8th Grade science

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8th Grade science by Mind Map: 8th Grade science

1. unit 1

1.1. section 1

1.1.1. scientific Method Observation That's what it means to observe during a scientific experiment. It means to notice what's going on through your senses, but, more specifically, we can define observation as the act of knowing and recording something. This has to do with both the act of knowing what's going on, and then recording what happened. Questions Scientific Question. A scientific question is a question that may lead to a hypothesis and help us in. answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation. ● A solid scientific question must be testable and measurable. ○ You can complete an experiment in order to answer it. Hypothesis A hypothesis (plural: hypotheses), in a scientific context, is a testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables or a proposed explanation for some observed phenomenon prediction say or estimate that (a specified thing) will happen in the future or will be a consequence of something. text the prediction an input technology that facilitates typing on a mobile device by suggesting words the end user may wish to insert in a text field. Predictions are based on the context of other words in the message and the first letters typed. Quantitative Observation A quantitative observation is an objective method of data analysis that measures research variables using numerical and statistical parameters. This method of observation views research variables in terms of quantity hence; it is usually associated with values that can be counted such as age, weight, volume, and scale Qualitative observations What is the definition of qualitative observation? Qualitative observation is a research method in which researchers collect data using their five senses, sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. It is a subjective method of gathering information as it depends on the researcher's sensory organs Iterative process This often means that successive investigations of a topic lead back to the same question, but at deeper and deeper levels. Publish / Peer Review A peer-reviewed publication is also sometimes referred to as a scholarly publication. The peer-review process subjects an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field (peers) and is considered necessary to ensure academic scientific quality.

2. unit 1

2.1. section 4

2.1.1. scientific method DRY Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid MIX In chemistry, a mixture is a compound made up of two or more chemical components that are not chemically linked. A mixture is a physical blend of two or more substances that preserve their identities and are blended in the form of solutions, suspensions, or colloids LENSES A lens is a piece of transparent material, usually circular in shape, with two polished surfaces, either or both of which is curved and may be either convex (bulging) or concave (depressed). The curves are almost always spherical; i.e., the radius of curvature is constant Label and List A label is a piece of paper, plastic film, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or product, on which is written or printed information or symbols about the product or item. Information printed directly on a container or article can also be considered labelling Equation Chemistry A written representation of a chemical reaction, in which the symbols and amounts of the reactants are separated from those of the products by an equal sign, arrow, or a set of opposing arrows. For example, Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 = CaSO4 + 2H2O, is an equation Notice the fact of observing or paying attention to something Speculate "speculation", I mean making a statement about the physical world with near zero evidence to back up the claim. Let us look at instances where speculation is non-productive in science, and then the instance where it is productive Explain/Evaluate to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of; assess: to evaluate the results of an experiment Summary Summarizing a full text, or large sections of text, is a strategy that helps readers make meaning of complex science material. When summarizing, a reader is identifying what a section is mostly about

3. unit 1

3.1. section 2

3.1.1. scientific method Claim Generally, a scientific claim is one that is based on systematic observation and evidence. It's designed to be far more reliable than any other kind of claim you could make Evidence Scientific evidence is evidence that serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis, although scientists also use evidence in other ways, such as when applying theories to practical problems Reasoning Scientific reasoning has been defined as a problem-solving process that involves critical thinking in relation to content, procedural, and epistemic knowledge

4. unit 1

4.1. section 5

4.1.1. scientific method Lab Safety Standards These basic rules provide behavior, hygiene, and safety information to avoid accidents in the laboratory. Laboratory specific safety rules may be required for specific processes, equipment, and materials, which should be addressed by laboratory specific SOPs Hair in a lab Hair can impede vision. Long hair can fall onto the lab bench/come in contact with chemicals or biologicals. Long hair is also a hazard around rotating equipment and open flames such as Bunsen burners or alcohol Clothing in a lab Proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn at all times in the laboratory. 1. Clothing: Wear long pants or skirts and closed toed shoes, and tie back long hair. Do not wear shorts, short skirts, sandals, loose clothing, or dangling jewelry. Footwear in a lab safety glasses, are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. They are used in chemistry laboratories and in woodworking Protective Glasses safety glasses, are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. They are used in chemistry laboratories and in woodworking Colors of Health Hazard symbols Hazard pictograms alert us to the presence of a hazardous chemical. The pictograms help us to know that the chemicals we are using might cause harm to people or the environment. The GB CLP hazard pictograms appear in the shape of a diamond with a distinctive red border and white background. One or more pictograms might appear on the labelling of a single chemica MSDS Pipetting

5. unit 1

5.1. section 6

5.1.1. scientific method Vocabulary Terms Uniformitarianism Absolute Age Relative Age Dating Sediment Strata Relative Age Superposition Original Horizontality Lateral Continuity Inclusions Cross Cutting Relationships The fossil record Mass Extinctions

6. Vocabulary Terms

6.1. Unconformities

6.1.1. Put simply, an unconformity is a break in time in an otherwise continuous rock record. Unconformities are a type of geologic contact—a boundary between rocks—caused by a period of erosion or a pause in sediment accumulation, followed by the deposition of sediments anew

6.2. Angled unconformity

6.2.1. An angular unconformity is a type of unconformity in which younger flat rock layers were deposited over older tilted, eroded rock layers

6.3. Disconformity

6.3.1. 1 : nonconformity. 2 : a break in a sequence of sedimentary rocks all of which have approximately the same dip

6.4. Nonconformity

6.4.1. Nonconformities are unconformities that separate igneous or metamorphic rocks from overlying sedimentary rocks. They usually indicate that a long period of erosion occurred prior to deposition of the sediments (several km of erosion necessary

6.5. Correlation

6.5.1. Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate in relation to each other.

6.6. Key Bed

6.6.1. marker bed, also called Key Bed, a bed of rock strata that are readily distinguishable by reason of physical characteristics and are traceable over large horizontal distances. Stratigraphic examples include coal beds and beds of volcanic ash

6.7. Geologic Time Scale

6.7.1. The geologic time scale is the “calendar” for events in Earth history. It subdivides all time into named units of abstract time called—in descending order of duration—eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages.