XIXe & the Great Divergence (D. & M.)

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XIXe & the Great Divergence (D. & M.) by Mind Map: XIXe & the Great Divergence (D. & M.)

1. Respected all languages

2. 200,000 Chinese recruited by French & British to dig trenches, bury dead etc.

2.1. Recruit in Shandong (epicenter of the Boxers)

3. Tanzimat Era (1839-76)

3.1. Secularism of politics

3.2. Modernization of the Royal Institutions

3.2.1. 1847: courts, based on western European practices, were set

3.3. Westernization

3.3.1. Fruit of the interaction of Ottomans Elites with Europe

3.3.2. Fruit of tradition: in the name of Islam

3.4. Legal Advancements

3.4.1. EQUALITY of all (even religion)

3.4.1.1. Counter revolution though

3.4.1.2. 1858: equality of all male to hold private property

3.4.2. 1840s: New penal and commercial codes

3.5. Opening to trade with Europe, mostly with the BRITISH

3.5.1. 1838: TREATY of Balta Iman

3.5.1.1. One of the most liberal and open market (more than Nanking)

3.5.2. Demand of the British which had a negative trade balance

3.5.3. Ottoman goal = to crush beginning of the Egypt industrialization in order to weaken the region.

3.6. 1876, Sultan Abdulhamid II (1876–1909) approved a constitution and, in accordance with it, convened a parliament (lasted less than 2 years)

4. National formations

4.1. Formation of national community

4.1.1. 1870s global drought: China, India, Brazil, etc. (Because of El Niño (Weather))

4.1.1.1. North China famine of 1876-79

4.1.1.1.1. Old: local elites & imperial state provide limited relief, but millions still die

4.1.1.1.2. New: Shanghai-region elites mobilise national relief societies through media/social channels

4.1.2. The civil society debate

4.1.2.1. Civil Society = agent btw Individuals and Government

4.1.3. Jurgen Habermas: (Europe’s) "public sphere"

4.1.3.1. "a realm within social life in which public opinion can be formed and which is accessible to all. The engagement within the public sphere according to Habermas is blind to class positions and the connections between activists in the public sphere are formed through a mutual will to take part in matters that have a general interest. The public sphere, according to Habermas, is a product of democracy.' - culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com

4.1.3.2. Different from Civil Society

4.1.3.3. Engineer pushing for public change / transformation

4.2. National Unifications

4.2.1. Why?

4.2.1.1. For the NATION

4.2.1.2. Economic Interests

4.2.1.2.1. Greater Market for the industry

4.2.2. Italy

4.2.2.1. Complete TIMELINE : Italian Unification Timeline | Preceden

4.2.2.2. Giuseppe Mazzini’s Young Italy & the Risorgimiento (Resurgence), 1848-1871

4.2.2.2.1. Much hinges on Piedmont-Sardinia, only state to keep constitution after 1848

4.2.2.3. Wars of unification

4.2.2.3.1. 1859: War against Austria

4.2.2.3.2. 1860: Garibaldi's invasion of the Kingdom of Naples

4.2.2.3.3. Benso di Cavour, prime minister of Piedmont, then Italy (briefly) from 1861

4.2.2.3.4. 1866: Venice

4.2.2.3.5. 1870: capture of Rome

4.2.2.4. Limits of the Unification

4.2.2.4.1. “We have made Italy. Now we have to make Italians” - Massimo d’Azeglio.

4.2.2.4.2. Post-unification Brigandage against the Northerners passing in the South

4.2.2.4.3. Irredentes

4.2.2.4.4. A conquest

4.2.3. Germany

4.2.3.1. Volksgeist & German collective identity

4.2.3.1.1. Goethe, Schiller – up until Prussia’s rise, Germany existed as a Cultural realm and not a militaristic (like France)

4.2.3.2. Wars of Unification

4.2.3.2.1. 1864: Danish war

4.2.3.2.2. 1866: Austro-Prussia War

4.2.3.2.3. Franco-Prussian War (1870 - 71)

4.2.3.3. German Reich created, 1871

4.2.3.3.1. Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor, 1871 - 90

4.2.3.3.2. Slow annexations

4.2.4. Japan

4.2.4.1. Tokugawa Shogunate (1603 - 1868)

4.2.4.1.1. Creation

4.2.4.1.2. EDO

4.2.4.1.3. Every 4 years, shall walk to Edo to visit and do their duty

4.2.4.2. The Meiji Restoration (1867)

4.2.4.2.1. 1862/1863: minor hostilities with British and Americans

4.2.4.2.2. Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa samurai take initiative

4.2.4.2.3. ‘富國強兵 rich country, strong army’ slogan popularized

4.2.4.2.4. 1867: Shogun Yoshinobu resigns (d. 1903)

4.2.4.2.5. 1867-68: Kyoto-based imperial court announces ‘restoration’ of imperial rule & moves into Edo Castle (now Tokyo = ‘East Capital’)

5. Revolutions

5.1. atlantic revolution

5.1.1. USA

5.1.1.1. 1776-1783

5.1.1.2. Breakaway from the UK

5.1.1.3. "no taxation without representation"

5.1.1.4. Lafayette

5.1.2. France

5.1.2.1. Roots

5.1.2.1.1. Bankrupted State

5.1.2.1.2. Legitimacy loss for the Crown

5.1.2.1.3. Prestige loss on the international level

5.1.2.2. Main Elements

5.1.2.2.1. 5 may 1789: General Estate

5.1.2.2.2. 20 june 1789: Tennis Court Oath

5.1.2.2.3. 14 July 1789: Bastille

5.1.2.2.4. 4 august 1789: Privileges' Abolition

5.1.2.2.5. 26 August 1789: DDHC

5.1.2.2.6. 1799: Napoleon's Coup

5.1.2.2.7. 2 December 1804: Napoleon = Emperor

5.1.2.2.8. 1814: 1st Abdication

5.1.2.2.9. 1815: Waterloo and 2nd Abdication

5.1.3. Haïti

5.1.3.1. a preemptive rebellion by conservative planters against the new antislavery regime in Paris

5.1.3.2. a veritable uprising by the largest slave population outside the United States and Brazil

5.1.3.3. an attempt by the "gens de couleur" to break the dominance of whites in a society shot through with racial discrimination.

5.1.3.4. 1791-1804

5.1.4. Latin America

5.1.4.1. 1810-1926

5.1.4.2. 2 sides

5.1.4.2.1. Creoles sides: full breakaway from Spain

5.1.4.2.2. Moderate one: still keeping so ties with Spain but with liberal constitution

5.1.5. Consequences and Influences

5.1.5.1. 1825: Coup to push for liberalisation. Failed and “Decembrists” arrested.

5.1.6. Spain

5.1.6.1. 1812: Drafting of liberal Constitution of Cadiz

5.1.6.2. 1814: return to power of the King and Abrogation of Constitution of Cadiz

5.1.6.3. 1816-19: reconquest of Southern America

5.1.6.4. 1920: crushed

5.1.7. Revolutionary Legacy

5.1.7.1. Representation and vote

5.1.7.2. Constitution and rule of law

5.1.7.3. End of privileges and feudal rights

5.1.7.4. 1st generation of human rights

5.1.7.5. Politicization of the populations

5.1.7.6. Centralized bureaucratic State

5.1.8. Congress of Vienna

5.1.8.1. 1814 - 1815

5.1.8.2. A lot of new topics are discussed (1815-1825 all around Europe)

5.1.8.2.1. Religion

5.1.8.2.2. The Congress of Vienna acknowledge the Freedom of the Seas.

5.1.8.2.3. The Congress of Vienna abolished the Slave Trade but still slaves.

5.1.8.3. Reactionism

5.1.8.3.1. "They have learned nothing, and forgotten nothing” - Talleyrand

5.1.8.3.2. Restorations

5.1.8.4. Redraw of the European Map

5.1.8.4.1. States border

5.1.8.4.2. Germany: 39 German states (more than 500 before)

5.1.8.5. The alliance of the Throne and Altar

5.1.8.5.1. Police system to crush any revolution ideas

5.1.8.5.2. Russia, Prussia, Austria, UK (more ambiguous) and then France

5.1.8.6. International reaction

5.1.8.6.1. 1823: Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed and backed by the UK in order to prevent any European Restauration in America

5.1.8.7. Slow dissolution of the Vienna System

5.1.8.7.1. 1848-49

5.1.8.7.2. Crimean War (1853-56) because Vienna system did not clarify the place of Ottoman empire

5.1.8.7.3. Franco-Prussian War (1870-71)

5.2. liberal revolution of 1830

5.2.1. Romantic revolutions

5.2.1.1. France

5.2.1.1.1. Tensions with Charles X

5.2.1.1.2. Revolution = “Les Trois Glorieuses” = 27, 28, 29 July 1830 = abdication of Charles X

5.2.1.1.3. New king, Orleanist = Louis-Phillipe “the bourgeois king” = more liberal

5.2.1.2. Belgium

5.2.1.2.1. Belgium won its independence against the Netherlands with the help of France 1830

5.2.2. Other uprisings

5.2.2.1. Italy

5.2.2.1.1. Mazzini creates “Young Italy” movement for the unification of Italian states

5.2.2.1.2. Revolution crushed by Austrian that had some Italian territories under patronage (mostly north territories)

5.2.2.2. Switzerland

5.2.2.2.1. peacefully admendment of the constitution

5.2.2.3. Portuguese civil war 1828-1834

5.2.2.3.1. opposition of 2 brothers Pedro (liberal) and Miguel (absolutist)

5.2.2.3.2. liberals helped by Italy, German states and France (Louis-Philipe wanted a more liberal image)

5.2.2.4. Poland, Cadet Revolution (1830-31)

5.2.2.4.1. Crushed by Nicholas I 's army

5.2.2.4.2. Poland is fully integrated to the Russian Empire = no more relative autonomy

5.3. People' spring 1848

5.3.1. roots

5.3.1.1. ideals

5.3.1.1.1. nationalism: freedom, independence

5.3.1.1.2. liberalism: economic freedom, constitutions

5.3.1.1.3. for Charles Pouthas, 3 trends

5.3.1.2. economic crisis

5.3.1.2.1. Economic crisis is first an agrarian crisis

5.3.1.2.2. “Since the commencement of the 18th century there has been no serious revolution in Europe which has not been preceded by a commercial and financial crisis” -Karl Marx

5.3.1.2.3. Spoere, Mark and Berger 2001 “economic crisis and the European revolution of 1848” => agricultural crisis => economical crisis => revolution

5.3.2. Italy

5.3.2.1. not unified: 7 differents states (Papal state, Kingdom of 2 Sicily, Piedmont kingdom, Spanish Bourbon...) + Austria control on north territories

5.3.2.1.1. no confederation

5.3.2.1.2. no elected assembly

5.3.2.1.3. social and political privilegies

5.3.2.1.4. no industrialization

5.3.2.2. fall 1847 = Uprising in Sicily (women rebellion)

5.3.2.3. Risorgimiento movement for a unified Italy but different conceptions of the final state

5.3.2.3.1. republican state = Mazzini

5.3.2.3.2. confederation under Pope patronage

5.3.2.3.3. unification of Italy and leadership of the kingdom of Piedmont

5.3.2.4. failure

5.3.2.4.1. revolution defeated by Austrians and Frenchs (intervention of Bonaparte for the Pope, conservative party)

5.3.2.4.2. Piedmont king abdicated replaced by his son Victor Emmanuel the IInd

5.3.3. France

5.3.3.1. February 1848: revolution against Louis-Phillipe because of limiting voting rights and censorship

5.3.3.2. IInd Republic

5.3.3.2.1. Social policies

5.3.3.2.2. June: new insurrection because of end of the Workshop

5.3.3.3. End

5.3.3.3.1. December 1848: Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte elected President

5.3.3.3.2. 1849: sent an expeditionary force to crush the roman revolution

5.3.3.3.3. 1851: Coup of L-N Bonaparte ; beginning of the IInd Empire

5.3.4. Austrian empire

5.3.4.1. great diversity of the empire (27 millions of inhabitants)

5.3.4.1.1. 8 million of German out of 27 million of inhabitants

5.3.4.1.2. germans, Czech, croats, slovac... => national aspirations are a ferment for the end of the empire

5.3.4.2. Political renewal

5.3.4.2.1. exil of Metternich

5.3.4.2.2. Abdication of Ferdinand Ier (The Emperor). Replace by Francis-Joseph

5.3.4.3. Hungary

5.3.4.3.1. 3 trends

5.3.4.3.2. nationalist movement for independence

5.3.4.3.3. peasants wanted the end of serfdom

5.3.4.3.4. failure

5.3.4.4. german states

5.3.4.4.1. german confederation (39 states assembly) but power held by Vienna

5.3.4.4.2. idea of german independence

5.3.4.4.3. competition between Prussia and Austria to rule Germany + divisions (catholics/ protestants...)

