XIXe & the Great Divergence (D. & M.)

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
XIXe & the Great Divergence (D. & M.) by Mind Map: XIXe & the Great Divergence (D. & M.)

1. Respected all languages

2. 200,000 Chinese recruited by French & British to dig trenches, bury dead etc.

2.1. Recruit in Shandong (epicenter of the Boxers)

3. Tanzimat Era (1839-76)

3.1. Secularism of politics

3.2. Modernization of the Royal Institutions

3.2.1. 1847: courts, based on western European practices, were set

3.3. Westernization

3.3.1. Fruit of the interaction of Ottomans Elites with Europe

3.3.2. Fruit of tradition: in the name of Islam

3.4. Legal Advancements

3.4.1. EQUALITY of all (even religion) Counter revolution though 1858: equality of all male to hold private property

3.4.2. 1840s: New penal and commercial codes

3.5. Opening to trade with Europe, mostly with the BRITISH

3.5.1. 1838: TREATY of Balta Iman One of the most liberal and open market (more than Nanking)

3.5.2. Demand of the British which had a negative trade balance

3.5.3. Ottoman goal = to crush beginning of the Egypt industrialization in order to weaken the region.

3.6. 1876, Sultan Abdulhamid II (1876–1909) approved a constitution and, in accordance with it, convened a parliament (lasted less than 2 years)

4. National formations

4.1. Formation of national community

4.1.1. 1870s global drought: China, India, Brazil, etc. (Because of El Niño (Weather)) North China famine of 1876-79 Old: local elites & imperial state provide limited relief, but millions still die New: Shanghai-region elites mobilise national relief societies through media/social channels

4.1.2. The civil society debate Civil Society = agent btw Individuals and Government

4.1.3. Jurgen Habermas: (Europe’s) "public sphere" "a realm within social life in which public opinion can be formed and which is accessible to all. The engagement within the public sphere according to Habermas is blind to class positions and the connections between activists in the public sphere are formed through a mutual will to take part in matters that have a general interest. The public sphere, according to Habermas, is a product of democracy.' - culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com Different from Civil Society Engineer pushing for public change / transformation

4.2. National Unifications

4.2.1. Why? For the NATION Economic Interests Greater Market for the industry

4.2.2. Italy Complete TIMELINE : Italian Unification Timeline | Preceden Giuseppe Mazzini’s Young Italy & the Risorgimiento (Resurgence), 1848-1871 Much hinges on Piedmont-Sardinia, only state to keep constitution after 1848 Wars of unification 1859: War against Austria 1860: Garibaldi's invasion of the Kingdom of Naples Benso di Cavour, prime minister of Piedmont, then Italy (briefly) from 1861 1866: Venice 1870: capture of Rome Limits of the Unification “We have made Italy. Now we have to make Italians” - Massimo d’Azeglio. Post-unification Brigandage against the Northerners passing in the South Irredentes A conquest

4.2.3. Germany Volksgeist & German collective identity Goethe, Schiller – up until Prussia’s rise, Germany existed as a Cultural realm and not a militaristic (like France) Wars of Unification 1864: Danish war 1866: Austro-Prussia War Franco-Prussian War (1870 - 71) German Reich created, 1871 Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor, 1871 - 90 Slow annexations

4.2.4. Japan Tokugawa Shogunate (1603 - 1868) Creation EDO Every 4 years, shall walk to Edo to visit and do their duty The Meiji Restoration (1867) 1862/1863: minor hostilities with British and Americans Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa samurai take initiative ‘富國強兵 rich country, strong army’ slogan popularized 1867: Shogun Yoshinobu resigns (d. 1903) 1867-68: Kyoto-based imperial court announces ‘restoration’ of imperial rule & moves into Edo Castle (now Tokyo = ‘East Capital’)

5. Revolutions

5.1. atlantic revolution

5.1.1. USA 1776-1783 Breakaway from the UK "no taxation without representation" Lafayette

5.1.2. France Roots Bankrupted State Legitimacy loss for the Crown Prestige loss on the international level Main Elements 5 may 1789: General Estate 20 june 1789: Tennis Court Oath 14 July 1789: Bastille 4 august 1789: Privileges' Abolition 26 August 1789: DDHC 1799: Napoleon's Coup 2 December 1804: Napoleon = Emperor 1814: 1st Abdication 1815: Waterloo and 2nd Abdication

5.1.3. Haïti a preemptive rebellion by conservative planters against the new antislavery regime in Paris a veritable uprising by the largest slave population outside the United States and Brazil an attempt by the "gens de couleur" to break the dominance of whites in a society shot through with racial discrimination. 1791-1804

5.1.4. Latin America 1810-1926 2 sides Creoles sides: full breakaway from Spain Moderate one: still keeping so ties with Spain but with liberal constitution

5.1.5. Consequences and Influences 1825: Coup to push for liberalisation. Failed and “Decembrists” arrested.

5.1.6. Spain 1812: Drafting of liberal Constitution of Cadiz 1814: return to power of the King and Abrogation of Constitution of Cadiz 1816-19: reconquest of Southern America 1920: crushed

5.1.7. Revolutionary Legacy Representation and vote Constitution and rule of law End of privileges and feudal rights 1st generation of human rights Politicization of the populations Centralized bureaucratic State

5.1.8. Congress of Vienna 1814 - 1815 A lot of new topics are discussed (1815-1825 all around Europe) Religion The Congress of Vienna acknowledge the Freedom of the Seas. The Congress of Vienna abolished the Slave Trade but still slaves. Reactionism "They have learned nothing, and forgotten nothing” - Talleyrand Restorations Redraw of the European Map States border Germany: 39 German states (more than 500 before) The alliance of the Throne and Altar Police system to crush any revolution ideas Russia, Prussia, Austria, UK (more ambiguous) and then France International reaction 1823: Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed and backed by the UK in order to prevent any European Restauration in America Slow dissolution of the Vienna System 1848-49 Crimean War (1853-56) because Vienna system did not clarify the place of Ottoman empire Franco-Prussian War (1870-71)

5.2. liberal revolution of 1830

5.2.1. Romantic revolutions France Tensions with Charles X Revolution = “Les Trois Glorieuses” = 27, 28, 29 July 1830 = abdication of Charles X New king, Orleanist = Louis-Phillipe “the bourgeois king” = more liberal Belgium Belgium won its independence against the Netherlands with the help of France 1830

