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Error Analysis by Mind Map: Error Analysis

1. Mistake: Refers to an accidental confusion that cna be corrected because you know it is worng.

1.1. Example: "I writed an email to my friends." / "Mmm no it is I wrote an email to my friends."

2. Intralingual: Faulty or partial learning of a language. Generalization.

2.1. Example: "She can swims."

3. Categories of Errors

3.1. Addition: Add extra words that should not be there.

3.1.1. Example: "She wrote an a incredible play."

3.2. Omission: Removing words that add order and grammatical meaning.

3.2.1. Example: "She my friend."

3.3. Substitution: Changing a word with another one with a similar meaning or pronunciation.

3.3.1. Example: Use of watch vs see "I see a new movie every Thrusday at home"

3.4. Ordering: Misuse of grammatical structures.

3.4.1. Example: "You is my friend best."

4. Covert: Errors superficially well-formed.

4.1. Example: "I was excited"

5. Error: Refers to something made out due to a lack of knowledge.

5.1. Example: The use of false cognates "attend vs assist"

6. Stabilization: Stage where the learner has mastered the language and is able to identify his mistakes to correct them.

6.1. Example: "We does not like... No, we don't like pineapple."

7. Categories of error treatment/types of feedback

7.1. Recast: interlocutor will repeat the error back to the learner in a corrected form.

7.1.1. Example: St: "I don't wash TV at night." T: "Oh! You don't watch TV at night."

7.2. Clarification Request: T identifies the mistakes and asks for clarification.

7.2.1. Example: St: "My best friend is Rusia." T: "Can you explain that to me?"

7.3. Meta-linguistic feedback: provides more context, tips, or information to correct the mistake.

7.3.1. Example: St:"We goed to the party." T: "Good. Is go a regular verb? Which is the simple past tense rule with irregular verbs?"

7.4. Elicitation: helps the learner to self-correct.

7.4.1. Example: St: "I went to the peach last weekend." T: "Was that a b or a p?" St: "It was a b, I went to the beach last weekend."

7.5. Explicit correction: T tells the st what to correct on the spot.

7.5.1. Example: St"They is my friend." T: "He is my friend. Remember to be careful with the third-person conjugation. Can you repeat that for me?"

7.6. Repetition: T repeats what the learner said, but in a correct way adding a change in intonation, so he/she notices the mistake.

7.6.1. Example: St: Tree o'clock. T: "Three o'clock."

8. Fossilization: Normal, and natural stage, refers to the process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be ce process corrected.

8.1. Example: "She does plays the guitar"

9. Overt: Refers to a "deviation in form."

9.1. Example: "She runned all the day"

10. Interlingual: Native languange has a strong influence and affects the second language.

10.1. Example: "Hannah has two wonderfuls dogs." / "Hannah has two wonderful dogs."