Developments in Africa

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Developments in Africa by Mind Map: Developments in Africa

1. Social

1.1. Slavery

1.1.1. Chattel Slavery

1.1.1.1. 16th to 19th century

1.1.1.2. Permanent Enslavement

1.1.2. Domestic Slavery

1.1.2.1. Common in Classical Greece and Rome, as well as East Asia

1.1.2.1.1. Common in the Americas

1.1.2.2. Enslavement is often permanent

1.1.3. Debt Bondage

1.1.3.1. Common in East Africa

1.1.3.1.1. The mamluks, which are former slaves, created the Mamluk Sultante.

1.1.3.2. Before 15th century

1.1.3.3. Enslavement is not permanent in theory, but it is always permanent, and it's successive.

1.2. Gender

1.2.1. Men did most of the activities that require specialized skills (blacksmith e.g.)

1.2.2. Women participated in food productions and also raise their children.

1.3. Age

1.3.1. Young people can do more labor

1.3.2. Elders often give advices

1.3.3. Divided work

2. Political

2.1. kin-based networks

2.1.1. Early system used to manage agricultural activities. Families govern themselves, with a male head called "chief". Chief's job is basically to resolved conflicts between neighbors.

2.1.1.1. Decentralized System

2.1.1.2. Hard to govern after populations had grown drastically, as conflicts increased as well. Most of these communities start to be replaced by larger kingdoms around 1000 (See The Hausa Kingdoms)

2.2. Kingdoms

2.2.1. Ghana

2.2.1.1. income from gold trade(mining) used to build massive army and conquer neighboring lands

2.2.1.2. the earliest islamic empire in Africa

2.2.1.3. control trade routes and collect taxes

2.2.1.4. thoroughly powerful kingdom

2.2.1.5. suzerain-vassal relation

2.2.1.5.1. Ghana has many vassals

2.2.1.5.2. Ghana is suzerain

2.2.1.6. kingship

2.2.1.6.1. matrilineal hereditary(through mother)

2.2.1.6.2. aka king of gold

2.2.2. Mali

2.2.2.1. Kings

2.2.2.1.1. Sundiata Keita

2.2.2.1.2. Mansa Musa

2.2.2.1.3. aka mansas

2.2.2.2. Capital at Timbuktu

2.2.2.3. originally Mandike people

2.2.2.3.1. unified by king Sundiata

2.2.2.4. has large amount of gold

2.2.3. Songhai

2.2.4. The Hausa Kingdoms

2.2.4.1. States formed by the people of Hausa.

2.2.4.1.1. Very prospering city-states, people have strong specificity

2.2.4.1.2. Limited access to ocean, trade through Trans-Saharan Trade (See Economics)

2.2.4.2. Very decentralized - with no central authority

3. Interactions

3.1. Trading

3.1.1. Indian Ocean Trade

3.1.1.1. Develop a new language - Swahili

3.1.1.2. Relied by countries like: Zimbabwe

3.1.1.2.1. Which has a rich gold field

3.1.2. Trans-Saharan Trade

3.1.2.1. West Africa Exchange Gold & Ivory for Salt & Copper & tools (See Economic)

3.1.2.2. Contribute to the spread of Religions

3.1.2.2.1. Christianity spread along Ethiopia's trade route

3.1.2.2.2. Islam ideas spread

3.1.2.3. Relied by countries like Ghana & Mali

3.1.2.3.1. Grow to be very prosperous

3.2. Spread of Islam

3.2.1. Countries practice Islam to build better trading relationship

3.2.1.1. For instance: Mali

4. Cultures

4.1. Popular cultures

4.1.1. Musics

4.1.2. Visual art

4.1.2.1. Given more significance: included the respects to ancestors

4.1.2.1.1. Song lyrics having means to connect with the spirit world

4.1.3. Telling stories

4.1.3.1. Story tellers are called

4.1.3.1.1. Griots

4.1.3.1.2. Griottes

4.2. Decorative Arts

4.2.1. Feature

4.2.1.1. utility

4.2.1.2. aesthetics

4.2.2. Include

4.2.2.1. clothes

4.2.2.2. furnitures

4.2.2.3. dishware

4.2.2.4. carpets

4.2.3. Area

4.2.3.1. China

4.2.3.1.1. Daoism

4.2.3.2. Southeast Asia

4.2.3.3. Middle East

4.3. Literatures

4.3.1. Oral stories, told by Griots or Storytellers

4.3.1.1. Adept Music to tell the story

4.3.1.2. Storytellers considered controlled the power of language and story

4.3.1.3. They preserved history and people's story throughout generations

4.3.1.4. Women serve as griots as well, called Griottes

4.3.1.4.1. Sing at special occasions

5. Economic

5.1. Trade Networks

5.1.1. Trans-Saharan Trade

5.1.1.1. Between North and West Africa

5.1.1.2. Causes

5.1.1.2.1. Increased demand for luxury goods

5.1.1.2.2. large trade caravans, with missionaries, monks, and political reps

5.1.1.3. Effects

5.1.1.3.1. New cities

5.1.1.3.2. economic innovation

5.1.1.4. Salt and Gold

5.1.1.4.1. Salt from North Africa

5.1.1.4.2. Gold from West Africa

5.1.1.5. how to travel through the desert

5.1.1.5.1. by camel

5.1.1.5.2. with the help from oasis

5.1.2. Silk Road

5.1.2.1. Starts from

5.1.2.1.1. China

5.1.2.2. Goes through

5.1.2.2.1. India, Asia, Minor, Mesopotamia, Egypt, the African continent, Greece, Rome, and Britain

5.1.2.3. Ends in

5.1.2.3.1. Multiple places

5.1.3. Indian Ocean Trade

5.1.3.1. The worlds largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 C.E.

5.1.3.2. goods exchanged

5.1.3.2.1. Australia

5.1.3.2.2. India

5.1.3.2.3. Middle East

5.1.3.2.4. East Indies

5.1.3.2.5. China

5.1.3.2.6. East Africa

5.1.3.3. aka Maritime Silk Road

5.1.3.4. Propeled by

5.1.3.4.1. the monsoons

5.1.3.5. Some city-states collected taxes from the traders who passed their territories. ( With their Powerful Navy )

5.1.3.5.1. Malacca

5.1.3.6. Among Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, Australia, and East Africa

5.1.3.7. Spread of Islam led to increased trade in Indian Ocean

6. Innovation

6.1. Technology

6.1.1. Building the Great Zimbabwe

6.1.1.1. The Great Enclosure is a walled, circular area below the Hill Complex dating to the 14th century. The walls are over 9.7 meters (32 feet) high in places, and the enclosure's circumference is 250 meters (820 feet).

6.1.1.2. Facilitated Trade

6.1.1.3. Trade Gold and Ivory

6.1.2. Navigation Innovations

6.1.2.1. Lateen Sails

6.1.2.1.1. A triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction

6.1.2.1.2. Red Sea

6.1.2.1.3. Functions

6.1.2.2. The Stern Rudder

6.1.2.2.1. Part of the steering apparatus of a boat or ship that is fastened outside the hull, usually at the stern

6.1.2.2.2. China

6.1.2.2.3. Functions

6.1.2.3. Astrolabe

6.1.2.3.1. An ancient astronomical instrument that was a handheld model of the universe

6.1.2.3.2. Muslim traders

6.1.2.3.3. Functions

6.1.2.4. Dhow Ships

6.1.2.4.1. A number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails

6.1.2.4.2. Used in