P block group 15 and 16

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P-BLOCK[II] by Mind Map: P-BLOCK[II]

1. Group15

1.1. Physichal properties

1.1.1. size - increase down the group

1.1.2. ionisation energy

1.2. abundance

1.3. chemical properties

1.3.1. oxidation state +3,+5 stability of +5 inc down the group BiF5 is the only with +5

1.3.2. reactivity towards hydrogen-trihydrides properties 1.boiling pt 2.Thermal stability 3.Bond Angle 4.Bascisity- Reducing character

1.3.3. Reactivity towards OXYGEN oxides of n Laughing gas N2O[+1] neutral NO[+2] acidic N2O3[+3] acidic NO2[+4] acidic N2O5[+5]- most acidic Genral rule: non metal oxides on hydrolysis give oxyacids of same oxidation state eg hydrolysis of the following gives?

1.3.4. Reactivity towards halogen NF3 stable rest all explosive RULE: Non metallic halides on hydrolysis give oxyacids of same oxidation state eg- pcl3 give h3po4 conditions of hydrolysis Partial hydrolysis

1.4. Important compounds

1.4.1. Diniitrogen coulourless,odourless ,high bond dissociation energy inert forms N2 due to multiple bond formation ability PREPARATION 1.HEATING AZIDES 2.HEATING AMMONIUM SALTS 3.NH3 +Cl2 ---> N2 + HCL NH3 + HNO2 --heat-->NH4NO2 --heat -->N2 +H2O REACTIONS N2 + H2 ---> NH3 N2 + Li --->Li3N N2 + O2 ---2000K--> NO USES Manufacture ammonia create an inert atmosphere refrigerant in liquid form

1.4.2. Ammonia coulrless gas , pyramidal shape , pungent odour , basic preparation heating ammonium salt hydrolysis of nitride haber process ammonia salt hydrolysis of urea hydrolysis of calcium cyanide Reactions Drying of ammonia Qualitative analysis Uses

1.4.3. Nitrogen Oxides

1.4.4. Oxyacids of nitrogen

1.4.5. P4 and it's allotropes Stability- Black>red>white White Phosphorous translucent waxy solid, poisnious, insoluble in water, soluble in cs2 , glows in dark P4+O2 gives WHITE FUMES of P4O10 Red Phosphorous prepration exists as polymer white grey luster. odourless, non poisonous, insoluble in wawater Black Phosphorous alpha black beta black

1.4.6. PH3

1.4.7. Oxyacids of P

1.4.8. Compounds of P P4 Phosphine PH3 Oxides of P P4O6 P4O10 Halides of P

2. Group 16

2.1. Physichal properties

2.1.1. Electron Affinity O<S>Se>Te O <S is due to small size of oxygen

2.1.2. Ionisation energy Decreases down the group

2.2. Oidation state-

2.2.1. -2 to +6

2.2.2. oxygen only shows -2 to +2

2.2.3. oxides -2

2.2.4. peroxides -1

2.2.5. superoxide -1/2

2.2.6. Fluorides +1 O2F2

2.2.7. Fluorides +2 Of2

2.3. Reactivity towards hydrogen

2.3.1. H2O,H2S,2SE,H2Te

2.3.2. bond angle decreases down the group

2.3.3. acidic character increases down the group

2.3.4. thermal stability decreases down the group

2.3.5. boiling pt decreases down the group *except h20 H2O has highest boiling pt due to strong h bonding

2.4. Reactivity toward halogen

2.4.1. MX2 OCl2,Scl2, sp3 hybridised

2.4.2. MX4 SF4 , See-Saw

2.4.3. MX6 SF6 , Octahedral Scl6 is not formed

2.4.4. Monohalides exist as dimers, open book structure , disproportionate on heating SF4 Gas SeF4 Liquid TeF47 Solid