5.2.2. Other uprisings Italy Mazzini creates “Young Italy” movement for the unification of Italian states Revolution crushed by Austrian that had some Italian territories under patronage (mostly north territories) Switzerland peacefully admendment of the constitution Portuguese civil war 1828-1834 opposition of 2 brothers Pedro (liberal) and Miguel (absolutist) liberals helped by Italy, German states and France (Louis-Philipe wanted a more liberal image) Poland, Cadet Revolution (1830-31) Crushed by Nicholas I 's army Poland is fully integrated to the Russian Empire = no more relative autonomy

5.3. People' spring 1848

5.3.1. roots ideals nationalism: freedom, independence liberalism: economic freedom, constitutions for Charles Pouthas, 3 trends economic crisis Economic crisis is first an agrarian crisis “Since the commencement of the 18th century there has been no serious revolution in Europe which has not been preceded by a commercial and financial crisis” -Karl Marx Spoere, Mark and Berger 2001 “economic crisis and the European revolution of 1848” => agricultural crisis => economical crisis => revolution

5.3.2. Italy not unified: 7 differents states (Papal state, Kingdom of 2 Sicily, Piedmont kingdom, Spanish Bourbon...) + Austria control on north territories no confederation no elected assembly social and political privilegies no industrialization fall 1847 = Uprising in Sicily (women rebellion) Risorgimiento movement for a unified Italy but different conceptions of the final state republican state = Mazzini confederation under Pope patronage unification of Italy and leadership of the kingdom of Piedmont failure revolution defeated by Austrians and Frenchs (intervention of Bonaparte for the Pope, conservative party) Piedmont king abdicated replaced by his son Victor Emmanuel the IInd

5.3.3. France February 1848: revolution against Louis-Phillipe because of limiting voting rights and censorship IInd Republic Social policies June: new insurrection because of end of the Workshop End December 1848: Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte elected President 1849: sent an expeditionary force to crush the roman revolution 1851: Coup of L-N Bonaparte ; beginning of the IInd Empire

5.3.4. Austrian empire great diversity of the empire (27 millions of inhabitants) 8 million of German out of 27 million of inhabitants germans, Czech, croats, slovac... => national aspirations are a ferment for the end of the empire Political renewal exil of Metternich Abdication of Ferdinand Ier (The Emperor). Replace by Francis-Joseph Hungary 3 trends nationalist movement for independence peasants wanted the end of serfdom failure german states german confederation (39 states assembly) but power held by Vienna idea of german independence competition between Prussia and Austria to rule Germany + divisions (catholics/ protestants...) poland 1846 polish nationalist (upper-class) in cracow = revolt against Prussian/ Austrian rules but peasants still under feudalism

5.3.5. outcomes Universal suffrage in Germany Austria and France Abolition of slavery in France Freedom of press and freedom of speech Austria = "neo-absolutist" empire = centralization of administration and army

6. Imperialism

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. “Imperialism can then be used to refer to a particular form of expansion, one marked by inequality and subordination, and by the integration of a client or satellite state into the more powerful host or ‘mother’ country. Note, however, that integration is always incomplete: an empire remains a multi-ethnic conglomerate; if it assimilates subject peoples fully, it becomes an enlarged nation state.” – Blanning

6.1.2. “On this view, imperialism is a large branch of the study of power in international relations, and is not confined to constitutional or even political ties. In other words, imperialism can exist without an empire being created.” - Blanning Unofficial Imperial Rule Ottoman Empire under the influence of the UK (because money was borrowed) China 1907: Formal treaty btw Russia and UK to divide their sphere of influence in Persia

6.2. Motive and Interestss

6.2.1. Prestige

6.2.2. Military goal Get safe harbors around the world to supply the navy with coal to "rest" Allow test of new Weapons & Strategies Dum-dum Bullets

6.2.3. Economic Interests New Markets New sources of ressources Rice in Indochina Rubber in the Dutch East Indies (1/3 of the World's Production) Easily exploitable workers (= less rights overseas)

6.2.4. Civilizing Mission Derives from Enlightenment and the Willingness to "share" it “The superior races have a right because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races.” - Jules Ferry To present Empire as forces of goods Health Peace Civilization “smokescreen to hide the violent reality” Based on force Leopold the IInd Refusal to grant rights to the new Western-like Elite What’s the point of the Mission Civilisatrice?

6.2.5. Necessity to colonize before the other = sometimes more a race than a rational action.

6.3. Tools

6.3.1. Exploration Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904, Welsh): Africa expeditions, 1870s Find the source of the Nile The so-called « Great Game » in Central Asia Sven Hedin (1865-1952, Swedish): cartographer on expeditions to Xinjiang and Tibet, 1880s-1900s Aurel Stein (1862-1943, Hungarian/British), archaeologist on 4 expeditions to Central Asia, 1900-1930 Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza Roman / French Explorator Established the French Kongo during one of his Journey 1911: exploration of the Arctic and Antarctic (linked but no colonization)

6.3.2. Extensive usage of Data Carthography Statistics

6.3.3. Usage of Imagery Maps of the Empires distributed Propaganda Posters Films

6.3.4. Adaptation of the Administrative Identity to the territory Political diversity of the colonial entities / administration Not always the same administration Colonies directly administer HK Jamaica Algeria Colonies with a greater degree of self-administration Dominions Protectorates Private colonies German East Africa company South Africa Personal possessions Leopold Congo (Congo Free State) Coco Island (Private possession of a family) Sarawak (a small Muslim state) Territorial Concessions China Spheres of Influence China Persia Canning: "Spanish America is free, and if we do not mismanage our affairs badly, she is English." Creation of Specific Jurisdictional Codes Code de l’Indigénat in the French Empire

6.3.5. Limits of the Imperial Grip A persistent undermanned administration administrator ratio Indochina: 1 doctor 160 000 administrator (1 for 2000 in Metropolitan France) Dutch Indies and Mozambique: 1% of the local population in primary school Understaffed because it had to be cheap Difficult Control of the Terrain Outburst of violence to show power Colonial conquest difficult Nominal Conquest easy but territorial appropriation really slow Some locals fled into forest Resistance to Imperial Rule The necessity to rely on local authorities or intermediaries to rule No big army Needed the consent of the local population Form of co-optation or retribution with often integrated local elites A traditional order largely untouched Gandhi Opposition at Home political opposition Media Opposition