5.3.4.5. poland

5.3.4.5.1. 1846 polish nationalist (upper-class) in cracow = revolt against Prussian/ Austrian rules

5.3.4.5.2. but peasants still under feudalism

5.3.5. outcomes

5.3.5.1. Universal suffrage in Germany Austria and France

5.3.5.2. Abolition of slavery in France

5.3.5.3. Freedom of press and freedom of speech

5.3.5.4. Austria = "neo-absolutist" empire = centralization of administration and army

6. Imperialism

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. “Imperialism can then be used to refer to a particular form of expansion, one marked by inequality and subordination, and by the integration of a client or satellite state into the more powerful host or ‘mother’ country. Note, however, that integration is always incomplete: an empire remains a multi-ethnic conglomerate; if it assimilates subject peoples fully, it becomes an enlarged nation state.” – Blanning

6.1.2. “On this view, imperialism is a large branch of the study of power in international relations, and is not confined to constitutional or even political ties. In other words, imperialism can exist without an empire being created.” - Blanning

6.1.2.1. Unofficial Imperial Rule

6.1.2.1.1. Ottoman Empire under the influence of the UK (because money was borrowed)

6.1.2.1.2. China

6.1.2.1.3. 1907: Formal treaty btw Russia and UK to divide their sphere of influence in Persia

6.2. Motive and Interestss

6.2.1. Prestige

6.2.2. Military goal

6.2.2.1. Get safe harbors around the world

6.2.2.1.1. to supply the navy with coal

6.2.2.1.2. to "rest"

6.2.2.2. Allow test of new Weapons & Strategies

6.2.2.2.1. Dum-dum Bullets

6.2.3. Economic Interests

6.2.3.1. New Markets

6.2.3.2. New sources of ressources

6.2.3.2.1. Rice in Indochina

6.2.3.2.2. Rubber in the Dutch East Indies (1/3 of the World's Production)

6.2.3.3. Easily exploitable workers (= less rights overseas)

6.2.4. Civilizing Mission

6.2.4.1. Derives from Enlightenment and the Willingness to "share" it

6.2.4.1.1. “The superior races have a right because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races.” - Jules Ferry

6.2.4.2. To present Empire as forces of goods

6.2.4.2.1. Health

6.2.4.2.2. Peace

6.2.4.2.3. Civilization

6.2.4.3. “smokescreen to hide the violent reality”

6.2.4.3.1. Based on force

6.2.4.3.2. Leopold the IInd

6.2.4.4. Refusal to grant rights to the new Western-like Elite

6.2.4.4.1. What’s the point of the Mission Civilisatrice?

6.2.5. Necessity to colonize before the other = sometimes more a race than a rational action.

6.3. Tools

6.3.1. Exploration

6.3.1.1. Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904, Welsh): Africa expeditions, 1870s

6.3.1.1.1. Find the source of the Nile

6.3.1.2. The so-called « Great Game » in Central Asia

6.3.1.2.1. Sven Hedin (1865-1952, Swedish): cartographer on expeditions to Xinjiang and Tibet, 1880s-1900s

6.3.1.2.2. Aurel Stein (1862-1943, Hungarian/British), archaeologist on 4 expeditions to Central Asia, 1900-1930

6.3.1.3. Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza

6.3.1.3.1. Roman / French Explorator

6.3.1.3.2. Established the French Kongo during one of his Journey

6.3.1.4. 1911: exploration of the Arctic and Antarctic (linked but no colonization)

6.3.2. Extensive usage of Data

6.3.2.1. Carthography

6.3.2.2. Statistics

6.3.3. Usage of Imagery

6.3.3.1. Maps of the Empires distributed

6.3.3.2. Propaganda

6.3.3.2.1. Posters

6.3.3.2.2. Films

6.3.4. Adaptation of the Administrative Identity to the territory

6.3.4.1. Political diversity of the colonial entities / administration

6.3.4.1.1. Not always the same administration

6.3.4.2. Colonies directly administer

6.3.4.2.1. HK

6.3.4.2.2. Jamaica

6.3.4.2.3. Algeria

6.3.4.3. Colonies with a greater degree of self-administration

6.3.4.3.1. Dominions

6.3.4.3.2. Protectorates

6.3.4.4. Private colonies

6.3.4.4.1. German East Africa company

6.3.4.4.2. South Africa

6.3.4.5. Personal possessions

6.3.4.5.1. Leopold Congo (Congo Free State)

6.3.4.5.2. Coco Island (Private possession of a family)

6.3.4.5.3. Sarawak (a small Muslim state)

6.3.4.6. Territorial Concessions

6.3.4.6.1. China

6.3.4.7. Spheres of Influence

6.3.4.7.1. China

6.3.4.7.2. Persia

6.3.4.7.3. Canning: "Spanish America is free, and if we do not mismanage our affairs badly, she is English."

6.3.4.8. Creation of Specific Jurisdictional Codes

6.3.4.8.1. Code de l’Indigénat in the French Empire

6.3.5. Limits of the Imperial Grip

6.3.5.1. A persistent undermanned administration

6.3.5.1.1. administrator ratio

6.3.5.1.2. Indochina: 1 doctor 160 000 administrator (1 for 2000 in Metropolitan France)

6.3.5.1.3. Dutch Indies and Mozambique: 1% of the local population in primary school

6.3.5.1.4. Understaffed because it had to be cheap

6.3.5.2. Difficult Control of the Terrain

6.3.5.2.1. Outburst of violence to show power

6.3.5.2.2. Colonial conquest difficult

6.3.5.2.3. Nominal Conquest easy but territorial appropriation really slow

6.3.5.2.4. Some locals fled into forest

6.3.5.2.5. Resistance to Imperial Rule

6.3.5.3. The necessity to rely on local authorities or intermediaries to rule

6.3.5.3.1. No big army

6.3.5.3.2. Needed the consent of the local population

6.3.5.3.3. Form of co-optation or retribution with often integrated local elites

6.3.5.3.4. A traditional order largely untouched

6.3.5.3.5. Gandhi

6.3.5.4. Opposition at Home

6.3.5.4.1. political opposition

6.3.5.4.2. Media Opposition

6.4. Culture

6.4.1. Excavations

6.4.1.1. Dunhuang Buddhist manuscripts

6.4.2. philology

6.4.2.1. Philology, traditionally, the study of the history of language, including the historical study of literary texts. It is also called comparative philology when the emphasis is on the comparison of the historical states of different languages. The philological tradition is one of painstaking textual analysis, often related to literary history and using a fairly traditional descriptive framework.

