Phisical Patterns

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Phisical Patterns by Mind Map: Phisical Patterns

1. Agricultural Patterns

1.1. Effects of Climate

1.1.1. Climate is the main source that creates soil.

1.1.2. Water, ice, and wind make eroded material needed for soil

1.1.3. Climate creates the forces of erosion, which is able to produce soil.

1.2. Effects of Soil

1.2.1. A soil profile is shown from the horizontal line of coloured soil Soil usually becomes lighter brown when you get more and more deeper. The darker and thicker soil is, the more fertile it is.

1.2.2. In some areas of the world, the soil is frozen permenatly, which is then called permafrost.

1.3. Effects of Natural Vegitation

1.3.1. The pattern of natural vegitation that is found in a place is caused by the interaction of different landforms, climate, and soils.

1.3.2. Decomposing leaves, grasses, and more help the soil gain more fertality. This layer of decomposed things is called the hummus layer.

1.3.3. Coniferous trees do not produce much organic material.

2. Natural Disasters

2.1. Tropical Storms

2.1.1. They form over warm ocean waters. While the sun evaporates the water, cold air gets trapped at the bottom with the hot air, which makes the hot air spiral. Then, the cold air evaporates, which is then turned into more hot air. While this is all happening, cold air is always coming in, making the hot air spin faster and faster, which over time, creates a tropical storm. Hurricanes They form on the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean (Near the middle of America, around Mexico, USA.) Hurricanes affect Mexico, and the eastern side of America. Might go off track to the Pacific Ocean, and affect East Asia. Typhoons Typhoons form west of the Pacific Ocean. They affect East Asia (eg. Japan, Korea, Vietnam) Cyclones Cyclones form on the Indian Ocean and near the western part of the Pacific Ocean. They affect South Asia (eg. India, Pakistan) Southeast Africa (eg. Madagascar) Northeast of New Zealand North, west, and east of Australia.

2.2. Tornadoes

2.2.1. Tornadoes form on land. Warm air from the ground rises up, while cold air from up top comes down. The hot air spirals around the cold air, which then a tornado forms. The cold air heads to the bottom and gets heated, which makes the cold air on the outside spin faster while more cold air comes. They form near the South-Eastern part of USA, which is commonly known as Tornado Alley, because they get frequent tornadoes there. Tornadoes affect every country in the world.

2.2.2. Uses the Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF) to mesure tornado strength

2.3. Earthquakes

2.3.1. Earthquakes are created when 2 tectonic plates slip against each other. While the rest of the plate moves, the front stops, which creates pressure. When the 2 plates finally slip past each other, the plates (because of so much pressure) send out seismic waves that shake the earth. Earthquakes are measured with seismographs.

2.4. Tsunamis

2.4.1. Tsunamis are created when seismic waves shake the water. They makes giant waves of water that are very powerful. Some people think that Tsunamis are created from the pull of the moon, or wind; but that is not true. Tsunamis form on water. Tsunamis make tidal waves, which scientists can see and warn people.

3. Landform Patterns

3.1. Plains and Lowlands

3.1.1. The erosion of shield regions made the rest of each continent.

3.1.2. Rivers carried small particles called sediment carry them into old/ancient rivers.

3.1.3. The sediment builds up and solidifies, which is then called sediment rock.

3.1.4. Plains are large areas of flat land that stays level over a consistent length.

3.1.5. Lowlands are usually along coasts

3.1.6. New land came around the ancient shield.

3.2. Shield Regions

3.2.1. Created by lots of active volcanoes everywhere, billions of years ago.

3.2.2. Shields are usually made up of solidified magma, or known as igneous rock.

3.2.3. Heat and pressure then altered the shields.

3.2.4. Example of a shield is the Canadian Shield, which has lots of bare and exposed rock.

3.3. Fold Mountains

3.3.1. Huge crumpled or broken ridges where plates collide with each other.

3.3.2. Metamorphic rocks are found in small parts of specific mountains.

3.3.3. Mountains divide with the flow of the rivers, which makes the mountains able to form specific and distinctive regions They form ecozones, and that is because of the different climates.

3.4. Volcanoes

3.4.1. There are 2 different types of volcanoes, composite cone and shield cone. A composite cone is made up of layers of cinder and magma (lava when it comes out of the volcano) A shield cone is a volcano with a big base and gently sloping sides, made from lava flows. The top is flat.

3.4.2. Volcanoes are created when lava is able to break up to the layer of crust.

3.4.3. Usually molten lava finds its way up from the crust through cracks.

4. Effects of Climate

4.1. The Effects Of Latitude

4.1.1. - The sun’s rays have large impact on the climate

4.1.2. - Hot near equator, colder at poles near due to the concentration

4.1.3. - Three different climate types, polar climate, tropical climate, and temperate climate - Polar climate has severely cold winters, cool summers For example, Verkhoyansk, in Siberia - Tropical climate has hot temperatures in every season with a lot of moisture. For example, Singapore - Temperate climate has moderate conditions all year around. For example, Perth, Australia

4.2. The Effects Of Moving Air

4.2.1. - When warm air is light and it rises, cool air is dense and sinks. - Light rising air at the equator creates an area of low pressure.

4.2.2. - Different air pressures are found at the equator compared to the tropics. - Farther up north, descending air makes high-pressure zones.

4.3. The Effects Of Water Bodies

4.3.1. - Bodies of water can make temperatures more comfortable.

4.3.2. - Places near bodies of water have a moderate maritime climate. Maritime climate is warm summers and cool winters

4.3.3. - Places located far inland are not moderated by water bodies. - They have continental climates. Continental climate means hot summers and cold winters.

4.4. The Effects Of Mountains

4.4.1. Places at high altitudes are much cooler than nearby places at lower altitudes.

4.4.2. The back of a mountain will be much cooler than the side receiving solar radiation.

4.4.3. A mountain climate changes with both altitude and exposure to the sun.

4.5. The Effects Of Ocean Currents

4.5.1. - Surface winds help the planet circulate the water in the oceans.

4.5.2. - Currents of warm water flow away from the equator along the coastlines of continents.

4.5.3. - Currents of cold water flow upwards towards the equator.