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Communication Mosaic by Mind Map: Communication Mosaic
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Communication Mosaic

Communication Processes and Skills

Perceiving and Understanding

Selection, Perception: The active process of selection, organization and interpretation of phenomenon, Subjective, Dynamic Process, Perpetual Constancy: Tendency to see familiar objects as having standard specifications, Not everyone perceives the same way, We WANT to see what we have seen in the past, Change compels attention, Selective Perception: Focus on what we perceive as important, Ignore everything else, Law of Simplicity: We tent to perceive the world in its simplest form, Closure: fill in missing portions of ourselves, Grouping

Organization, Constuctivism: Theory that we organize and interpret our experiences by applying cognitive schemata, schemata, Mental templates/structures that help organize and make sense of incoming info, Prototype, Most representative example of a category, Group into broad categories, Personal Constructs, Bipolar, mental yardstick we use to measure people or situations e.g. smart vs not smart, Based on own standards, Make more detailed assesment, Stereotype, Predictive generalization about individuals and situations, Based on the category we put them in, Predict what it will do, Scripts, A guide to actions in particular situations, Turns perceptions into lines of action, Based on social/cultural norms

Interpretation, Attribution: The act of explaining why someone acts a certain way or why something happen, Locus, Internal-External, Stability, Stable-Unstable, Specificity, Specific-Global, Control, Within Personal-Beyond Personal, Self Serving Bias, Good: 'I did it', Internal + Stable factors, Bad: 'It was (them)', External + Unstable

Influences, Cultural/ Social Communities, Social Roles, Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Complexity, Number of personal constructs used, How abstract they are, How elaborately they interact, Person Centeredness, See people as individuals, Empathy, Feel WITH people, Expectations, Priming, May be done through positive visualization, Violation, When our expectation are violated, we become more cognitively alert as we struggle to understand how and cope with unexpected behaviours or events (re-interpretation), Physiological Factors, Physical, Tired, angry etc, Special context, Temperature, rush etc

Guidelines for Improvement, Avoid Mind-Reading, Assuming we understand how someone thinks or feels, Distinguish between facts and judgements, Monitor self-serving bias, Check perceptions with others

Engaging in Verbal Communication

Language and Meaning, Features of Language, Symbol, Arbitrary, Not intrinsically connected to what it represents, Ambiguous, No clear-cut, precise meaning, Varies according to culture/ experience, Abstract, Not concrete/ tangible, confusing, Ladder of Abstractions, Principles of Communication, Interpretation Creates Meaning, Brute Facts, Objective/Concrete, Institutional Facts, Meanings of brute facts based on interpretation, Communication Rules, Shared understandings about what communication means and what behaviours are appropriate, Regulative, Regulates interaction by specifying when, how, where and with whom to communicate about certain things, Consitutive, Define what a particular communication means or stands for, Helps interpret meanings through contextualization, Punctuation Affects Meaning, Marks a flow of activity into meaningful units, Conflicting Punctuation, Demand- Withdraw Pattern

Symbolic Ablilities, Defines Phenomena, Labels used to define others and how we perceive them, Totalizing, Responding to a person as if one person totally represents him/her, NOT Stereotyping, Reappropriation, A group reclaims a term used by others to degrade its members and treats it as a positive description, e.g. Nigga in black communities, Evaluates Phenomena, Loaded language, Contains words that slant perceptions and meanings exceedingly, Organizes Experiences, Capacity to abstract can distort thinking, Stereotyping, Allows Hypothetical Though, Allows for self-imrpovement, Charts a path for personal growth, Allows Self Reflection, Empowers us to monitor our communication and adjust it so we are effective and ethical, "I", Spontaneous, creative self that acts impulsively in response to inner needs and desires, "Me", Socially conscious self that monitors and moderate's I's impulses, Defines Relationships and Interactions, 3 Dimensions of Relationship Level Meanings, Power, Define dominance and negotiate status and influence, Liking, Verbally express liking or disliking, Responsiveness, Show interest in others' communication through questions and statements of agreement or disagreement

