Communication Mosaic

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Communication Mosaic by Mind Map: Communication Mosaic

1. Communication Processes and Skills

1.1. Perceiving and Understanding

1.1.1. Selection

1.1.1.1. Perception: The active process of selection, organization and interpretation of phenomenon

1.1.1.1.1. Subjective

1.1.1.1.2. Dynamic Process

1.1.1.2. Perpetual Constancy: Tendency to see familiar objects as having standard specifications

1.1.1.2.1. Not everyone perceives the same way

1.1.1.2.2. We WANT to see what we have seen in the past

1.1.1.3. Change compels attention

1.1.1.4. Selective Perception: Focus on what we perceive as important

1.1.1.4.1. Ignore everything else

1.1.1.5. Law of Simplicity: We tent to perceive the world in its simplest form

1.1.1.5.1. Closure: fill in missing portions of ourselves

1.1.1.5.2. Grouping

1.1.2. Organization

1.1.2.1. Constuctivism: Theory that we organize and interpret our experiences by applying cognitive schemata

1.1.2.1.1. schemata

1.1.3. Interpretation

1.1.3.1. Attribution: The act of explaining why someone acts a certain way or why something happen

1.1.3.1.1. Locus

1.1.3.1.2. Stability

1.1.3.1.3. Specificity

1.1.3.1.4. Control

1.1.3.1.5. Self Serving Bias

1.1.4. Influences

1.1.4.1. Cultural/ Social Communities

1.1.4.2. Social Roles

1.1.4.3. Cognitive Abilities

1.1.4.3.1. Cognitive Complexity

1.1.4.3.2. Person Centeredness

1.1.4.3.3. Empathy

1.1.4.4. Expectations

1.1.4.4.1. Priming

1.1.4.4.2. Violation

1.1.4.5. Physiological Factors

1.1.4.5.1. Physical

1.1.4.5.2. Special context

1.1.5. Guidelines for Improvement

1.1.5.1. Avoid Mind-Reading

1.1.5.1.1. Assuming we understand how someone thinks or feels

1.1.5.2. Distinguish between facts and judgements

1.1.5.3. Monitor self-serving bias

1.1.5.4. Check perceptions with others

1.2. Engaging in Verbal Communication

1.2.1. Language and Meaning

1.2.1.1. Features of Language

1.2.1.1.1. Symbol

1.2.1.2. Principles of Communication

1.2.1.2.1. Interpretation Creates Meaning

1.2.1.2.2. Communication Rules

1.2.1.2.3. Punctuation Affects Meaning

1.2.2. Symbolic Ablilities

1.2.2.1. Defines Phenomena

1.2.2.1.1. Labels used to define others and how we perceive them

1.2.2.2. Evaluates Phenomena

1.2.2.2.1. Loaded language

1.2.2.3. Organizes Experiences

1.2.2.3.1. Capacity to abstract can distort thinking

1.2.2.4. Allows Hypothetical Though

1.2.2.4.1. Allows for self-imrpovement

1.2.2.5. Allows Self Reflection

1.2.2.5.1. Empowers us to monitor our communication and adjust it so we are effective and ethical

1.2.2.6. Defines Relationships and Interactions

1.2.2.6.1. 3 Dimensions of Relationship Level Meanings

1.2.3. Guidelines for Effective Verbal Communication

1.2.3.1. Engage in Person Centered Communication

1.2.3.2. Be Aware of Levels of Abstraction

1.2.3.2.1. Sometimes, abstraction is used to create Strategic Ambiguity

1.2.3.3. Qualify Language

1.2.3.3.1. Generalization

1.2.3.3.2. Describing/ Evaluating people

1.2.3.4. Own Feelings and Thoughts

1.2.3.4.1. Rely on 'I' language not 'You' language

1.3. Engaging in Nonverbal Communication

1.3.1. Principles of Nonverbal Communication

1.3.1.1. Ambiguous

1.3.1.1.1. Meaning expressed is not concrete

1.3.1.1.2. Meanings may change over time

1.3.1.1.3. Reduced because of regulative and constitutive rules

1.3.1.2. Interacts with Verbal Communication

1.3.1.2.1. Repeat

1.3.1.2.2. Highlight

1.3.1.2.3. Complement

1.3.1.2.4. Contradict

1.3.1.2.5. Substitute

1.3.1.3. Regulates Interaction

1.3.1.3.1. Organizes interaction

1.3.1.4. Establishes Relationship-Level Meaning

1.3.1.4.1. Responsiveness

1.3.1.4.2. Liking

1.3.1.4.3. Power

