Experience & Learning

Experience and Learning

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Experience & Learning by Mind Map: Experience & Learning

1. Lindeman

1.1. "The whole of life is learning"

1.2. "The resource of highest value in adult education is the learner's experience"

1.3. "Most adult learning occurs informally and incidentally as we go about our adult lives"

2. Dewey

2.1. Lifelong process involving applying and adapting previous experience to new situations.

2.2. Principle of Continuity

2.3. Present learning connected to past learning, potential future application

2.4. Not all experiences are "genuinely or equally educative"

3. Kolb

3.1. "Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience."

3.2. Kolb's Learning Cycle and Styles

3.2.1. Concrete Experience

3.2.1.1. full involvement/ no bias

3.2.2. Reflective Observation

3.2.2.1. from multiple perspectives

3.2.3. Abstract Conceptulization

3.2.3.1. integrate observations into logical theories

3.2.4. Active Experimentation

3.2.4.1. use theories to make decisions and solve problems

3.2.5. Learning Styles:

3.2.5.1. Diverging

3.2.5.2. Assimiliating

3.2.5.3. Converging

3.2.5.4. Accommodating

3.3. Critiques

3.3.1. Context-free

3.3.2. Experience and learning in a vacuum free of power dynamics and social context

3.3.3. Learners don't go through this process in this manner

3.3.4. Novice facilitators teach from their preferred style

3.3.5. Issues of reliability and validity

4. Models of Experiential Learning

4.1. Peter Jarvis (1987)

4.1.1. 9 Routes or Types of Learning

4.1.2. Three "Non-Learning"

4.1.2.1. 1. Presumption: individual presumes to already know

4.1.2.2. 2. Nonconsideration: decides not to consider opportunities to learn

4.1.2.3. 3. Rejection: rejects opportunities to learn

4.1.3. Three "Nonreflective Learning"

4.1.3.1. 4. Preconscious

4.1.3.2. 5. Basic Skills

4.1.3.3. 6. Memorization

4.1.4. Three "Reflective Learning"

4.1.4.1. 7. Contemplation: "accept or change it"

4.1.4.2. 8. Reflective Practice: "think and act upon it"

4.1.4.3. 9. Experiential Learning: "think about experience and agree or disagree with it."

4.2. Tennant and Pogson (1995)

4.2.1. Not a process, but different resources for learning; previous experiences can be called up, reflected upon, and linked to new learning

4.2.2. Four Levels / Ways of Incorporating Experience into Instruction

4.2.3. 1. Prior Experience

4.2.4. 2. Current Experience

4.2.4.1. using current experiences as worker, family member, community member

4.2.5. 3. New Experience

4.2.5.1. uses role playing, internships, simulations as base for new learning

4.2.6. 4. Learning from Experience.

4.2.6.1. critical examination of prior experience; stimulate uncertainty, ambiguity and doubt in previous taken-for-granted interpretations of experience

4.3. Fenwick (2005)

4.3.1. Philosophical lens for viewing experiential learning

4.3.2. Five Ways to Conceptualize EL

4.3.3. 1. Constructivist

4.3.3.1. learning is the construction of meaning through engaging in and reflecting upon experience

4.3.4. 2. Situative

4.3.4.1. knowing or learning occurs in doing or in practice / the situation

4.3.5. 3. Psychoanalytic

4.3.5.1. understand unconscious desires and fears; how does it interfere with learning?

4.3.6. 4. Critical Cultural Perspective

4.3.6.1. "dominant norms of experience" are critically questioned and resisted

4.3.7. 5. Ecological

4.3.7.1. relationships binding humans and non-humans together in multiple fluctuations in complex systems. learning evolves as systems interact.

5. Knowles

5.1. adults accumulate a growing reservoir of experience which is a rich resource for learning

5.2. Connect with our past experience to foster new learning; ongoing experience require new learning

5.3. experience is a resource and a stimulus for learning

5.4. prior experience can act as a barrier to learning

5.4.1. we develop mental habits, biases, and presuppositions that cause us to close our mind to new ideas, fresh perceptions and alternative ways of thinking

5.4.2. learning may first require us to "unlearn"

6. O'Bannon and McFadden (2008)

6.1. Wedded andragogy and experiential learning

6.2. 6 Stages of "Experiential Andragogy"

6.2.1. 1. Motivation

6.2.2. 2. Orientation

6.2.3. 3. Involvement

6.2.4. 4. Activity

6.2.5. 5. Reflection

6.2.6. 6. Adaptation

6.3. "It is the process, the interaction between stages, which makes learning possible."

7. Reflective Practice and Situated Cognition

7.1. Reflective Practice: Learning acquired through reflection on or in practice

7.1.1. Continuing professional education

7.1.2. "Reflection-on-action"

7.1.2.1. Experiential Learning

7.1.2.2. We have an experience, and reflect on it after it has happened

7.1.2.3. You may decide to do something different in a future "practice"

7.1.3. "Reflection-in-action"

7.1.3.1. Reflection takes place simultaneously when you are engaged in the experience

7.1.3.2. "thinking on your feet"

7.1.3.3. Reshapes what we are doing while we are doing it (Schon, 1987)

7.1.3.4. distinguishes expert practitioner from novice

7.1.3.5. "knowing in action" or tacit knowledge (knowing what to do without articulating it"

7.1.4. Analyze espoused theories versus theories-in-use

7.1.4.1. what you think you will do versus what you actually do in a situation

7.1.4.2. they can be incompatible with one another, without our knowledge

7.1.5. Can create structural inequities and reinforce entrenched beliefs or traditions of practice that may be harmful or repressive (Fenwick, 2004)

7.1.6. also connected to work-based learning

7.1.7. Postmodern and critical stance: requires not just reflection but critical reflection. Brookfield (1991) Three Phases of Critical Reflection

7.1.7.1. 1. Identify the assumptions

7.1.7.2. 2. Scrutinize the accuracy and validity of these assumptions with experience of reality

7.1.7.3. 3. Reconstitute these assumptions to make them more inclusive and integrative.

7.2. Situated Cognition (contextual learning)

7.2.1. where learning occurs is important

7.2.2. context shapes the learning, must be as authentic as possible when creating learning situations

7.2.3. anchored in constructivist learning perspective

7.2.4. learning ocurs as people interact with other people in a particular context with the tools at hand

7.2.5. Jean Lave, major architect of this theory

7.2.6. Cognitive Apprenticeships (Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989)

7.2.6.1. Master explains axactly what they are doing and thinking simultaneously with modeling the skill

7.2.6.2. Learner imitates those behaviors while master is observing and providing support and coaching

7.2.6.3. Scaffolding: providing coaching just beyond the skill level that the learner could accomplish on their own.

7.2.6.3.1. Vygotsky (1978) Zone of Proximal Development

7.2.6.3.2. development in this zone leads to the most rapid learning

7.2.6.4. "Makes thinking visible."

7.2.6.5. can be skill-based; cognitive, or emotional learning

7.3. Communitites of Practice

7.3.1. learning communities

7.3.2. learning resides in context, tools and social interactions (Wenger)

7.3.3. people informally come together around common interest

7.3.4. learners have different levels of knowledge and mastry of hte knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and norms of the group

7.3.5. newcombers learn through engagingw ith others in the community, and move from periphery to the center of practice