Guidelines for Effective Verbal Communication, Engage in Person Centered Communication, Be Aware of Levels of Abstraction, Sometimes, abstraction is used to create Strategic Ambiguity, Qualify Language, Generalization, Describing/ Evaluating people, Static, Suggests something is unchanging e.g. Ann is selfish, Indexing, Reminds us that our evaluations applu only to specific times and situations, Own Feelings and Thoughts, Rely on 'I' language not 'You' language, Less threatening

Engaging in Nonverbal Communication

Principles of Nonverbal Communication, Ambiguous, Meaning expressed is not concrete, Meanings may change over time, Reduced because of regulative and constitutive rules, Interacts with Verbal Communication, Repeat, Highlight, Illustrators, Complement, Adaptors, Contradict, Double binds, Substitute, Emblems, Regulates Interaction, Organizes interaction, E.g. When to speak/stay silent, Establishes Relationship-Level Meaning, Responsiveness, Eye contact, nodding etc, Liking, Smiling/ Frowning etc, Power, Expression, gestures, space etc, Reflects Cultural Values, Not instinctual, but learned, Territory and space, Orientation to time, Norms to touch, Does not include:, Sign langauage, Written/ Electronically transmitted words

Types of Nonverbal Behaviours, Kinesics, Body positions and motions, Haptics, Physical Touch, Physical Appearance, Physical characteristics, Way we manage/alter appearance, Olfatics, Perception of odours and scents, Artifacts, Personal objects used to announce our identities and personalize our environments, Proxemics and Personal Space, Space announces status, Environmental Factors, Elements of settings that affect how we feel, think and act, Chronemics, How we perceive and use time to define identities and interactions, Paralanguage, Vocal communications that does not use actual words, Gasps, sighs etc., Vocal qualities, Volume, Rhythm, Pitch, Inflexion etc, Silence, Lack of communicated sound

Guidelines for Effective Non-verbal Communication, Monitor Nonverbal Communication, Make conscious effort to convey 'correct' message, Interpret Other's Nonverbal Communication Tentatively, Personal Qualification, Use 'I' language when unsure, Contextual Qualifications, Physical and Environmental factors, Pay attention to inconsistencies

Listening and Responding to Others

Listening process, Hearing, Physical, Sound, Soundwaves hit functioning eardrums, Sight, Nonverbal Behaviour, Sign Language, Lip-Reading, Passive, Listening, Active process, Being mindful, Focusing on what is happening in the moment, Enhances Communication, Increases understanding of thoughts and feelings, Promotes more complete communication by others, Physically Receiving Communication, Complemented my mindfulness, Ability diminishes when we are tired/ stressed, Selecting and Organizing Communication, Same process as Perception, Interpreting Communication, Determines meaning of message, Responding, Showing interest and attentiveness, Can be verbal/ nonverbal, Propels communication forward, Giving feedback, Showing engagement in conversation, Remembering, Intermittent, Learned Skill, Important Communication Skill, We listen to:, 10% Words, 55% Body Language, Intent > Content, 35% Tone of Voice, Interpreting Communication

Obstacles to Effective Listening, Situational, Incomprehensibility, Message not clearly understood, Languge, Transmission, Message Overload, Receive more messages than we can effectively process, Message Complexity, Message is highly complex, packed with detailed information or intricate reasoning, Environmental Distraction, Interruptions (like noise) fragment conversation, Difficult to sustain, Internal, Preoccupation, absorbed in our own thoughts/concerns, Prejudgement, Tendency to judge others or their ideas before hearing them, Lack of Effort, Lack of Willingness/Energy, Reacting to Emotionally Loaded Language, Not recognising and adjusting to different listening styles that reflect diverse cultures and social communities, Ineffective Listeing, Pseudolistening, Pretending to listen, Monopolising, Dominating the stage by continually drawing attention to ourselves, Ambushing, Listening carefully for the purpose of gathering information to attack the speaker, Defensive Listening, Perceiving a personal attack, criticism or hostile undertone when there is none, When we judge ourselves as being inadequate or feel negative about ourselves, Literal Listening, Listening to content level meaning alone, rejects speaker's feelings and our connections with them, Selective Listening, Focusing only on communication that interests us or corresponds to our opinions and feelings, Rejecting everything that is inconsistent with our value and opinons