6.4. Culture

6.4.1. Excavations Dunhuang Buddhist manuscripts

6.4.2. philology Philology, traditionally, the study of the history of language, including the historical study of literary texts. It is also called comparative philology when the emphasis is on the comparison of the historical states of different languages. The philological tradition is one of painstaking textual analysis, often related to literary history and using a fairly traditional descriptive framework. Artistic influence in Europe Literature is seen as the expression of a nation Enforced a vision of History and Tradition (Siraj Ahmed) "Late eighteenth-century colonial scholars ... learned India’s sacred languages (Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit); decided which religious manuscripts would become authoritative; translated, edited, and printed them; and made their precepts binding law." "Tradition suddenly became text-based, standardized, philologically defined, and state-administered.The new philology acquired global reach and authority only because colonial rule reconstructed traditions around the world on a historical foundation." “The European encounter with countless non-European languages and archaic literatures initiated the new philology, which identified the genealogy of every nation with the history of its language. The new philology presumed, as a consequence, to reconstruct not just authentic texts but at the same time the development of different peoples.” Linked to law and Colonial Rule "The invocation of philology as the humanities’ necessary basis thus unwittingly hews to colonial policy. Indeed ... the historical mission of philology reached fulfillment with the establishment of colonial law" - Siraj Ahmed Sir William Jones (1746–94)

6.4.3. Cultural Influences Artistic movements Orientalism (17th - 18th centuries) Indentification of European Artists to "Natives" Gaugin Treasure Island of Stevenson Meiji RESTORATION Development of a Westernized Style of Literature Development of a Westernized Style of Painting Development of a Westernized Style of Dressing Sports British sports spread Non-European sports adopted Democratization of Tea in England thanks to global trade

6.5. A Rivalry?

6.5.1. Mostly cooperation btw Imperial Powers Military cooperation military expeditions in China Cooperation in Exploration French conquest of Indochina thanks to British telegraphs and coal stations Cooperation in administration Condominiums

6.5.2. Often clashes  Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05 No real massive war Tussle over Manchuria/Korea Boers vs British No "mission civilisatrice" Wanted to take the golds mines in Transvaalt

6.5.3. Western Empires differed from the "normal" Empires in History by their cooperation, their global scale and their capacity to create a powerful narrative

6.6. The Gun boat diplomacy

6.6.1. Pre - Gunboat Diplomacy Early contacts with the Jesuists Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) Trade roads but only through Canton Ambassies Macartney Embassy Amherst Embassy, 1816-17 Problematic of the Kowtow Relative decline The White Lotus Rebellion

6.6.2. 1st Opium War (1839-1842) Causes Trade China's Policy War February of 1840, formal declaration of War to the Qing Dynasty June 1840: Captain Charles Elliot, (local British authority in Canton) face a popular uprising outside of Canton 1841: new expedition Henry Pottinger, Consequences Opium is even more exported to China The Emperor's authority is underminded Establish a new strategy: the Gunboat diplomacy China looks weak, the other Western Powers will take advantage of this too

6.6.3. Japan's openning 1853-54 Commodore Mathew Perry (USA) Arrived with a fleet in the Edo Bay (the Black Ships) Brings some gifts (mini-locomotives, telegraphs) and threaten the Japanese to repeat what happened in China Treaty of Peace and Amity (aka Kanagawa; i.e. Yokohama), 1854 Ii Naosuke (chief policy maker of the Tokugawa shogunate) Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1858 Yokohama (treaty port) Japan is shocked and will seek to modernize

6.6.4. 2nd Opium War or “Arrow”War, (1856-1858/1860) Causes The British do not get the volume of trade that they expected. The Chinese cease a British Boat and arrested for Piracy WAR 1858: repeat of what happened in 1841 The Chinese had a lot on their hand (revolts, ecological crisis…) so they gave up easily 26 June 1858: Treaty of Tientsin 1860 : the terms are not followed by the Qing dynasty so the European burn the Summer Palace 24 October 1860: Convention of Peking Consequences Terrible loss of prestige China is slowly divided btw Western Powers China became slowly a producer and then exporter of Opium

6.6.5. Big Stick Diplomacy In consequence of the Monroe doctrine, Teddy Roosevelt because of its strong navy, forced all America to surrender 1885 Panama crisis

6.6.6. 1911: Agadir Crisis Opposed France and Germany France gained Morocco in exchange to territories from French Congo

6.7. Post-1860, the Race

6.7.1. Conferences Brussels Geographic Conference of 1876 Initiated by Belgium’s King Leopold II for the “uplift” of Africa Results in creation of Association Internationale pour l’Exploration et la Civilisation de l’Afrique Centrale (International Africa Association) Berlin Conference of 1884-85 Initiated by Germany’s Bismarck Established the terms of the Colonization of Africa

6.7.2. French Indochina Tonkin War, 1882-83/Sino-French War, 1884-85 Army stalemate, May 1883 Rivière killed Aug 1883 French navy takes Hué forts Hué treaty of 1883, with ailing Emp Tu Duc (1829-1883) Liu Yongfu + Qing’slocal garrisons resume war Tianjin Accord & new Hué Treaty of 1884 More war along Chinese coast (Fuzhou), 1885 Bad coverage for the French Side Treaty of Saigon, 1886 had created French Cochinchina Union Indochinoise, 1887 Vietnam (Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin), Cambodia and Laos Why Indochina: How?

6.7.3. Scramble for China Concessions extracted thanks to the Tianjin Convention Hypercolonialism Semi-colonized -Status US ‘Open Door Policy,’ 1899 Officially sovereign but, loss of...

6.7.4. The Great Game Who? Russia UK From the late 19th to the early 20th Why Russian Growing power Competition over UK and Russia's spheres of Influence in the Region (mostly around Afghanistan and Persia) Resolution 1895: Pamir Boundary Commission protocols 1907: Anglo-Russian Convention

6.8. A New World Order

6.8.1. Racial order: racial politics come to the fore rise of nationalism “civilizing mission”

6.8.2. International order: the construction of protectionist colonial empires and sphere of influence in Africa, Asia & Latin America

6.8.3. Financial order: international lending institutions HSBC (built on Opium trafficking) financed the recaptured of Xinjiang Diasporas

6.8.4. Informational order: statistics journalism academic disciplines

6.8.5. National order (e.g. China/Japan): Coastal-inland dynamic changes urban-rural dynamic changes

6.8.6. Geopolitical World dominated by few countries... UK France Germany But influenced by others Japan USA etc...

6.9. "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” – MAO

6.10. "Like the capitalist system, imperialism evolved into something more complex than theft. It was embodied in exchange relationships. And since exchange could occur peacefully, without the use of force, some, like [Harvard political economist Joseph] Schumpeter, presumed that capitalism and imperialism were anti-thetical. Yet force has been used to accelerate the onset of exchange relationships, to preserve them, and to improve the terms of exchange." - Alice Amsden

7. Ideologies

7.1. What is an IDEOLOGY?

7.1.1. Britannica ideology, a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones. It is a system of ideas that aspires both to explain the world and to change it.