1.3.1.5. Reflects Cultural Values

1.3.1.5.1. Not instinctual, but learned

1.3.1.6. Does not include:

1.3.1.6.1. Sign langauage

1.3.1.6.2. Written/ Electronically transmitted words

1.3.2. Types of Nonverbal Behaviours

1.3.2.1. Kinesics

1.3.2.1.1. Body positions and motions

1.3.2.2. Haptics

1.3.2.2.1. Physical Touch

1.3.2.3. Physical Appearance

1.3.2.3.1. Physical characteristics

1.3.2.3.2. Way we manage/alter appearance

1.3.2.4. Olfatics

1.3.2.4.1. Perception of odours and scents

1.3.2.5. Artifacts

1.3.2.5.1. Personal objects used to announce our identities and personalize our environments

1.3.2.6. Proxemics and Personal Space

1.3.2.6.1. Space announces status

1.3.2.7. Environmental Factors

1.3.2.7.1. Elements of settings that affect how we feel, think and act

1.3.2.8. Chronemics

1.3.2.8.1. How we perceive and use time to define identities and interactions

1.3.2.9. Paralanguage

1.3.2.9.1. Vocal communications that does not use actual words

1.3.2.10. Silence

1.3.2.10.1. Lack of communicated sound

1.3.3. Guidelines for Effective Non-verbal Communication

1.3.3.1. Monitor Nonverbal Communication

1.3.3.1.1. Make conscious effort to convey 'correct' message

1.3.3.2. Interpret Other's Nonverbal Communication Tentatively

1.3.3.2.1. Personal Qualification

1.3.3.2.2. Contextual Qualifications

1.3.3.3. Pay attention to inconsistencies

1.4. Listening and Responding to Others

1.4.1. Listening process

1.4.1.1. Hearing

1.4.1.1.1. Physical

1.4.1.1.2. Passive

1.4.1.2. Listening

1.4.1.2.1. Active process

1.4.1.2.2. Intermittent

1.4.1.2.3. Learned Skill

1.4.1.2.4. Important Communication Skill

1.4.1.3. Interpreting Communication

1.4.2. Obstacles to Effective Listening

1.4.2.1. Situational

1.4.2.1.1. Incomprehensibility

1.4.2.1.2. Message Overload

1.4.2.1.3. Message Complexity

1.4.2.1.4. Environmental Distraction

1.4.2.2. Internal

1.4.2.2.1. Preoccupation

1.4.2.2.2. Prejudgement

1.4.2.2.3. Lack of Effort

1.4.2.2.4. Reacting to Emotionally Loaded Language

1.4.2.3. Ineffective Listeing

1.4.2.3.1. Pseudolistening

1.4.2.3.2. Monopolising

1.4.2.3.3. Ambushing

1.4.2.3.4. Defensive Listening

1.4.2.3.5. Literal Listening

1.4.2.3.6. Selective Listening

1.4.3. Guidelines for Effective Listening

1.4.3.1. Develop Listening Skills

1.4.3.1.1. Informational and Critical

1.4.3.1.2. Relationship

1.4.3.1.3. Other Goals

1.5. Creating Communication Climates

1.5.1. Levels of Confirmation and Disconfirmation

1.5.1.1. Recognition

1.5.1.1.1. Expression of awareness of another person's existance

1.5.1.2. Acknowledgement

1.5.1.2.1. Attentiveness to what a person feels, thinks or says

1.5.1.3. Endorsement

1.5.1.3.1. Accepting a persons's thoughts or feelings as valid

1.5.2. Defensive and Supportive Climates

1.5.2.1. Evaluation vs Description

1.5.2.1.1. Judgemental (which makes us defensive) vs Descriptive (brute facts)

1.5.2.2. Certainty vs Provisionalism

1.5.2.2.1. Absolute, dogmatic vs openness, tentativeness

1.5.2.3. Strategy vs Spontaniety

1.5.2.3.1. Manipulative with hidden motives vs open, honest, agenda free

1.5.2.4. Control vs Problem Orientation

1.5.2.4.1. Dominating, evokes resentment vs Focusing on resolving tensions and collaboration

1.5.2.5. Neutrality vs Empathy

1.5.2.5.1. Implies indifference vs confirms the worth and concern of others

1.5.2.6. Superiority vs Equality

1.5.2.6.1. Suggests one is better, makes other people defensive vs confirms the worth and concern of others

1.5.3. Conflict and Communication

1.5.3.1. Conflict

1.5.3.1.1. Exists when people who depend on each other have different views, interests, values, responsibilities, or objectives and perceive their differences as incompatible