Guidelines for Effective Listening, Develop Listening Skills, Informational and Critical, Be Mindful, Control Obstacles, Minimize distractions, Physical, Mental, Ask Questions, Clarify message, Increase insight, Use Aids to Recall, Repetition, Mnemonic, Organize Information, Relationship, Be Mindful, Suspend Judgement, Communicate respect and support, Strive to Understand Others' Perspective, Person Centered, Minimal Encouragers, Invite elaboration, Verbal, Nonverbal, Paraphrasing, Reflect our interpretations of other's communication back to them, Express support, NOT the same as agreement, Other Goals, Listening for pleasure, Listening to Discriminate, Draw accurate conclusions and act appropriately

Creating Communication Climates

Levels of Confirmation and Disconfirmation, Recognition, Expression of awareness of another person's existance, Acknowledgement, Attentiveness to what a person feels, thinks or says, Endorsement, Accepting a persons's thoughts or feelings as valid, NOT the same as agreement

Defensive and Supportive Climates, Evaluation vs Description, Judgemental (which makes us defensive) vs Descriptive (brute facts), Certainty vs Provisionalism, Absolute, dogmatic vs openness, tentativeness, Strategy vs Spontaniety, Manipulative with hidden motives vs open, honest, agenda free, Control vs Problem Orientation, Dominating, evokes resentment vs Focusing on resolving tensions and collaboration, Neutrality vs Empathy, Implies indifference vs confirms the worth and concern of others, Superiority vs Equality, Suggests one is better, makes other people defensive vs confirms the worth and concern of others

Conflict and Communication, Conflict, Exists when people who depend on each other have different views, interests, values, responsibilities, or objectives and perceive their differences as incompatible, Types, Overt, Express differences in a straightforward manner, Covert, Express disagreement differences indirectty, Management, Models, Conflict of interest, Goals/ Interests perceived as incompatible, Relational Goals, Concerned with who people are to each other, degree of interdependence and amount of influence they will have, Face Saving Goals, Concerned with who the parties are and how self-identity is managed, Conflict of orienttions, Perception of Conflicts, Lose-Lose, Losses for everyone, Win-Lose, Undermines relationship, Win-Win, Sometimes results in compromises, Conflict of responses, How we Respond to Conflicts, Exit, Leaving a relationship by walking out or psychologically withdrawing, Neglect, Denies or Minimizes problems, Disconfirming: fails to acknowledge and respect how another feels, Voice, Focuses on dealing directly with problems, Loyalty, Staying committed despite differences, Passive, May never address problems, Conflict of outcomes, Relationship outcomes influenced more by management rather than resolution

Guidelines for Creating and Sustaining Healthy Communication Climates, Confirm others, Confirm yourself, Assertive, not Aggressive or Deferential, Respect diversity, Don't impose meanings on others, Time conflict effectively, Be flexible, Bracketing: Marks off peripheral issues for later discussion, Show grace when appropriate, Forgiveness, putting aside needs, helping others save face, Not the same as letting people take advantage of you

Adapting Communication to Cultures and Social Communities

Culture: Refers to beliefs, understandings, practices and ways of interpreting experiences that are shared by a group of people

Relationship Between Culture and Communication, Learn culture by communicating, Learn beliefs, values and societal norms from people or media, Communication isa primary indicator of culture, Individualistic Culture, Self is distinct form others, Low Context Communication Style (Direct, explicit, detailed), Collectivist Culture, Self as part of a group/ community/ family, High Context Communication Style (Indirect, Implicit, Undetailed), Multiple social communities may coexist in a single culture, Social Communities: Groups of people who live within a dominant culture, yet also belong to other social groups, Standpoint Theories: Social groups within a culture distinctively shape members' perspectives- Perceptions, Identities and Expectations, People only see flaws in a system which disadvantages them, Communication Expresses and Sustains Cultures, Mirror of a culture's values and primary means of sustenance, Actions reflect and perpetuate culture, Communication is a source of cultural change, Used to resist mainstream definition of one identity, Tool of social movements