7.1.2. Fuller Ideologic phenomenon (neutral ideology, negative ideology = not flexible enough?) A framework of ideas / beliefs A mythicization of reality, according to Marx

7.2. Liberalism

7.2.1. Main ideas 2 aspects of liberalism: political and economic. Based on rationality of human beings, liberty of thought, progress, human benevolence… and individualism: individual comes first. Social implications Political implications Economic Implications Figures of liberalism A. SMITH (Original influencer) J. MILL B. CONSTANT William Wilberforce: fought for slave trade abolition = Slave trade act 1807 (UK) A. de TOCQUEVILLE Liberalists: bourgeoisie, most educated and wealthiest => benefits from liberalism and free trade

7.2.2. liberalism paradoxes Development of self-ruling ideology AND empires Free market ideology AND increasing of state capacity to intervene K. Polanyi The great transformation. For him the “laisse-faire” is a construction of the State "Laissez-faire was planned; planning was not” - Polanyi Thought that the idea of ​​a self-adjusting market was purely utopian

7.2.3. abotionnism Civil Societies “Ladies society for the relief of Negro slaves” 1780’s -1790’s Main steps 1815: Treaty of Paris = abolition of Slave trade in 8 Europeans countries 1833 = UK abolished slavery in its empire 1848: French 2nd Abolition USA civil war (1861-1865) 1888: Brazilian Abolition 1889: Ottoman Abolition

7.2.4. Hellenism Greek independence movement against Ottoman empire started in 1821 Philhellenism movement = supported by liberals Wide Support in the Western World Delacroix, "Le Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi" (1826) or "Le Massacre de Chios" (1824) B. CONSTANT : Appel aux nations chrétiennes en faveur des Grecs (1825); Chateaubriand military support Battle of Navarino 1827 = UK, France, and Russia alliance against ottomans = defeated in 3 days (last battle with sailing boats) 1830: Greek independence Delacroix, Le Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi, 1826

7.3. Democrats

7.3.1. CHARTISM in the UK Create the "people's charter" in 1838 To extend DEMOCRACY Followed by manifestations FAILED AT THE END

7.4. Feminism / Suffragettes

7.4.1. Situation Husband = authority upon his wife Women Less paid No political Rights Less Economic rights

7.4.2. Early Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) (UK) A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792 Early voice of radical feminist in the UK One branch of “radicals” = people who asked for change (for the standard of the time) (mostly associated with the suffrage movement).. Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) (Fr) Déclaration des droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne (1791)

7.4.3. Advances "Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less." - Susan B. Anthony, Suffragist Political Rights 1893: New Zealand opened suffrage to women (First in the World) 1906: Suffrage in Finland (Autonomous Region within Russia) 1912, the first woman delegate took her seat in the Bohemian Diet Organizations National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) Women's Social and Political Union International Events Three main international women's organisations Leila Rupp, characterized the international movement of which the ICW, the IAW and the WILPF formed the core as “bourgeois and dominated by women of European origin.

7.5. Socialism

7.5.1. Roots of socialism roots in enlightenment = Rousseau, Spinoza, Milton “The fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody” - Rousseau 1789: process of radicalization, further equalitarian society Gracchus Babeuf ; "conspiracy of the equals" (1796) Proto-socialist republic Abolition of private property Equality in society

7.5.2. Early socialism1820-1848 ideas defended by upper class, marginals intellectuals, idea of technocracy Henri de Saint-Simon Government served the interest of rich people. Need reform of government in the interest of workers and common good. Famous among polytechnician "Le Globe" = journal of St-Simon Ideas Robert Owen created model villages in Britain and United states: "New Harmony" ; lasted 2 years... Charles Fourier Promoted the right to work : moral obligation of state to give work. Creation of Phalanstère (still one today in France: Familistère de Guise) Many critics "Social-sects" - V. Hugo Marx and Engels critics in the Communist Manifesto

7.5.3. Marx socialism 1848 critics of early socialism as "utopian socialism" Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto (1848) birth of Marxism class struggle, opposition bourgeoisie and proletariat

7.5.4. International Communist Federations of workers unions all around the world 1864, 1st international 1889, 2nd International

7.6. Nationalism

7.6.1. Definition britannica definition: Nationalism is an ideology that emphasizes loyalty, devotion, or allegiance to a nation or nation-state and holds that such obligations outweigh other individual or group interests. SHIFT: before, women were raising children for their families but then, it was for the Nation’s Sake

7.6.2. Approaches to nationalism Social Darwinism and Liberalism, and the nation (1830s to 1880s): Nation as phase in human evolution/progress; not all have reached this stage: need to be « helped » Ernest Renan, « Qu’est ce qu'une nation ? » (1882) Nation as a « daily plebiscite » « Forgetting, and getting history wrong, is essential for the formation of the nation » Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (1983) Genealogy of nationalism traced to the colonial state Not the intent of the colonial state, but the colonial state gave the grammar of its governance, the ingredients Census (demo), Map (geo), Museum (anthro) + mechanical production Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (1983) Nationalism: ‘primarily a principle which holds that the political & national unit should be congruent’ Eric Hobsbawm, ed., The Invention of Tradition (1983) No need for a precise definition of nation: it is a concept: its past is invented tradition suggest that before there was no change René Rémond The French & Atlantic Revolutions = emphasize on Free Will Tradition = emphasize on Tangible facts Nation = 2 essential components The tangible existence of nationality (common features such as history, language) More importantly a feeling, an impetus of belonging to this nationality Different conceptions

7.6.3. Stages of Nationalism three main stages of nationalism of existence (René Girault) during the 19th century = support national emancipation … - 1830: liberal 1830 – 1848: democratic 1848 – 1870: conservative No political color "a mould that calls for an ideology"-René Rémond Then, nationalism of power: nationalism in confrontation THE 19th century isn’t the century of the Nation but the birth of it Large population living under Empires

7.6.4. Worldwide phenomenon Eurore, latin America, USA, Japan, Egypt (Urabi movement of 1881-1882), Ottoman, China (Boxer) Overs the whole span of the century NATION DO NOT ALWAYS = TO A STATE Creation of Antagonism through Media dehumanisation citizen-soldiers taught to hate Franco-German mutual Hate

8. population movements

8.1. migrations

8.1.1. Slave trade key component of british economic development => market for manufactured products

8.1.2. 3 areas of movements from India and China to southern Asia indian moving within the british empire from europe to americas from China and Russia to northern Asia

8.1.3. reasons rebellions in China lead to population movements 19th century = migrant workers (18th century = slave trade) migrations linked to economic cycles, if recession workers came back home

8.1.4. segregation Division of the world “black, white, yellow” Nationalist concept => any nation should be able to include or exclude some population. 1882 Chinese exclusion act paradox: US “savior of the people” and fear to the "infected" by immigration rise of “only white” immigration policy:, Canada 1910, South Africa 1894 Transvaal (British colony) => Asiatic registration act. control of the population, fingerprint, id cart… Ellis Island: medical control Race = not biological concept but political construct based on politics and racial categories = very fluid to suit political and economic needs.

8.2. Contract labour regime

8.2.1. Ban of slavery but contract labour system = new form of slavery

8.2.2. idea of moral reform through work

8.2.3. origin of the word "Kidnapping" = kids sign a contract to work in exchange of money for the family

9. Industrial revolutions

9.1. 1st IR

9.1.1. Theories and Controversies Evolution or Revolution? Industrious Revolution: The Industrious Revolution was a period in early modern Europe lasting from approximately 1600 to 1800 in which household productivity and consumer demand increased despite the absence of major technological innovations that would mark the later Industrial Revolution. F. BRAUDEL: evolution P. O'Brien data analysis: between 1780 and 1861, GDP growth of Britain: only 1,5% per year => evolution more than revolution Why Europe ? POMERANZ WEBER: "Protestant ethic and their rational pursuit of money" (NOT TAKEN SERIOUSLY) Asian revisionist trend D. NORTH: legal framework R. MARTES: polycenric revolution P. O’BRIEN MARX Oriental despotism D. LANDES: intellectual xenophobia of Qing China WHY BRITAIN?

9.1.2. Factors ROSTOW: precondition for Takeoff = technology, investment... Enormous accumulation of Capital New oligarchies of “Parvenue” (= new rich without the codes La Distinction de Bourdieu)) Only formal Equality (=before law) because enormous disparities P. BAIROCH: Agricultural Revolution Britain large scale farming estate New methods New crops “Enclosure Acts”

9.1.3. Components P. DEANE New Technologies Market Expansion National and International market specialization Urbanization & Factories Human / animal energy → unanimate energy Accumulation of technoligical capital New Social Calsses D. LANDES: Unbound Prometeus craftsmanship → machines New raw materials

9.1.4. SOCIAL Changes New classes concentration and control of workers Mechanization Division of Labour Wage / hour Urbanization UK: 19.2% of urbans in 1800 / 67.4% in 1900

9.1.5. Consequences End of the Malthusian Trap "Speed" revolution "Rain Steam and Speed" of W. Turner Creation and extension of Railroads networks Energetic Revolution No more constraint

9.1.6. RESISTANCE 1812: Luddites movement Textile workers protesting against mechanization For the 1st time, machines were broken 1830-31: Captain Swing riot (UK) Same but with Farmers Delayed the introduction of this machines for 20 years 1844: Weaver's Uprising (Silesia in Prussia) Same as luddites Historian E.P. Thompson: “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century” (1971) People had the impression that mechanization was taking away their pride, their humanity at work

9.2. 2nd IR

9.2.1. components energy: oil => produce a lot of energy 1859: First oil well in Pennsylvania Introduction of chemicals = best productivity of land GB, France, Netherland … European and US presence in Asia = here to extract resources palm oil tin rubber development of transportation network Railway = carry heavy goods on long distances higher loading capacity

9.2.2. limits Not a linear and uniform process Horse = ancient mode of transport but in fact pic of use of horses => 1870’ 1880’ = after the train and before the car All means of transportation did not disappears: “golden age” of the ship 19th century Age of telegraph = golden age of mail bc telegraph was costly

9.3. Ecology

9.3.1. Extremely destructive

9.3.2. Polluting

10. "Great divergence"

10.1. Industrial

10.1.1. Pommeranz economic differences between China and Europe were minimal until the nineteenth century Studied differences btw UK and the Yangzi Delta UK advantage because of wet mines Yangzi Delta region: dry mines = risk of explosion

10.2. medical

10.2.1. Rogaski "no single “Western medicine” that was different from and dominant over “Chinese medicine"" europeans believe in their medicine supremacy "Western medical superiority was far from evident."

10.3. Historian Jurgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (2014)

10.3.1. “everything that shaped today’s world started in the West during the 19th century" Modern = West or Modernity driven by the West ?

11. Science

11.1. medical progress

11.1.1. Crimean war 1853-1856 Russia V. France, GB, Ottoman empire not a big war but importance of the sick bodies of the soldiers = 88% percent of the loss in France troops were because of diseases (typhois, cholera...) role of Florence Nightingale (nurse) to identify illness because of poor hygiene, nutrition and ventilation British called the ‘European Chinese,’, reference to the "Sick man of Asia"

11.1.2. hygienism Medicine increased the efficiency of the army and aided the objectives of the expanding British empire facilitate imperialism penetration

11.1.3. Red cross creation roots Solferino Battle 1859, France + Sardinia V. Austria 1862: "Un souvenir de Solferino" Henry Dunant = denounces the aftermaths of the battle 1863 : Creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) =NGO. protection of soldiers and prisonners of war national red crosses creation

11.2. Scientific racism

11.2.1. hierarchy Gobineau = « essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines » superiority of european race Strangers exposed as attraction = London, Chicago, France… universal exposition (Paris 1881) “Jardin d’acclimatation” = stranger get used as European climate Race = not biological concept but political construct based on politics and racial categories = very fluid to suit political and economic needs. Some races as warriors : birth of the Martial forces "Gentlemen we must speak more loudly and more honestly! We must say openly that indeed the higher races have a right over the lower races” - Jules Ferry

11.3. Scientific progress

11.3.1. Cartography data useful for trade, administration, and exploration. 1841 Everest = map of India, use of trigonometry 1798 = Napoleon campaign in Egypt

11.3.2. Unification of time 1881 GMT time Greenwich meridian = official measure of time for the entire world

11.3.3. evolution theory Evolution theory = Darwin 1859, On the origins of Species Against religious dogmas, creationist theory

12. Shrinking or expansion of the world?

12.1. Shrinking

12.1.1. more commmunication (telegraph,...) 29 million communications in 1816 => 101 million 1880 GB-> India: 5-8 month for a letter before 1840’s => after 6 weeks for a letter