1.5.4. Guidelines for Creating and Sustaining Healthy Communication Climates

1.5.4.1. Confirm others

1.5.4.2. Confirm yourself

1.5.4.2.1. Assertive, not Aggressive or Deferential

1.5.4.3. Respect diversity

1.5.4.3.1. Don't impose meanings on others

1.5.4.4. Time conflict effectively

1.5.4.4.1. Be flexible

1.5.4.4.2. Bracketing: Marks off peripheral issues for later discussion

1.5.4.5. Show grace when appropriate

1.5.4.5.1. Forgiveness, putting aside needs, helping others save face

1.5.4.5.2. Not the same as letting people take advantage of you

1.6. Adapting Communication to Cultures and Social Communities

1.6.1. Culture: Refers to beliefs, understandings, practices and ways of interpreting experiences that are shared by a group of people

1.6.2. Relationship Between Culture and Communication

1.6.2.1. Learn culture by communicating

1.6.2.1.1. Learn beliefs, values and societal norms from people or media

1.6.2.2. Communication isa primary indicator of culture

1.6.2.2.1. Individualistic Culture

1.6.2.2.2. Collectivist Culture

1.6.2.3. Multiple social communities may coexist in a single culture

1.6.2.3.1. Social Communities: Groups of people who live within a dominant culture, yet also belong to other social groups

1.6.2.3.2. Standpoint Theories: Social groups within a culture distinctively shape members' perspectives- Perceptions, Identities and Expectations

1.6.2.4. Communication Expresses and Sustains Cultures

1.6.2.4.1. Mirror of a culture's values and primary means of sustenance

1.6.2.5. Communication is a source of cultural change

1.6.2.5.1. Used to resist mainstream definition of one identity

1.6.3. Guidelines for Adapting Communication to Diverse Cultures and Social Communities

1.6.3.1. Engage in Person Centred Communication

1.6.3.1.1. Uncertain Reduction Theory: People find uncertainty uncomfortable and so are motivated to use communication to reduce uncertainty

1.6.3.2. Respect Others' Feelings and Ideas

1.6.3.2.1. Don' speak for others or assume you understand

1.6.3.3. Resist Ethnocentric Bias

1.6.3.3.1. Ethnocentrism: Tendency to regard ourselves and out way of life as normal and superior to other people's.

1.6.3.3.2. Cultural Relativism

1.6.3.4. Adapting to Cultural Diversity is a Process

1.6.3.4.1. Resistance

1.6.3.4.2. Assimilation

1.6.3.4.3. Tolerance

1.6.3.4.4. Understanding

1.6.3.4.5. Participation

2. Contexts and Communication

2.1. Communication and Self-Concept

2.1.1. Self: Ever changing system of perspectives that is formed and sustained in communication with others and ourselves

2.1.1.1. Multiple Dimension (Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Professional)

2.1.1.2. Changes over time with new relationships and experiences

2.1.2. Communication and Personal Identity

2.1.2.1. The Self Arises in Communication with Others

2.1.2.1.1. Self Fulfilling Prophecies

2.1.2.1.2. Particular Other: People significant to us

2.1.2.1.3. Generalized other: Collection of rules, roles and attitudesendorsed by overall society/ communities we belong to

2.1.2.2. Communication with Family

2.1.2.2.1. Direct Definitions: Communication that tells us explicitly, what we are through labels

2.1.2.2.2. Life Scripts: Rules for living and identity

2.1.2.2.3. Attachment Styles

2.1.2.3. Communication with Peers

2.1.2.3.1. Second group of people whose communication influences self concept

2.1.2.4. Communication with Society

2.1.2.4.1. Shapes Our Values and Actions

2.1.3. Guidelines for Communicating with Ourselves

2.1.3.1. Reflect Critically on Social Perspectives

2.1.3.1.1. Values and views endorsed by a society are arbitrary and subject to change

2.1.3.2. Commit to Personal Growth

2.1.3.2.1. Following suggestions help nurture personal groth

2.1.3.3. Create a Supportive Context for the Change Desired

2.1.3.3.1. Setting

2.1.3.3.2. People

2.2. Communication in Personal Relationships

2.2.1. Personal Relationship: Voluntary commitment between irreplaceable individuals who are influenced by rules, relationship dialectics and surrounding contexts

2.2.2. Social Relationship: Participants interact according to general social roles rather than unique individual identities

