acids and based

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acids and based by Mind Map: acids and based

1. strong and weak acid bases

1.1. represent slight ionization using double arrow

1.1.1. HCl ionizes completely with water = strong acid

1.1.2. HCN ionizes only slightly = weak acid

1.1.3. NaOH , lye or sodium hydroxide

2. acidic and basic anhydrides

2.1. nonmetal oxide react with with water to form acids

2.1.1. acidic anhydrides ( without water)

2.1.1.1. so2 + h2o--> h2so3

2.1.1.1.1. nonmetal + h2o = acid

2.2. metal oxides : basic anhydrides

2.2.1. CaO + H2O -->. Ca(OH)2 / Li2O + H2O ---> 2LiOH

2.2.1.1. metal + h2o = base

3. Salts

3.1. Silver nitrate AgNO3 Germicide and antiseptic\\\ Stannous fluoride [Tin(2) Fluoride] SnF2 Toothpaste additive to prevent cavities\\\ Calcium sulfate ( plaster of Paris) (CaSO4)2* H2O^a Plaster casts \\\ Magnesium sulfate (epsom salts) MgSO4 * 7H2O^a Laxative, foot baths \\\ Potassium permanganate KMnO4 cauterizing and antiseptic\\\ Ferrous sulfate [iron2 sulfate] FeSO4 give for iron deficiency anemia\\\ Zinc Sulfate ZnSO4 skin treatment eczema\\\ Barium sulfate BaSO4 xrays and barium cocktail\\\ Mercurous chloride Hg2Cl2 laxative, no longer used

3.2. sodium chloride( table salt)

3.3. electrolyte- conduct electricity

3.3.1. nerve conduction , heart beat , fluid balance.

4. Bronsted Lowry

4.1. acid is h donor

4.1.1. HCl (aq) + h2o --> h3o+ + cl- ( hydrochloric acid )

4.2. base is h acceptor

4.2.1. ammonia is base

4.2.1.1. NH3 +h2o --> NH4 + OH-

4.3. amphiprotic - accept or donate proton

5. The Arrhenius Theory!

5.1. Svante- acids r molecular substances Taft breaks up in aq solutions into hydrogen ions [h+] and anions. also called protons.

5.1.1. nitric acid ionizes in water

5.1.1.1. HNO3(aq)--> H+(aq) + NO3-(aq)

5.2. base that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) in (aq) solution.

5.2.1. some r ionic solids containing OH- , sodium hydroxide NaOH and calccium hydroxide Ca(OH)2

5.2.1.1. formula

5.2.1.2. NaOH(s)---> Na+(aq)+OH-(aq)

5.3. limitations

5.3.1. free proton does not exist in water solution

5.3.1.1. h2o+ h---> h3o+

5.3.1.1.1. hydronium ion

5.3.2. no explanation for basicity of ammonia and related compounds. no hydroxide ions

5.3.3. applies to aq solution reactions only

6. chemical properties

6.1. bases

6.1.1. strong - potassium hydroxide KOH all group 1a hydroxide , except BeOH2. group 2a metals r strong bases

6.1.2. common bases

6.1.2.1. Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Strong acid neutralization soap making\\\ Potassium Hydroxide KOH Strong Making LQ soaps and diesel fuel \\ Lthium Hydroxide LiOH STRONG alkaline storage, Calcium Hydroxide CA(OH)2 STRONG plaster cement soil neutralizer \\\ MAGnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 STRONG antacid,laxative\\\ AMMONIA NH3 WEAK FERTILIZER household cleaners

6.2. acids

6.2.1. sour, litmus turns red, dissolve active metals ie. zinc and iron, produce H gas. reacts with base to form water and ionic compounds called salt

6.2.1.1. vinegar has 5% acetic acid , lemons limes & other citrus fruit contain citric acid . lactic acid offers yogurt tart taste, phosphoric acid is often added to carb drink - impart tartness.

6.2.1.2. bitter. litmus shifts blue, slippery on skin, react with acid forming water and salts

6.2.1.2.1. tonic water - base , from quinine.

6.2.2. usually chemist write acids with H first

6.2.2.1. Ie. HCL, H2SO4 .

6.2.3. common acids

6.2.3.1. Strong acids- Sulfuric Acid H2SO4, strong, Battery Acid\\ \HydroChloric acid HCL, strong, CLeaning of metals and bricks removing scales from boilers\\\ Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Moderate, colas and rust removal,\\\ Lactic Acid CH3CHOHCOOH, weak, yogurt. \\\ AceTic acid CH3COOH weak, Vinegar\ \\Boric Acid H3BO3 VERY WEAK, antiseptic eyewash, roach poison.\\\ Hydrocyanic acid, VERY WEAK, plastic manufacture

6.2.3.1.1. strong - HNO3 nitric acid, hydrobromic HBr, hydroiodic {HI} , perchloric HClO4, H2SO4