Guidelines for Adapting Communication to Diverse Cultures and Social Communities, Engage in Person Centred Communication, Uncertain Reduction Theory: People find uncertainty uncomfortable and so are motivated to use communication to reduce uncertainty, Respect Others' Feelings and Ideas, Don' speak for others or assume you understand, Resist Ethnocentric Bias, Ethnocentrism: Tendency to regard ourselves and out way of life as normal and superior to other people's., Cultural Relativism, Recognises that cultures vary in how they think, behave, believe and value, Adapting to Cultural Diversity is a Process, Resistance, Rejecting the beliefs of a culture/group, Assimilation, Giving up of ways to adopt the ways of the masses, Tolerance, Acceptance of differences whether or not one approves of or even understands them, Understanding, Participation, Incorporate some practices and values of other groups into our own lives

Contexts and Communication

Communication and Self-Concept

Self: Ever changing system of perspectives that is formed and sustained in communication with others and ourselves, Multiple Dimension (Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Professional), Changes over time with new relationships and experiences

Communication and Personal Identity, The Self Arises in Communication with Others, Self Fulfilling Prophecies, Expectations or judgements of ourselves that we bring about through our own actions, Pygmalion Effect: 'What you believe is what you will achieve', Particular Other: People significant to us, Reflected Appraisal: 'looking glass self', See ourselves how others see us, Are evaluations, Generalized other: Collection of rules, roles and attitudesendorsed by overall society/ communities we belong to, Communication with Family, Direct Definitions: Communication that tells us explicitly, what we are through labels, Life Scripts: Rules for living and identity, Attachment Styles, How we view ourselves and our personal relationships (developed from parental interaction patterns), Secure, High self esteem, High interpersonal trust, Fearful, Low Self Esteem, High interpersonal Trust, Dismissive, High Self Esteem, Low interpersonal trust, Ambivalent, Low self-esteem, Low interpersonal trust, Communication with Peers, Second group of people whose communication influences self concept, Reflected Appraisals, Direct Definition, Communication that explicitly tells us who we are by labelling us and our behaviours, Social Comparisons, Ratings of ourselves relative to others with respect to our talents, abilities, qualities etc., Are we like them?, How do we compare to them?, Self Disclosure, Revealing personal information that others are unlikely to discover in other ways, Social Penetration Theory, Closeness develops through a gradual process of mutual self-disclosure, Johari Window, Open, Known to self, Known to others, Blind Area, Unknown to self, Known to others, Hidden, Known to self, Unknown to others, Unknown, Unknown to self, Unknown to others, Communication with Society, Shapes Our Values and Actions, Socio-economic Level, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Race

Guidelines for Communicating with Ourselves, Reflect Critically on Social Perspectives, Values and views endorsed by a society are arbitrary and subject to change, Commit to Personal Growth, Following suggestions help nurture personal groth, Set Realistic Goals, Assess Yourself Fairly, Appreciate Individual Qualities, Self-Disclose Appropriately, Gradual and Cautiously, Create a Supportive Context for the Change Desired, Setting, People

Communication in Personal Relationships

Personal Relationship: Voluntary commitment between irreplaceable individuals who are influenced by rules, relationship dialectics and surrounding contexts

Social Relationship: Participants interact according to general social roles rather than unique individual identities