2.2.3. Understanding Personal Relationships

2.2.3.1. Features

2.2.3.1.1. Commitment

2.2.3.1.2. Investment

2.2.3.1.3. Relationship Rules

2.2.3.1.4. Contexts

2.2.3.1.5. Relationship Dialetics

2.2.3.2. Evolutionary Course

2.2.3.2.1. Turning point changes the course of a relationship

2.2.4. Guidelines for Communicating in Personal Relationships

2.2.4.1. Adapt Communication to Manage Distance

2.2.4.2. Ensure Equity in Family Relationsups

2.2.4.3. Avoid Intimate Partner Violence

2.2.4.4. Insist on Safer Sex

2.3. Communication in Groups and Teams

2.3.1. Understanding Communication in Groups and Teams

2.3.1.1. Group

2.3.1.1.1. three or more people who interact over time, depend on one another and follow shared rules of conduct to reach a common goal

2.3.1.2. Team

2.3.1.2.1. Stronger sense of collective identity

2.3.1.3. Rise of Groups and Teams

2.3.1.3.1. Decision-making groups

2.3.1.3.2. Advisory groups

2.3.1.3.3. Quality improvement teams

2.3.1.3.4. Brainstorming groups

2.3.1.3.5. Focus groups

2.3.1.3.6. Project teams

2.3.2. Potential Strengths and Limitations of Groups

2.3.2.1. Limitations

2.3.2.1.1. Too much time needed when moving towards aim

2.3.2.1.2. Conformity pressures interfere with decision making

2.3.2.2. Strengths

2.3.2.2.1. More resources

2.3.2.2.2. More thorough thought

2.3.2.2.3. Heightened creativity

2.3.2.2.4. More commitment to decisions

2.3.3. Features of Small Groups

2.3.3.1. Cohesion

2.3.3.1.1. Might lead to Groupthink - when members cease to think critically and independently

2.3.3.2. Size

2.3.3.2.1. More members, less contribution (fewer chances for participation

2.3.3.2.2. Fewer members, lesser resources, less criticism ( avoid alienation of members)

2.3.3.3. Power Structure

2.3.3.3.1. Power to

2.3.3.3.2. Power Over

2.3.3.3.3. Social climbing

2.3.3.4. Interaction Patterns

2.3.3.4.1. centralised

2.3.3.4.2. decentralised

2.3.3.5. Group Norms

2.3.3.5.1. guidelines that regulate how members interact w each other

2.3.4. Guidelines for Communicating in Groups or Teams

2.3.4.1. Constructive Participation

2.3.4.1.1. Task communication

2.3.4.1.2. Procedural communication

2.3.4.1.3. Climate communication

2.3.4.1.4. Egocentric communication

2.3.4.2. Provide Leadership

2.3.4.3. Manage Conflict Constructively

2.3.4.3.1. Disruptive

2.3.4.3.2. Constructive

2.4. Communication in Organizations

2.4.1. Key Features

2.4.1.1. Structure

2.4.1.2. Communication Networks

2.4.1.3. Links to External Environments

2.4.2. Organizational Culture

2.4.2.1. Vocabulary

2.4.2.2. Stories

2.4.2.2.1. Coporate

2.4.2.2.2. Personal

2.4.2.2.3. Collegial

2.4.2.3. Rites

2.4.2.3.1. Blaming rites

2.4.2.3.2. Enhancement rites

2.4.2.3.3. Rites of passage

2.4.2.3.4. Rites of integration

2.4.2.3.5. Renewal rites

2.4.2.3.6. Conflict resolution rites

2.4.2.4. Rituals

2.4.2.4.1. task rituals

2.4.2.4.2. personal rituals

2.4.2.4.3. Social rituals

2.4.2.5. Structures

2.4.3. Guidelines for Communicating in Organizations

2.4.3.1. Adapt to Diverse Needs, Situations and People

2.4.3.2. Expect More In and Out of Teams

2.4.3.3. Manage Personal Relationships on the Job

2.5. Mass Communication

2.5.1. Evolution

2.5.1.1. Tribal Epoch

2.5.1.2. Literate Epoch

2.5.1.3. Print Epoch

2.5.1.4. Electronic Epoch

2.5.2. Theories

2.5.2.1. Hypodermic Needle Model

2.5.2.2. Uses and Gratification Theory

2.5.2.3. Agenda Setting

2.5.2.4. Cultivation Theory

2.5.2.4.1. TV promotes a worldview that's inaccurate but that viewers nonetheless assume reflect real life

2.5.2.5. Cultural Studies Theory

2.5.2.5.1. Audience studies

2.5.2.5.2. Textual analysis

2.5.2.5.3. Political economy studies

2.5.3. Guidelines for Engaging Mass Communication

2.5.3.1. Develop Media Literacy

2.5.3.2. Respond Actively