Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Complex Communication Needs

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Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Complex Communication Needs by Mind Map: Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Complex Communication Needs

1. AAC System - An AAC system helps a person with CCN to communicate more effectively by using four different components, symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques.

1.1. Components

1.1.1. symbol - Something that stands for something else.

1.1.1.1. aided - A symbol that requires a device or accessory that is external to the body to transmit a message, such as typing, drawing a picture, or pointing to a photograph.

1.1.1.2. unaided - A symbol that requires only one's body, speaking, gesturing, vocalizing, and signing to represent meaning.

1.1.1.3. dynamic - Types of symbols that require movement or change to understand their meaning (gestures).

1.1.1.4. static - A symbol that does not require movement or change to understand its meaning, like pointing to a photograph.

1.1.1.5. iconicity - The degree to which symbols visually resemble what they refer to.

1.1.1.6. opaque- A symbol that has very little resemblance to what it represents.

1.1.2. aid - A type of assistive device that sends or receives messages.

1.1.2.1. electronic - Examples of electronic aids can be Speech Generating Devices.

1.1.2.1.1. speech generating device - A device that produces words and phrases as an alternative to speaking in situations where the individual may not be understood.

1.1.3. strategy - The way that symbols are effectively and efficiently conveyed through and AAC system.

1.1.4. technique - The way in which messages are transmitted, how an individual selects or accesses symbols.

1.1.4.1. direct selection - A direct motor act that is not dependent on time. There are four types, physical pressure, physical contact, pointing, and speech or voice input.

1.1.4.2. indirect selection - Three techniques through which individuals with severe motor or sensory impairments can access their AAC systems (scanning, directed scanning, coded access).

1.1.4.2.1. scanning - Using single of dual switches, a selection set of symbols is presented in a predetermined configuration by either a communication device, or a communication partner.

1.1.4.2.2. coded access - An individual uses a sequence of movements to select a symbol from a set. Morse code is one example.

1.2. Types of AACs

1.2.1. dynamic display - A visual display that changes after a symbol is selected.

1.2.2. fixed display - A display that remains that same after a symbol is selected.

1.2.3. hybrid display - A combination of display types on the AAC system.

1.2.4. visual scene display - A display that uses pictures, photographs, or depictions of virtual environments that represent situations, places, or experiences.

2. Complex Communication Needs (CCNs)- Resulting from significant speech, language, motor, and/or cognitive impairments that prevent individuals from communicating in conventional ways.

2.1. Possible Causes

2.1.1. autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) - A group of developmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction; difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication; and unusual repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests.

2.1.2. cerebral palsy - A neuromotor impairment resulting from trauma or damage to the developing child before, during, or soon after birth.

2.1.3. intellectual disability - Also known as mental retardation, is a significant limitation in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.

2.1.4. stroke - Occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures.

2.1.5. childhood apraxia of speech - A speech disorder characterized by the inability to control the purposeful speech movements and sequences of speech movements.

2.1.6. traumatic brain injury - An acquired injury to the brain caused by a traumatic event. The brain damage can result in motor speech disorders, or cognitive communication impairments.

2.1.7. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - A rapidly progressive disease, also known as Lou Gehrig's, in which individuals may experience a deterioration of speech skills, resulting in poor speech and/or poor respiratory functioning, resulting in mechanical ventilation

2.1.8. dementia - A degenerative disease that can affect communication. It results in significantly impaired intellectual functioning, disrupting daily activities. It can be caused by Alzheimer's or Huntington's disease or other disorders of the brain.

2.1.9. Parkinson's disease - A slowly progressive disease of the basal ganglia in the central nervous system. It can lead to dysarthria, creating short rushes or poorly articulate speech.

3. augmentative and alternative communication - The area of research, clinical, and educational practice that "involves attempts to study and, when necessary, temporarily or permanently compensate for the impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions of individuals with severe disorders of speech-language production and/or comprehensio."

3.1. comprehensive AAC assessment - The purpose of this is to identify, measure, and describe factors affecting communication, the effects of the communication impairment on the individual's activities and participation, what barriers exist, what facilitates desired communication, and what AAC system would enhance communication and participation in life situations.

3.1.1. multidisciplinary team - A team of professionals that conducts an AAC assessment. This team can individuals with CCN, parents, teachers, SLPs, physical therapists, occupational, therapists, rehabiliation engineers, social workers, psychologist, vocational counselors, nurses, and doctors.

3.1.2. Considerations

3.1.2.1. communication partners - People that a person with an AAC needs or wants to communicate with, such as a parent, friend, spouse, or stranger.

3.1.2.2. communication environments - The places and situations where communication takes place, this could be home, school, work, or on the phone, for example.

3.1.2.3. communication roles - A way that people communicate based on who they are communicating with. Examples are listener, director, advisor, reader, storyteller.

3.1.2.4. social roles - The role that a person has in society, such as father/son, daughter, student, coworker.

3.1.3. Goals

3.1.3.1. communication competence - The goal in working with an AAC, which requires significant time and effort.

3.1.3.1.1. Support

3.1.3.1.2. Barriers

3.1.3.2. information transfer - Communication to give and receive information

3.1.3.3. social closeness - A way that people interact and communicate by sharing stories about their lives and common experiences.

3.1.3.4. social etiquette - A purpose of communication in which people conform to social conventions of their culture.

3.2. multimodal - In effective communication, people use a variety of different methods to meet their intended communication goals, such as language based, listening, reading, talking, writing, and sign language, and non-language based, such as gestures, facial expressions, vocalizations, vocal inflections, speaker proximity, posture, and eye gaze.