6.4.2.1.1. Artistic influence in Europe

6.4.2.1.2. Literature is seen as the expression of a nation

6.4.2.2. Enforced a vision of History and Tradition (Siraj Ahmed)

6.4.2.2.1. "Late eighteenth-century colonial scholars ... learned India’s sacred languages (Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit); decided which religious manuscripts would become authoritative; translated, edited, and printed them; and made their precepts binding law."

6.4.2.2.2. "Tradition suddenly became text-based, standardized, philologically defined, and state-administered.The new philology acquired global reach and authority only because colonial rule reconstructed traditions around the world on a historical foundation."

6.4.2.2.3. “The European encounter with countless non-European languages and archaic literatures initiated the new philology, which identified the genealogy of every nation with the history of its language. The new philology presumed, as a consequence, to reconstruct not just authentic texts but at the same time the development of different peoples.”

6.4.2.3. Linked to law and Colonial Rule

6.4.2.3.1. "The invocation of philology as the humanities’ necessary basis thus unwittingly hews to colonial policy. Indeed ... the historical mission of philology reached fulfillment with the establishment of colonial law" - Siraj Ahmed

6.4.2.3.2. Sir William Jones (1746–94)

6.4.3. Cultural Influences

6.4.3.1. Artistic movements

6.4.3.1.1. Orientalism (17th - 18th centuries)

6.4.3.2. Indentification of European Artists to "Natives"

6.4.3.2.1. Gaugin

6.4.3.2.2. Treasure Island of Stevenson

6.4.3.3. Meiji RESTORATION

6.4.3.3.1. Development of a Westernized Style of Literature

6.4.3.3.2. Development of a Westernized Style of Painting

6.4.3.3.3. Development of a Westernized Style of Dressing

6.4.3.4. Sports

6.4.3.4.1. British sports spread

6.4.3.4.2. Non-European sports adopted

6.4.3.5. Democratization of Tea in England thanks to global trade

6.5. A Rivalry?

6.5.1. Mostly cooperation btw Imperial Powers

6.5.1.1. Military cooperation

6.5.1.1.1. military expeditions in China

6.5.1.2. Cooperation in Exploration

6.5.1.2.1. French conquest of Indochina thanks to British telegraphs and coal stations

6.5.1.3. Cooperation in administration

6.5.1.3.1. Condominiums

6.5.2. Often clashes

6.5.2.1.  Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05

6.5.2.1.1. No real massive war

6.5.2.1.2. Tussle over Manchuria/Korea

6.5.2.2. Boers vs British

6.5.2.2.1. No "mission civilisatrice"

6.5.2.2.2. Wanted to take the golds mines in Transvaalt

6.5.3. Western Empires differed from the "normal" Empires in History by their cooperation, their global scale and their capacity to create a powerful narrative

6.6. The Gun boat diplomacy

6.6.1. Pre - Gunboat Diplomacy

6.6.1.1. Early contacts with the Jesuists

6.6.1.1.1. Matteo Ricci (1552-1610)

6.6.1.1.2. Trade roads but only through Canton

6.6.1.2. Ambassies

6.6.1.2.1. Macartney Embassy

6.6.1.2.2. Amherst Embassy, 1816-17

6.6.1.2.3. Problematic of the Kowtow

6.6.1.3. Relative decline

6.6.1.3.1. The White Lotus Rebellion

6.6.2. 1st Opium War (1839-1842)

6.6.2.1. Causes

6.6.2.1.1. Trade

6.6.2.1.2. China's Policy

6.6.2.2. War

6.6.2.2.1. February of 1840, formal declaration of War to the Qing Dynasty

6.6.2.2.2. June 1840: Captain Charles Elliot, (local British authority in Canton) face a popular uprising outside of Canton

6.6.2.2.3. 1841: new expedition Henry Pottinger,

6.6.2.3. Consequences

6.6.2.3.1. Opium is even more exported to China

6.6.2.3.2. The Emperor's authority is underminded

6.6.2.3.3. Establish a new strategy: the Gunboat diplomacy

6.6.2.3.4. China looks weak, the other Western Powers will take advantage of this too

6.6.3. Japan's openning 1853-54

6.6.3.1. Commodore Mathew Perry (USA)

6.6.3.1.1. Arrived with a fleet in the Edo Bay (the Black Ships)

6.6.3.1.2. Brings some gifts (mini-locomotives, telegraphs) and threaten the Japanese to repeat what happened in China

6.6.3.1.3. Treaty of Peace and Amity (aka Kanagawa; i.e. Yokohama), 1854 Ii Naosuke (chief policy maker of the Tokugawa shogunate)

6.6.3.1.4. Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1858 Yokohama (treaty port)

6.6.3.2. Japan is shocked and will seek to modernize

6.6.4. 2nd Opium War or “Arrow”War, (1856-1858/1860)

6.6.4.1. Causes

6.6.4.1.1. The British do not get the volume of trade that they expected.

6.6.4.1.2. The Chinese cease a British Boat and arrested for Piracy

6.6.4.2. WAR

6.6.4.2.1. 1858: repeat of what happened in 1841

6.6.4.2.2. The Chinese had a lot on their hand (revolts, ecological crisis…) so they gave up easily

6.6.4.2.3. 26 June 1858: Treaty of Tientsin

6.6.4.2.4. 1860 : the terms are not followed by the Qing dynasty so the European burn the Summer Palace

6.6.4.2.5. 24 October 1860: Convention of Peking

6.6.4.3. Consequences

6.6.4.3.1. Terrible loss of prestige

6.6.4.3.2. China is slowly divided btw Western Powers

6.6.4.3.3. China became slowly a producer and then exporter of Opium

6.6.5. Big Stick Diplomacy

6.6.5.1. In consequence of the Monroe doctrine, Teddy Roosevelt because of its strong navy, forced all America to surrender

6.6.5.1.1. 1885 Panama crisis

6.6.6. 1911: Agadir Crisis

6.6.6.1. Opposed France and Germany

6.6.6.2. France gained Morocco in exchange to territories from French Congo

6.7. Post-1860, the Race

6.7.1. Conferences

6.7.1.1. Brussels Geographic Conference of 1876

6.7.1.1.1. Initiated by Belgium’s King Leopold II for the “uplift” of Africa

6.7.1.1.2. Results in creation of Association Internationale pour l’Exploration et la Civilisation de l’Afrique Centrale (International Africa Association)