Understanding Personal Relationships, Features, Commitment, Decision to remain with a relationship, Investment, Grows out of Commitment, Relationship Rules, Guide how partners communicate and interpret communication, Regulative, Constitutive, Contexts, Surroundings influence reactions of people, Relationship Dialetics, Opposing and Continuous tensions that are normal in all close relationships, Autonomy/Connection, Novelty/Predictability, Openness/Closedness, Solutions, Neutralization, Compromise, Somewhat Satisfying, Separation, Choose 1 and Ignore the Other, Least Satisfying, Segmentation, Partners assign each pole to certain poles, Somewhat Satisfying, Reframing, Make contradictions seem like they're not opposits, Most Satisfying, Evolutionary Course, Turning point changes the course of a relationship, Friendships, Role Limited Interaction, Stick with safe topics, Exercise care in making disclosures, Friendly Relations, Look for common ground, Moving Towards Friendshiip, Talk feelings, Nascent Friendship, Think of themselves as friends, Stabilized Friendship, Assumption of continuity, Trust, Waning Friendship, Cease commitment, Romantic Relationships, No Interaction, Invitational Communication, Explorational Communication, Intensifying Communication, Revising Communication, Intimate Bonding, Navigating (ongoing), Relationship Culture, Deterioration Process, Intra-psychic Processes, Dyadic Processes, Social Support Processes, Grave Dressing Processes, Resurrection Processes

Guidelines for Communicating in Personal Relationships, Adapt Communication to Manage Distance, Ensure Equity in Family Relationsups, Avoid Intimate Partner Violence, Insist on Safer Sex

Communication in Groups and Teams

Understanding Communication in Groups and Teams, Group, three or more people who interact over time, depend on one another and follow shared rules of conduct to reach a common goal, Team, Stronger sense of collective identity, Rise of Groups and Teams, Decision-making groups, Advisory groups, Quality improvement teams, Brainstorming groups, Focus groups, Used to find diff perspective regarding an idea/product/etc, Project teams, consist of people who have expertise related to diff facets of a project and combine knowledge and skills to accomplish a common goal

Potential Strengths and Limitations of Groups, Limitations, Too much time needed when moving towards aim, Conformity pressures interfere with decision making, When majority have a different opinion from minority, presence of a more charistmatic/powerful member, Strengths, More resources, More thorough thought, Heightened creativity, More commitment to decisions

Features of Small Groups, Cohesion, Might lead to Groupthink - when members cease to think critically and independently, Size, More members, less contribution (fewer chances for participation, Fewer members, lesser resources, less criticism ( avoid alienation of members), Power Structure, Power to, ability to empower others to reach their goals, Power Over, ability to help/harm others, Social climbing, attempt to increase status by winning approval of high-status members, Interaction Patterns, centralised, 1/2 hold central positions, decentralised, more balanced comm, Group Norms, guidelines that regulate how members interact w each other

Guidelines for Communicating in Groups or Teams, Constructive Participation, Task communication, providing ideas, info, Clarifying understanding, critically evaluating ideas, Procedural communication, helps a group stay organized and keep on track, Climate communication, Creating and maintaining a constructive climate that encourages contribution and critical evaluation of ideas, Egocentric communication, Blocking others/calling attention to oneself, Provide Leadership, Manage Conflict Constructively, Disruptive, competition between members to get their way, Constructive, when members understand that disagreements are natural and help them reach their goals

Communication in Organizations

Key Features, Structure, Communication Networks, Links to External Environments

Organizational Culture, Vocabulary, Stories, Coporate, Personal, Collegial, Rites, Blaming rites, Enhancement rites, Rites of passage, Rites of integration, Renewal rites, Conflict resolution rites, Rituals, task rituals, personal rituals, Social rituals, Structures

Guidelines for Communicating in Organizations, Adapt to Diverse Needs, Situations and People, Expect More In and Out of Teams, Manage Personal Relationships on the Job

Mass Communication

Evolution, Tribal Epoch, Literate Epoch, Print Epoch, Electronic Epoch

Theories, Hypodermic Needle Model, Uses and Gratification Theory, Agenda Setting, Cultivation Theory, TV promotes a worldview that's inaccurate but that viewers nonetheless assume reflect real life, Resonance, TV images being congruent with personal experience, Mainstreaming, Homogenizing & stabilizing views in society, Cultural Studies Theory, Audience studies, Textual analysis, Political economy studies

Guidelines for Engaging Mass Communication, Develop Media Literacy, Respond Actively