Adulteration

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Adulteration by Mind Map: Adulteration

1. Substitution with foreign and fictious matetials

2. Types of adulteration

2.1. Unintentional Adulteration

2.1.1. Faulty collection of crude drugs

2.1.2. Imperfect preparation

2.1.3. Improper drying

2.1.4. Improper storage and maintenance

2.2. Intentional Adulteration

2.2.1. Substitution with inferior quality

2.2.2. Substitution with exhausted crude drugs

2.2.3. Substitution with similar morphology

2.2.4. Substitution with artificially manufactured substance s

2.2.5. Substitution with harmful substances

2.2.6. Substitution of powders

3. Methods of adulteration

3.1. Deterioration

3.1.1. Impairment in the quality of the drug

3.1.2. Deliberate extraction of constuents and sale of residues

3.1.3. Eg.volatile oil containing drugs like cuminum cyminum(fennel)

3.2. Spoilage

3.2.1. Due to the attack of microorganisms

3.2.2. Improper drying and storage conditions

3.2.3. Eg.Ativisha and Vacha

3.3. Inferiority

3.3.1. Refers to any standard drug

3.3.2. Eg.indian senna adulterated with any arabian senna

3.4. Sophistication

3.4.1. Intentional or deliberate type of adulteration

3.4.2. eg.intentional addition of wheat powder to ginger powder to increase the quantity

3.5. Admixture

3.5.1. An addition of one article to another due to ignorance or carelessness or by accident

3.5.2. Eg.stem portions are mixed along with leaves like bala,dhattura

3.6. Artificially manufactured substance

3.6.1. Eg.yellow coloured paraffin wax for bees wax

3.7. Using synthetic drug

3.7.1. To enhance the natural character

3.7.2. Eg.citral is added to citrus oil of lemon

3.8. Harmful adulterants

3.8.1. Eg.limestone in asafoetida

3.8.2. Superficially similar but inferior drugs

3.8.2.1. Eg.: Piper nigrum adulterated with Carica papaya,Bee wax adulterated with Japan wax.