6.7.1.2. Berlin Conference of 1884-85

6.7.1.2.1. Initiated by Germany’s Bismarck

6.7.1.2.2. Established the terms of the Colonization of Africa

6.7.2. French Indochina

6.7.2.1. Tonkin War, 1882-83/Sino-French War, 1884-85

6.7.2.1.1. Army stalemate, May 1883 Rivière killed

6.7.2.1.2. Aug 1883 French navy takes Hué forts

6.7.2.1.3. Hué treaty of 1883, with ailing Emp Tu Duc (1829-1883)

6.7.2.1.4. Liu Yongfu + Qing’slocal garrisons resume war

6.7.2.1.5. Tianjin Accord & new Hué Treaty of 1884

6.7.2.1.6. More war along Chinese coast (Fuzhou), 1885

6.7.2.1.7. Bad coverage for the French Side

6.7.2.2. Treaty of Saigon, 1886 had created French Cochinchina

6.7.2.3. Union Indochinoise, 1887

6.7.2.3.1. Vietnam (Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin), Cambodia and Laos

6.7.2.3.2. Why Indochina:

6.7.2.3.3. How?

6.7.3. Scramble for China

6.7.3.1. Concessions extracted thanks to the Tianjin Convention

6.7.3.1.1. Hypercolonialism

6.7.3.2. Semi-colonized -Status

6.7.3.2.1. US ‘Open Door Policy,’ 1899

6.7.3.2.2. Officially sovereign but, loss of...

6.7.4. The Great Game

6.7.4.1. Who?

6.7.4.1.1. Russia

6.7.4.1.2. UK

6.7.4.2. From the late 19th to the early 20th

6.7.4.3. Why

6.7.4.3.1. Russian Growing power

6.7.4.3.2. Competition over UK and Russia's spheres of Influence in the Region (mostly around Afghanistan and Persia)

6.7.4.4. Resolution

6.7.4.4.1. 1895: Pamir Boundary Commission protocols

6.7.4.4.2. 1907: Anglo-Russian Convention

6.8. A New World Order

6.8.1. Racial order: racial politics come to the fore

6.8.1.1. rise of nationalism

6.8.1.2. “civilizing mission”

6.8.2. International order:

6.8.2.1. the construction of protectionist colonial empires and sphere of influence in Africa, Asia & Latin America

6.8.3. Financial order:

6.8.3.1. international lending institutions

6.8.3.1.1. HSBC (built on Opium trafficking) financed the recaptured of Xinjiang

6.8.3.2. Diasporas

6.8.4. Informational order:

6.8.4.1. statistics

6.8.4.2. journalism

6.8.4.3. academic disciplines

6.8.5. National order (e.g. China/Japan):

6.8.5.1. Coastal-inland dynamic changes

6.8.5.2. urban-rural dynamic changes

6.8.6. Geopolitical

6.8.6.1. World dominated by few countries...

6.8.6.1.1. UK

6.8.6.1.2. France

6.8.6.1.3. Germany

6.8.6.2. But influenced by others

6.8.6.2.1. Japan

6.8.6.2.2. USA

6.8.6.2.3. etc...

6.9. "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” – MAO

6.10. "Like the capitalist system, imperialism evolved into something more complex than theft. It was embodied in exchange relationships. And since exchange could occur peacefully, without the use of force, some, like [Harvard political economist Joseph] Schumpeter, presumed that capitalism and imperialism were anti-thetical. Yet force has been used to accelerate the onset of exchange relationships, to preserve them, and to improve the terms of exchange." - Alice Amsden

7. Ideologies

7.1. What is an IDEOLOGY?

7.1.1. Britannica

7.1.1.1. ideology, a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones. It is a system of ideas that aspires both to explain the world and to change it.

7.1.2. Fuller

7.1.2.1. Ideologic phenomenon (neutral ideology, negative ideology = not flexible enough?)

7.1.2.2. A framework of ideas / beliefs

7.1.2.3. A mythicization of reality, according to Marx

7.2. Liberalism

7.2.1. Main ideas

7.2.1.1. 2 aspects of liberalism: political and economic. Based on rationality of human beings, liberty of thought, progress, human benevolence… and individualism: individual comes first.

7.2.1.1.1. Social implications

7.2.1.1.2. Political implications

7.2.1.1.3. Economic Implications

7.2.1.2. Figures of liberalism

7.2.1.2.1. A. SMITH (Original influencer)

7.2.1.2.2. J. MILL

7.2.1.2.3. B. CONSTANT

7.2.1.2.4. William Wilberforce: fought for slave trade abolition = Slave trade act 1807 (UK)

7.2.1.2.5. A. de TOCQUEVILLE

7.2.1.3. Liberalists: bourgeoisie, most educated and wealthiest => benefits from liberalism and free trade

7.2.2. liberalism paradoxes

7.2.2.1. Development of self-ruling ideology AND empires

7.2.2.2. Free market ideology AND increasing of state capacity to intervene

7.2.2.3. K. Polanyi The great transformation. For him the “laisse-faire” is a construction of the State

7.2.2.3.1. "Laissez-faire was planned; planning was not” - Polanyi

7.2.2.3.2. Thought that the idea of ​​a self-adjusting market was purely utopian

7.2.3. abotionnism

7.2.3.1. Civil Societies

7.2.3.1.1. “Ladies society for the relief of Negro slaves” 1780’s -1790’s

7.2.3.2. Main steps

7.2.3.2.1. 1815: Treaty of Paris = abolition of Slave trade in 8 Europeans countries

7.2.3.2.2. 1833 = UK abolished slavery in its empire

7.2.3.2.3. 1848: French 2nd Abolition

7.2.3.2.4. USA civil war (1861-1865)

7.2.3.2.5. 1888: Brazilian Abolition

7.2.3.2.6. 1889: Ottoman Abolition

7.2.4. Hellenism

7.2.4.1. Greek independence movement against Ottoman empire started in 1821

7.2.4.2. Philhellenism movement = supported by liberals

7.2.4.3. Wide Support in the Western World

7.2.4.3.1. Delacroix, "Le Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi" (1826) or "Le Massacre de Chios" (1824)

7.2.4.3.2. B. CONSTANT : Appel aux nations chrétiennes en faveur des Grecs (1825);

7.2.4.3.3. Chateaubriand

7.2.4.4. military support Battle of Navarino 1827 = UK, France, and Russia alliance against ottomans = defeated in 3 days (last battle with sailing boats)

