritis and vaginal discharge in women, M. hominis, causes postpartum fever and pelvic inflammatory disease, Treatment, tetracycline (NOT azithromycin)



Obligate intracellular bacteria

Obligate intracellular bacteria

infect epithelial cells only

grows in the cytoplasm forming inclusion bodies

Depends on target cells for ATP and NAD

Their cell wall is gram negative but lack peptidoglycan layer

Chlamydia trachomatis

14 serotypes, ABC, cause eye infection (trachoma) conjunctivitis, may lead to blindness, D-K, STDs, urethra, cervix, proctitis, salpingitis, endometritis, L1,L2,L3, Lymphogranuloma venereum (STD)

Chlamydia pneumoniae

community acquired interstitial pneumonia

infect upper resp. tract: laryngitis and bronchitis

linked to atherosclerosis

Diagnosed with PCR, or antibody detection and direct immunofluorescent test

Chlamydia psittaci

zoonotic disease caused by inhalation of organism from birds

starts by lower resp. infection and pneumonia

hepatospleenomegaly follows

diagnosis by culture, immunofluorescent test, and serology for specific antibodies


doxycycline and erythromycin