12.1.2. Shrinking in physical way faster travel

12.2. Expansion

12.2.1. From community to society People saw their horizons being hugely extended Community = people you know Society = people you think you know Development of transports Development of Media

13. Emergence of the modern State

13.1. the "State"

13.1.1. instrument of power (police, army, legal system)

13.1.2. system = large institution with people sharing political values, education system... civil society

13.1.3. Foucault "Governmentality" = all ways in which lives are govern by political forces

13.1.4. James C. Scott "Seing like a state" All revolve around the idea of legibility to the state LEGIBILITY = visibility. Typography. the quality of type that affects the perceptibility of a word, line, or paragraph of printed matter. State's visibility vs Local's visibility PLANNING by a bureaucrat hundreds of miles away without any local knowledge VS local knowledge which knows flood, climate… The State is reading from above

13.2. Different forms of states

13.2.1. Centralized state France Prussia

13.2.2. Diffused state UK USA

13.2.3. Weak state clashing with religion Ottoman Empire

13.2.4. Colonial world in the hand of private companies East Indian Company South Africa Company (Cecil Rhodes)

13.2.5. village leaders and autonomous tribes with distant relationship with the ruler Arabic Peninsula Persia

13.3. Lost modernities / Confucian Agenda

13.3.1. Social Authority

13.3.2. Modern Education

13.3.3. Universal Dimension

13.3.4. Improving humanity Idea of population’s Welfare "Mandate of Heaven" idea (China)

13.3.5. People are good

13.4. bureaucratization

13.4.1. administer large state and control the territory seeing population and land as state's resources civil servants, trained officials in France = Bourgeois and noble Russia, Austria = lower nobility and declass people India = strong admnistration and civil service

13.4.2. keep the cash flowing should provide public services

13.4.3. organize justice British putting an end to custom of Sati in India no more privilegies = equality before the law

13.5. Militarization

13.5.1. militarization of the society FRATERNITE = brother in arms = conscription = arming the masses, fight for the country (nationalism) constant preparation of war development of obligatory circonstription + defined manhood opposition to circonscription in UK (only applied during WW) global strategic thinking to become hegemon exclusion of women = cannot become soldiers because their role was to give life and not death "natural order" "En temps de guerre la loi se tait" Cicéron "monopoly on legitimate use of violence" Weber tradition authority = dynasty legitimation Charisma (Bonaparte) the rational and legal piller = based on law weapons = riffle, long range artillery, ironclad (used against chineses) machine gun (Maxim gun) Rimbaud = illegal smuggler of weapons in West Africa (Ethiopia) = Menelik the II defeat the Italian (Adoua 1896) creation of concentration camps during the Cuban civil war

13.5.2. control 1864: Geneva convention 1899 Hague convention control on war's methods, limits on weapons, arms (interdiction of poison gas, to kill surrendered soldiers....) Methods of war (Hague, 1899 & 1907): limits on certain weapons/tactics Also creates Permanent Court of Arbitration Court in The Hague neither sets of treaties limited waging war: both allow for “military necessity” and use the principle of proportionality Geneva treaties/Red Cross concerned Protections in war: first wounded soldiers, then medical personnel, later different categories of civilians Neither included colonies signatories only recognized “civilised” states participated. Law ISN'T neutral

13.5.3. Slow birth of Modern Warfare Italian & German unification Crimean War USA CIVIL WAR Birth of the Idea of Total War Russo-Japanese Civil War Raymont Aron “Les guerres en Chaîne” = chain war

13.6. Taxation

13.6.1. DDHC art 13 = "general tex is indispensible" and "in proportion to their ability to pay"

13.6.2. window tax in France and UK

13.7. Secularization ?

13.7.1. "disenchantment" Max Weber separation of church and state 1791 US 1905 France (previous attempts before) decreasing influence of the pope lost terrtories with italian unification 1871 BUT still spiritual power new ideologies Progressivism Condorcet Positivism Agust Comte

13.7.2. revivalism but still christianity with missionary movement no secular university education Princeton Yales propagation of great monotheist religions , evangelism new cult of Marie = pelgrinage to Lourdes (Fr)

13.7.3. The Jewish question persecution middle age Christians: jews = "ppl who killed god" nationalist anti-seminitism but also accusation of occultation of the economic power = target jewish bankers but wave of solidarity: 1840 Damascus affair, jews accused to have killed a monk different status France: full citizenship Ottoman empire: dimes (tax) Russian empire: persecution US good legal status and no persecution = immigration Zionist project 1897 zionist congress Theodore Herzl = creation of jewish state

13.8. Other key components

13.8.1. - isms Nationalism (and its mixed origins in Rationalism & Romanticism) Imperialism (and its corollary, Racism) (Industrial) Capitalism Then Communism/Leninism (from 1910s) and Fascism (from 1920s)

13.8.2. - isations Mechanisation: not just technology management of people: Taylorism Workers as an input Standardisation: measurements, gender / orientation, language From easily standardized Pro. Army to the need to standardizing a Conscript Army Homosexuality criminalized Mobilisation: mass transport; conscription; education, motherhood Abortion forbidden (Before = decision of the family) Takeoff of the place of the Mother Figure Education of the Children Institutionalisation: bureaucracy / legal structures: contract labour Geneva Convention (1864) to the Hague Convention (1899) Professionalisation: accreditation and formalisation of experts / occupations Doctors’ jobs are “protected” and institutionalized

14. Modernization

14.1. Ottoman Empire

14.1.1. Crisis Easily crushed by Napoleon Loss of territory (Alger (invade by Charles X) / Greece)

14.1.2. Early reforms 1789-1807: opening of military schools and French-inspired reforms of weaponry and tactics. 1826: new military reforms Abolition of the Janissaries based on peasants conscripted by the central government and led by officers educated according to western European standards. from 24,000 soldiers in 1837 to 120,000 in the 1880 1830s: Creation / reforms of Institutions Universities Medical and military schools

14.1.3. Post Tanzimat 1908, under pressure from the army, the sultan decided to restore the constitution Main force = Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) 1909, the Unionist reformers tilted away from their earlier all-embracing liberalism to a more Turkish, more Islamic, more surveillance-based regime, and provoked more discontent 1913, with the empire on the verge of losing its last cities in Europe during a new round of Balkan wars and fearing a great-power partition of Anatolia, Young Turk officers grabbed the state in a military coup.