7.2.4.5. 1830: Greek independence

7.2.4.6. Delacroix, Le Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi, 1826

7.3. Democrats

7.3.1. CHARTISM in the UK

7.3.1.1. Create the "people's charter" in 1838

7.3.1.2. To extend DEMOCRACY

7.3.1.2.1. Followed by manifestations

7.3.1.2.2. FAILED AT THE END

7.4. Feminism / Suffragettes

7.4.1. Situation

7.4.1.1. Husband = authority upon his wife

7.4.1.2. Women

7.4.1.2.1. Less paid

7.4.1.2.2. No political Rights

7.4.1.2.3. Less Economic rights

7.4.2. Early Feminism

7.4.2.1. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) (UK)

7.4.2.1.1. A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792

7.4.2.1.2. Early voice of radical feminist in the UK

7.4.2.1.3. One branch of “radicals” = people who asked for change (for the standard of the time) (mostly associated with the suffrage movement)..

7.4.2.2. Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) (Fr)

7.4.2.2.1. Déclaration des droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne (1791)

7.4.3. Advances

7.4.3.1. "Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less." - Susan B. Anthony, Suffragist

7.4.3.2. Political Rights

7.4.3.2.1. 1893: New Zealand opened suffrage to women (First in the World)

7.4.3.2.2. 1906: Suffrage in Finland (Autonomous Region within Russia)

7.4.3.2.3. 1912, the first woman delegate took her seat in the Bohemian Diet

7.4.3.3. Organizations

7.4.3.3.1. National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS)

7.4.3.3.2. Women's Social and Political Union

7.4.3.4. International Events

7.4.3.4.1. Three main international women's organisations

7.4.3.4.2. Leila Rupp, characterized the international movement of which the ICW, the IAW and the WILPF formed the core as “bourgeois and dominated by women of European origin.

7.5. Socialism

7.5.1. Roots of socialism

7.5.1.1. roots in enlightenment = Rousseau, Spinoza, Milton

7.5.1.1.1. “The fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody” - Rousseau

7.5.1.2. 1789: process of radicalization, further equalitarian society

7.5.1.3. Gracchus Babeuf ; "conspiracy of the equals" (1796)

7.5.1.3.1. Proto-socialist republic

7.5.1.3.2. Abolition of private property

7.5.1.3.3. Equality in society

7.5.2. Early socialism1820-1848

7.5.2.1. ideas defended by upper class, marginals intellectuals, idea of technocracy

7.5.2.2. Henri de Saint-Simon

7.5.2.2.1. Government served the interest of rich people.

7.5.2.2.2. Need reform of government in the interest of workers and common good.

7.5.2.2.3. Famous among polytechnician

7.5.2.2.4. "Le Globe" = journal of St-Simon Ideas

7.5.2.3. Robert Owen

7.5.2.3.1. created model villages in Britain and United states: "New Harmony" ; lasted 2 years...

7.5.2.4. Charles Fourier

7.5.2.4.1. Promoted the right to work : moral obligation of state to give work.

7.5.2.4.2. Creation of Phalanstère (still one today in France: Familistère de Guise)

7.5.2.5. Many critics

7.5.2.5.1. "Social-sects" - V. Hugo

7.5.2.5.2. Marx and Engels critics in the Communist Manifesto

7.5.3. Marx socialism 1848

7.5.3.1. critics of early socialism as "utopian socialism"

7.5.3.2. Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto (1848)

7.5.3.2.1. birth of Marxism

7.5.3.3. class struggle, opposition bourgeoisie and proletariat

7.5.4. International Communist

7.5.4.1. Federations of workers unions all around the world

7.5.4.2. 1864, 1st international

7.5.4.3. 1889, 2nd International

7.6. Nationalism

7.6.1. Definition

7.6.1.1. britannica definition: Nationalism is an ideology that emphasizes loyalty, devotion, or allegiance to a nation or nation-state and holds that such obligations outweigh other individual or group interests.

7.6.1.1.1. SHIFT: before, women were raising children for their families but then, it was for the Nation’s Sake

7.6.2. Approaches to nationalism

7.6.2.1. Social Darwinism and Liberalism, and the nation (1830s to 1880s):

7.6.2.1.1. Nation as phase in human evolution/progress; not all have reached this stage: need to be « helped »

7.6.2.2. Ernest Renan, « Qu’est ce qu'une nation ? » (1882)

7.6.2.2.1. Nation as a « daily plebiscite »

7.6.2.2.2. « Forgetting, and getting history wrong, is essential for the formation of the nation »

7.6.2.3. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (1983)

7.6.2.3.1. Genealogy of nationalism traced to the colonial state

7.6.2.3.2. Not the intent of the colonial state, but the colonial state gave the grammar of its governance, the ingredients

7.6.2.3.3. Census (demo), Map (geo), Museum (anthro) + mechanical production

7.6.2.4. Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (1983)

7.6.2.4.1. Nationalism: ‘primarily a principle which holds that the political & national unit should be congruent’

7.6.2.5. Eric Hobsbawm, ed., The Invention of Tradition (1983)

7.6.2.5.1. No need for a precise definition of nation: it is a concept: its past is invented

7.6.2.5.2. tradition suggest that before there was no change

7.6.2.6. René Rémond

7.6.2.6.1. The French & Atlantic Revolutions = emphasize on Free Will

7.6.2.6.2. Tradition = emphasize on Tangible facts

7.6.2.7. Nation = 2 essential components

7.6.2.7.1. The tangible existence of nationality (common features such as history, language)

7.6.2.7.2. More importantly a feeling, an impetus of belonging to this nationality

7.6.2.7.3. Different conceptions

7.6.3. Stages of Nationalism

7.6.3.1. three main stages of nationalism of existence (René Girault) during the 19th century = support national emancipation

