Language Development Perspectives

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Language Development Perspectives by Mind Map: Language Development Perspectives

1. Behaviorist Perspective

1.1. This theory stresses how important nurturing is in children as it relates to language development, and has many influential theorists who have helped shape this theory.

1.1.1. This theory was significantly influenced by 2 minor and 1 major theorists John Locke It was John Locke who viewed a baby as a blank slate in which the story of who he would be and what he would become would be influenced by everything around him/her (Drumwright,n.d. para 1) Ivan Pavlov Pavlov, although was not researching personality and development was an influential icon in this theory because he advanced the ideas of classical conditioning which led to later discovers that were vital to the role of how the environmental influences affect development, (Drumwright,n.d. para 2) B. F. Skinner Skinner is the most influential in the modern development of this theory because he concluded and suggested that learning, and development was a process of conditioning. His ideas lead to research and new ideas about a process called operant conditioning, (Drumwright,n.d. para 3)

2. Cognitive Developmental Perspective

2.1. This specific theory emphasizes that language is developed through natural development of children. The main emphasis in this theory is that languages occurs in a specific order in human development.

2.1.1. Piaget spent his much of his career isolating and defining the stages of development he thought were vital to language development, emphasizing that cognitive developmental stages were vital important to healthy and positive language acquisition. Sensorimotor stage From birth ti about age 2 children are restricted to experiencing the world they live in within the boundaries of their "limited simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli," (Cherry 2011 para 1). This is a time when children use visual, auditory and other senses such as hearing and smell to experience their environment and learn from it. Preoperational Stage From ages 2-6 is when the crucial development of language occurs, as children begin to experiment with language by practicing and using it more. However, at this stage they "do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people," (Cherry 2011 para 1). Concrete Operational Stage From ages 7-11 children develop a broader sense of understanding of their cognitive abilities, "Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts," (Cherry 2011 para 1). Formal Operational Stage From age 12-adulthood development of the cognitive function is well developed and the person has a more intellectual view of the world around them "Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage," (Cherry 2011 para 1).

2.1.2. The main theorist who worked on and developed this theory was Jean Piaget (Otto 2010, p. 30). This theory also agreed with the idea that language was a process of both natural and environmental influences. Children learned by separating the information they gather from the environment and experiences into groups called schemes

3. Interactionist Perspective

3.1. Lev Vygotsky was the major theorist for this prespective of language development his ideas centered around the main idea that "human development results from a dynamic interaction between individuals and society," (Cherry 2007 para 7).

3.1.1. This theory focuses on sociocultural interaction, or interactions with others and what that does to aid in development. Not only did Vygotsky believe that the people in the individuals life were influential but he also argued that the "culture at large was responsible for the development of higher order functions," (Cherry 2002 para 2). The closer a person is to an individual the more influence they have on that person over times and the more opportunity there is for learning and being influenced by these individuals, emphasizing that “higher mental functions are socially formed and culturally transmitted,” (Otto 2010 p. 33). What we find in theory is that children learn how to interact with parents and teachers, by learning specific skills of language by interacting with them, and then later carrying that iver to their social interactions with peers, such as friends.

3.1.2. This theory focuses primary on how people have a need to understand the world around them and one of the ways they do this is by examining and interacting with others. The ideas that were suggested according to Vygotsky was that the most influential interactions were between parents caregivers, peers, other individuals in a persons life who had a large influence on the outcome of higher levels of functioning and development specifically in relation to language.

4. Nativist Perspective

4.1. Suggests that humans are "biologically programmed to gain knowledge" ( Campbell 2011, para 3).

4.1.1. Major Theorist associate with this perspective is Noam Chomsky. His theories suggested that the devloment of language focused on syntactic language devlopment His major contributions supported evidence that all people have what is called a "language acquisition device (LAD)," (Campbell 2011, para 4). Chomsky's theory influenced Steven Pinker another important theorist of this perspective. Children are thought to teach their self language by manipulating and trying different things with words, and sounds according to author Otto (2010) this idea was called or referred to as the hypotheses test in which children would try different ways of manipulating language, (Otto 2010 p. 29).

5. References: Campbell, A. (2011). Theories of language development. Retrieved online December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (n.d.). What is the sensorimotor stage. Retrieved online December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (2011). Retrieved online December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (2011). What is assimilation?. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (2012). Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (n.d.). What is the sensorimotor stage. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (2001). What is the preoperational stage?. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (n.d.). About psychology. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Cherry, K. (2007). Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Drumwright, B. (n.d.). Evaluation. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from Nativist theory. (n.d.). Retrieved online December 10, 2012 from theory.htm Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.