14.2. China

14.2.1. exportation of the modern state = China borrowed some features of european states

14.2.2. Western based administration in imperial marine = Robert Hart but limited sources of westernization and modernization = no private entrepreneurship, no laissez-afire 45 treaty ports at the end of the 19th century (1 at the beginning = Canton)

14.2.3. Debates post-Opium Wars Military reforms Coastal defense? Securing frontiers? "quasi-militariztion" = no central army but regionalized ones limited because transfers of technology but not tactics Administrative reforms Xinjiang becomes province, 1884 minister of foreign affairs = Zongli Yamen 1861 Famine relief? North China, 1876-79

14.2.4. The failed modernization self-strengthening movement 1861-1895 Yan-Fu (1854-1921) = send to England to study = modern military strategy, sociology... chinese identity no more based on confucian classics but more on blood relations China inspired by Japan for constitutional model motto : "confucian ethics, modern science" other reforms influenced by 1844 Wei Yuan ideas Hundred days reforms 1898 Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao = super educated civil servant aim = more activist state, finace war, industry, investment in education, technology... followed by Guangxu emperor crushed by Cixi = "empress Dowager" later reforms inspired by the hundred days ones Boxer rebellion more an unprising bc not against the Qing reasons "Boxer united in righteousness"

14.3. Meiji Japan

14.3.1. Mission to Europe to learn industrial techniques and innovation = Iwakura mission copy of the West? more complex = success of Japanese Red Cross society (900 000 members while only 55 000 in France)

14.3.2. Charles LeGendre : adviser to japanese government in 1872, planned Taiwan invasion

14.3.3. Administrative reforms The rise of Ministries 1869: daimyo of Choshu and Satsuma agree to ‘return’ their land and subjects (i.e., population registers) to the Emperor The Ministries: The Kobusho (1870-1885) Ministry of Industry/Engineering/Construction The army & the common people Nationalization & Popularization of the military: 1869: the Meiji emperor creates the Yasakuni shrine in Tokyo to the dead fighters of the Restoration Over the following decades community shrines becomes official sites as part of a national State Shinto program 1873: conscription instituted for all males The Ministry of Education & the masses: from sermons to textbooks A main task of the Ministry: socialization (i.e., ‘education’) All ‘Japanese’ are to be included in the national enterprise as society industrializes, family members are off to work, off to school, or stay at home; gender roles clearly defined 1872: compulsory education launches 10% of household income making dependents out of children, noted: school taxes take up as much producers Home had been a vocational setting ‘Because positions at nonfamilial enterprises could not be passed on to the son, fathers [of all classes now] had less incentive to socialize & care for their offspring’ Unification of Language The Ministry of Education & the ‘Japanese woman’ We must not simply equate ‘modern’ with ‘progressive’ The patriarchal state replaces the household patriarchy 1887: Ministry of Education’s The Meiji Greater Learning for Women (Meiji onna daigaku): frugality; modesty; “the home is a public place where private feelings should be forgotten” 1899: ‘Good Wife, Wise Mother (ryosai kenbo)’ program follows the Sino-Jap. War: childbearing & economizing patriotic Eligible girls in compulsory education: To wrap up: Japan’s experience of national formation: Bureaucracy first Who are the bureaucrats? unelected functionaries carrying out programs of the Meiji visionaries Bureaucracy formed immediately in 1868 to collect taxes By late 1870s, all Ministries are in place 1889 Constitution comes after the building blocks of government In each Ministry, career vice ministers hold true power over their appointed, temporary chiefs = stability

14.3.4. Modernization through wars 1874: Japan's expedition to Taiwan Taiwan = part of Qing empire but not administred in a "modern way" Beginning of Japanase Imperialism Participated to the cultural "westernization" Japanese painting : The Battle of Stonegate 1894-95: Sino-Japanese War influence over Korea both countries were militarized but Japan had more manoeuvrable boats and real torpedos 1904-05: Russo-Japanese War before: Anglo-Japnanese treaty of 1902 = counter Russian advance 1904 = attack of Port Arthur by the Japanese Jap victory

14.3.5. "Quitting Asia" "our basic assumptions could be summarized in two words: "Good-Bye Asia" [...] We do not have time to wait for the enlightenment of our Neighbors so that we can work together toward the development of Asia. It is better for us to leave the ranks of Asian Nations and cast our lot with civilized nations the West." - Datsu-A-Ron, 1885, attributed to Fukuzawa Yukichi Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895 on the "japanese-Qing" war Japanese identity Industrialization and colonization at the same time aim = place themselves on "civilized" side of the spectrum real escape? escaping asia TO SAVE it from the western powers WW2: Co-prosperity = Japan helps other Asian power to eliminate European presence

14.4. Jean baptiste Ventura payed to modernize the Sikh empire

14.5. "Mimesis of Western imperialism, in other words, went hand in hand with mimemis of Western civilization" Robert Eskildsen

14.6. writting book and studying people = in order to implement reforms

14.7. The missionary movement

14.7.1. Early Modernization in Japan Jesuit Francis Xavier mission project in Japan in 1548. main goal = education failure of Jesuit order = kick out of Japan by Tokugawa system in 1612

14.7.2. China before 19th century Jesuit : Matteo Ricci jesuit strategy: focused on the elite to influence the country. introducing mathematics, clocks, astrology... and rewerded with office in courts = conversion top to bottom importance of astronomy, astrology bc "Mandate of Heaven" 19th century strategy shift = missionary mission focused on the poors, maginalized... missionary program as a part of imperialism many missionaries presented themselves as "friends of China" admiring lost culture (needed to be restored thanks to Christianity) protestant missionaries medical missionaries Holy childhood association uprisings boxer rebellion 1899-1901 tension

14.7.3. Vietnam before french colonial project 1659 "Holy See" mission end of 18th century = split: North (Spanish) and South (France) Tianjin massacre in 1870 19th century = 5 to 10% Vietnamese converted to Christianity Société des missions étrangères: training in Paris and Penang = influence Vietnamese government french colonial project reaction the "scholar rising" in central Vietnam 1874

14.8. Russia

14.8.1. Alexander I (r. 1801-25) Reform of the Administration (1801-25) o 1814: Victory over France Russia = Great European Power feared but “not welcomed in a European world”

14.8.2. 1825: Death of the Tsar followed by the Coup of the Decemrbrist”

14.8.3. Nicholas I ( r. 1825-55) Creation of the "Third department" Surveillance 1830: slogan = “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality.” Some reforms though but in the initiative of the Emperor (not the people) 1830s: codification and publication of Russian Law Intellectual flourishment (fought by the Tsar) Russia = West or Slavic? Dostoïevski nearly executed (pardoned at the last minute)