7.6.3.1.1. … - 1830: liberal

7.6.3.1.2. 1830 – 1848: democratic

7.6.3.1.3. 1848 – 1870: conservative

7.6.3.2. No political color

7.6.3.2.1. "a mould that calls for an ideology"-René Rémond

7.6.3.3. Then, nationalism of power: nationalism in confrontation

7.6.3.4. THE 19th century isn’t the century of the Nation but the birth of it

7.6.3.4.1. Large population living under Empires

7.6.4. Worldwide phenomenon

7.6.4.1. Eurore, latin America, USA, Japan, Egypt (Urabi movement of 1881-1882), Ottoman, China (Boxer)

7.6.4.2. Overs the whole span of the century

7.6.4.3. NATION DO NOT ALWAYS = TO A STATE

7.6.4.4. Creation of Antagonism through Media

7.6.4.4.1. dehumanisation

7.6.4.4.2. citizen-soldiers taught to hate

7.6.4.4.3. Franco-German mutual Hate

8. population movements

8.1. migrations

8.1.1. Slave trade

8.1.1.1. key component of british economic development => market for manufactured products

8.1.2. 3 areas of movements

8.1.2.1. from India and China to southern Asia

8.1.2.1.1. indian moving within the british empire

8.1.2.2. from europe to americas

8.1.2.3. from China and Russia to northern Asia

8.1.3. reasons

8.1.3.1. rebellions in China lead to population movements

8.1.3.2. 19th century = migrant workers (18th century = slave trade)

8.1.3.3. migrations linked to economic cycles, if recession workers came back home

8.1.4. segregation

8.1.4.1. Division of the world “black, white, yellow”

8.1.4.2. Nationalist concept => any nation should be able to include or exclude some population. 1882 Chinese exclusion act

8.1.4.3. paradox: US “savior of the people” and fear to the "infected" by immigration

8.1.4.4. rise of “only white” immigration policy:, Canada 1910, South Africa 1894

8.1.4.5. Transvaal (British colony) => Asiatic registration act. control of the population, fingerprint, id cart…

8.1.4.6. Ellis Island: medical control

8.1.4.7. Race = not biological concept but political construct based on politics and racial categories = very fluid to suit political and economic needs.

8.2. Contract labour regime

8.2.1. Ban of slavery but contract labour system = new form of slavery

8.2.2. idea of moral reform through work

8.2.3. origin of the word "Kidnapping" = kids sign a contract to work in exchange of money for the family

9. Industrial revolutions

9.1. 1st IR

9.1.1. Theories and Controversies

9.1.1.1. Evolution or Revolution?

9.1.1.1.1. Industrious Revolution: The Industrious Revolution was a period in early modern Europe lasting from approximately 1600 to 1800 in which household productivity and consumer demand increased despite the absence of major technological innovations that would mark the later Industrial Revolution.

9.1.1.1.2. F. BRAUDEL: evolution

9.1.1.1.3. P. O'Brien data analysis: between 1780 and 1861, GDP growth of Britain: only 1,5% per year => evolution more than revolution

9.1.1.2. Why Europe ?

9.1.1.2.1. POMERANZ

9.1.1.2.2. WEBER: "Protestant ethic and their rational pursuit of money" (NOT TAKEN SERIOUSLY)

9.1.1.2.3. Asian revisionist trend

9.1.1.2.4. D. NORTH: legal framework

9.1.1.2.5. R. MARTES: polycenric revolution

9.1.1.2.6. P. O’BRIEN

9.1.1.2.7. MARX Oriental despotism

9.1.1.2.8. D. LANDES: intellectual xenophobia of Qing China

9.1.1.2.9. WHY BRITAIN?

9.1.2. Factors

9.1.2.1. ROSTOW: precondition for Takeoff = technology, investment...

9.1.2.2. Enormous accumulation of Capital

9.1.2.2.1. New oligarchies of “Parvenue” (= new rich without the codes La Distinction de Bourdieu))

9.1.2.2.2. Only formal Equality (=before law) because enormous disparities

9.1.2.3. P. BAIROCH: Agricultural Revolution

9.1.2.3.1. Britain large scale farming estate

9.1.2.3.2. New methods

9.1.2.3.3. New crops

9.1.2.3.4. “Enclosure Acts”

9.1.3. Components

9.1.3.1. P. DEANE

9.1.3.1.1. New Technologies

9.1.3.1.2. Market Expansion

9.1.3.1.3. National and International market specialization

9.1.3.1.4. Urbanization & Factories

9.1.3.1.5. Human / animal energy → unanimate energy

9.1.3.1.6. Accumulation of technoligical capital

9.1.3.1.7. New Social Calsses

9.1.3.2. D. LANDES: Unbound Prometeus

9.1.3.2.1. craftsmanship → machines

9.1.3.2.2. New raw materials

9.1.4. SOCIAL Changes

9.1.4.1. New classes

9.1.4.2. concentration and control of workers

9.1.4.3. Mechanization

9.1.4.4. Division of Labour

9.1.4.5. Wage / hour

9.1.4.6. Urbanization

9.1.4.6.1. UK: 19.2% of urbans in 1800 / 67.4% in 1900

9.1.5. Consequences

9.1.5.1. End of the Malthusian Trap

9.1.5.2. "Speed" revolution

9.1.5.2.1. "Rain Steam and Speed" of W. Turner

9.1.5.2.2. Creation and extension of Railroads networks

9.1.5.3. Energetic Revolution

9.1.5.3.1. No more constraint

9.1.6. RESISTANCE

9.1.6.1. 1812: Luddites movement

9.1.6.1.1. Textile workers protesting against mechanization

9.1.6.1.2. For the 1st time, machines were broken

9.1.6.2. 1830-31: Captain Swing riot (UK)

9.1.6.2.1. Same but with Farmers

9.1.6.2.2. Delayed the introduction of this machines for 20 years

9.1.6.3. 1844: Weaver's Uprising (Silesia in Prussia)

9.1.6.3.1. Same as luddites

9.1.6.4. Historian E.P. Thompson: “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century” (1971)

9.1.6.4.1. People had the impression that mechanization was taking away their pride, their humanity at work

9.2. 2nd IR

9.2.1. components

9.2.1.1. energy: oil => produce a lot of energy

9.2.1.1.1. 1859: First oil well in Pennsylvania

9.2.1.2. Introduction of chemicals = best productivity of land

9.2.1.3. GB, France, Netherland … European and US presence in Asia = here to extract resources

9.2.1.3.1. palm oil

9.2.1.3.2. tin

9.2.1.3.3. rubber

9.2.1.4. development of transportation network

9.2.1.4.1. Railway = carry heavy goods on long distances

9.2.1.4.2. higher loading capacity

9.2.2. limits

9.2.2.1. Not a linear and uniform process

9.2.2.2. Horse = ancient mode of transport but in fact pic of use of horses => 1870’ 1880’ = after the train and before the car

9.2.2.3. All means of transportation did not disappears: “golden age” of the ship 19th century

9.2.2.4. Age of telegraph = golden age of mail bc telegraph was costly

9.3. Ecology

9.3.1. Extremely destructive

9.3.2. Polluting

10. "Great divergence"

10.1. Industrial

10.1.1. Pommeranz

10.1.1.1. economic differences between China and Europe were minimal until the nineteenth century

10.1.1.2. Studied differences btw UK and the Yangzi Delta

10.1.1.2.1. UK advantage because of wet mines

10.1.1.2.2. Yangzi Delta region: dry mines = risk of explosion

10.2. medical

10.2.1. Rogaski

10.2.1.1. "no single “Western medicine” that was different from and dominant over “Chinese medicine""

10.2.1.2. europeans believe in their medicine supremacy

10.2.1.3. "Western medical superiority was far from evident."