14.8.4. Alexander II (r. 1855-81) 1861: Abolition of serfdom and massive property transfer to provide them with land “Serfdom was abolished in both Habsburg and Romanov empires before slaves were emancipated in the United States.” For social peace: "it is better to liberate the peasants from above" than to wait until they won their freedom by risings "from below" Military service was made universal for males and its term reduced; local assemblies were set up to conduct welfare services in the countryside; a system of jury trials was put in place censorship of publications was relaxed in the cause of glasnost (publicity). Assassinated in 1881

14.8.5. Alexander III (r. 1881-94) Return to Absolutism Attempt of Russification Imposition of the Russian in the Administration 1887: Quotas on Jewish presence in Universities 1890s: boom of the Russian industry Exploitation of the Caspian Oil Investors from France Technicians and entrepreneurs from Germany Not allowed to conquered the West, Russia turned to the East Russo Japanse war of 1904-5

14.9. Austria

14.9.1. “compromise” of 1867 that created the Dual Monarchy

14.9.2. 1867 citizenship laws had made Jews equal with others in legal rights. Attracted Jews especially following the pogroms Business explosion

14.9.3. Better off than Russia or the Ottomans least censored press the most active public the most developed party politics

14.9.4. 1908 the dynasty was celebrated with a huge “Kaiser-Hommage”

15. Rebellions

15.1. Causes of Chinese rebellions

15.1.1. 19th century: x3 of population This growth was in this “nowhere places” Creation of frontier communities Transit men workers mostly Tension with the locals 1700s: a lot of colonization by Hans in order to work in the silver mines

15.1.2. The periphery of Europe was way different from the periphery of China European Empires: Caribbean, the labour “wasn’t reproducing by itself” ; culture too China More or less free market More or less free moving Labour reproduced autonomously (and cultural differences too)

15.1.3. China instability tension between Han and Manchus end of the 1st Opium war = humiliation

15.1.4. Environmental issues 1833: The Yellow river changed of course Ecological pressure

15.1.5. decay of infrastructures Because of poverty due to the Westerners indemnities Grand Canal (brought grain from Shanghai to Beijing) no longer operable

15.2. Taiping rebellion 1851-1864

15.2.1. Hong Xiuquan failed the civil servent exam 4 times 1837: after the 3rd exam => vision, strange dream 1843: failed for the 4th time + revelation through a Christian pamphlet = think he is Jesus brother part of Hakka Class = minority

15.2.2. Creation of Taiping heavenly kingdom 1851 Conquest 1847: wrote a manifesto and declare a celestial kingdom (1851) 1853: Fall of Nanjing / Nankin Extremely brutal Reorganization of the society attempt of modernization Economy Property Very Puritanical stance social reforms = men and women equals but no real mixing of genders

15.2.3. Qing reaction Reorganization "new armies" (local militias) ready to fight with the Qing Western Help British and American armed and trained Qing armies (incentive to keep Qing regime in place) France helped to recapture Nanking From the Western Point of view, better to have the weak but easily exploited Qing than the strong christian Taiping Reconquest 1863 = Qing armies encircling Nanjing 19 July 1864 = Qing took Nanjing = bloodiest battle, house by house massacres. In 3 days, 100 000 people have died 1864: end of the Taiping rebellion

15.2.4. consequences Up to 30 million deaths The Qing dynasty is exhausted

15.3. Other chinese rebellions

15.3.1. Nian rebellion 1851-1868 no ideology leadership confrontations between communities to survive. Predatory action of some communities upon others Due to the change of course of the Yellow River Lawless area

15.3.2. Red Turban Uprising, 1854-1856 Triads / secret societies Below the radar of the State

15.3.3. Dungan Revolt, 1862–1877 and large Muslim revolts in China Where? Yunnan (south-west) Shaanxi Gansu Xinjiang Enormous and bloody war of communities A lot of social engineering by the Qing A lot of populations were deported

15.4. Indian mutiny 1857 and British Raj in India

15.4.1. Causes Political and economic issues Social discontentment Military discontentment Adimistered by the EIC European military India bureaucracy / military MANY provinces remained untouched

15.4.2. Revolt 10 May 1857, Meerut outbreak, Delhi... Concentrated in the North No real link between the different clusters September 1857: Delhi’s recapture December 1858, final recapture Suppression of the revolt (helped by some local aristocrats

15.4.3. Consequences Different narratives Nationalist narrative Patchwork of region revolts without coordination MARXIST: revolt of peasants against the British Transfer of power to the British Crown that laid to the foundation of the British Raj VICTORIA promised to respect India Culture and RELIGION Pardon granted except when murderer of British Policy of divide and rule

15.4.4. One of the first conflict to have an international coverage Thanks to telegraphs Sentiment of international resistance to imperialism Irish support to Sepoys

16. World War 1

16.1. Reasons

16.1.1. Arm Race Naval (Britain vs Germany): Germany launches long-term naval building program in 1898 to challenge Britain’s dominance. Race for the Biggest Navy Redrawing of alliances Global Militarization Land (France vs Germany): 1913: German Army Law: increase in peacetime army numbers. 1913: France ups compulsory military service from 2 to 3 years.

16.1.2. Geopolitical Tensions Colonial Tensions Agadir Crisis (1911) Political Tensions Balkans Economic Rivalry

16.1.3. However, Unexpected Great Illusion, Essay by Norman Angell, 1910 bestseller Angell = British Educated Liberal / Nobel Prize of Peace War is impossible

16.2. Climax of the long 19th

16.2.1. Mass mobilisation Creation of citizen-armies: public education, conscription & propaganda. Public education Conscription Propaganda State’s Bonds for Everyone

16.2.2. Blurring of the lines between homefront and battlefield Mobilisation of the homefront: women into factories; wives support troops; boy scouts E.g. American Relief Administration Civilians targeted, not just collateral (bombing; blockades; torpedoes: Lusitania in 1915)

16.2.3. Imperial subjects are brought in (WWI) 1.4 million Indian soldiers (over 74,000 killed) 1.3 million soldiers from the UK’s ‘white dominions’ From France’s colonies: 600,000 soldiers 200,000 workers

16.2.4. This all adds up to the creation of all-encompassing “wartime economies” State control over key industries – Railways, munitions, mines etc… Price controls, war bonds, food rations Built on a lot on the State capacities developed in the 19th

16.2.5. Humanitarian surge