10.3. Historian Jurgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (2014)

10.3.1. “everything that shaped today’s world started in the West during the 19th century"

10.3.1.1. Modern = West or Modernity driven by the West ?

11. Science

11.1. medical progress

11.1.1. Crimean war 1853-1856

11.1.1.1. Russia V. France, GB, Ottoman empire

11.1.1.2. not a big war but importance of the sick bodies of the soldiers = 88% percent of the loss in France troops were because of diseases (typhois, cholera...)

11.1.1.3. role of Florence Nightingale (nurse) to identify illness because of poor hygiene, nutrition and ventilation

11.1.1.4. British called the ‘European Chinese,’, reference to the "Sick man of Asia"

11.1.2. hygienism

11.1.2.1. Medicine increased the efficiency of the army and aided the objectives of the expanding British empire

11.1.2.2. facilitate imperialism penetration

11.1.3. Red cross creation

11.1.3.1. roots

11.1.3.1.1. Solferino Battle 1859, France + Sardinia V. Austria

11.1.3.1.2. 1862: "Un souvenir de Solferino" Henry Dunant = denounces the aftermaths of the battle

11.1.3.2. 1863 : Creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) =NGO. protection of soldiers and prisonners of war

11.1.3.3. national red crosses creation

11.2. Scientific racism

11.2.1. hierarchy

11.2.1.1. Gobineau = « essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines » superiority of european race

11.2.1.2. Strangers exposed as attraction = London, Chicago, France…

11.2.1.3. universal exposition (Paris 1881) “Jardin d’acclimatation” = stranger get used as European climate

11.2.1.4. Race = not biological concept but political construct based on politics and racial categories = very fluid to suit political and economic needs.

11.2.1.4.1. Some races as warriors : birth of the Martial forces

11.2.1.5. "Gentlemen we must speak more loudly and more honestly! We must say openly that indeed the higher races have a right over the lower races” - Jules Ferry

11.3. Scientific progress

11.3.1. Cartography

11.3.1.1. data useful for trade, administration, and exploration.

11.3.1.2. 1841 Everest = map of India, use of trigonometry

11.3.1.3. 1798 = Napoleon campaign in Egypt

11.3.2. Unification of time

11.3.2.1. 1881 GMT time Greenwich meridian = official measure of time for the entire world

11.3.3. evolution theory

11.3.3.1. Evolution theory = Darwin 1859, On the origins of Species

11.3.3.2. Against religious dogmas, creationist theory

12. Shrinking or expansion of the world?

12.1. Shrinking

12.1.1. more commmunication (telegraph,...)

12.1.1.1. 29 million communications in 1816 => 101 million 1880

12.1.1.2. GB-> India: 5-8 month for a letter before 1840’s => after 6 weeks for a letter

12.1.2. Shrinking in physical way

12.1.2.1. faster travel

12.2. Expansion

12.2.1. From community to society

12.2.1.1. People saw their horizons being hugely extended

12.2.1.1.1. Community = people you know

12.2.1.1.2. Society = people you think you know

12.2.1.2. Development of transports

12.2.1.3. Development of Media

13. Emergence of the modern State

13.1. the "State"

13.1.1. instrument of power (police, army, legal system)

13.1.2. system = large institution with people sharing political values, education system... civil society

13.1.3. Foucault "Governmentality" = all ways in which lives are govern by political forces

13.1.4. James C. Scott "Seing like a state"

13.1.4.1. All revolve around the idea of legibility to the state

13.1.4.1.1. LEGIBILITY = visibility. Typography. the quality of type that affects the perceptibility of a word, line, or paragraph of printed matter.

13.1.4.2. State's visibility vs Local's visibility

13.1.4.2.1. PLANNING by a bureaucrat hundreds of miles away without any local knowledge

13.1.4.2.2. VS local knowledge which knows flood, climate…

13.1.4.2.3. The State is reading from above

13.2. Different forms of states

13.2.1. Centralized state

13.2.1.1. France

13.2.1.2. Prussia

13.2.2. Diffused state

13.2.2.1. UK

13.2.2.2. USA

13.2.3. Weak state clashing with religion

13.2.3.1. Ottoman Empire

13.2.4. Colonial world in the hand of private companies

13.2.4.1. East Indian Company

13.2.4.2. South Africa Company (Cecil Rhodes)

13.2.5. village leaders and autonomous tribes with distant relationship with the ruler

13.2.5.1. Arabic Peninsula

13.2.5.2. Persia

13.3. Lost modernities / Confucian Agenda

13.3.1. Social Authority

13.3.2. Modern Education

13.3.3. Universal Dimension

13.3.4. Improving humanity

13.3.4.1. Idea of population’s Welfare

13.3.4.2. "Mandate of Heaven" idea (China)

13.3.5. People are good

13.4. bureaucratization

13.4.1. administer large state and control the territory

13.4.1.1. seeing population and land as state's resources

13.4.1.2. civil servants, trained officials

13.4.1.2.1. in France = Bourgeois and noble

13.4.1.2.2. Russia, Austria = lower nobility and declass people

13.4.1.2.3. India = strong admnistration and civil service

13.4.2. keep the cash flowing

13.4.2.1. should provide public services

13.4.3. organize justice

13.4.3.1. British putting an end to custom of Sati in India

13.4.3.2. no more privilegies = equality before the law

13.5. Militarization

13.5.1. militarization of the society

13.5.1.1. FRATERNITE = brother in arms = conscription = arming the masses, fight for the country (nationalism)

13.5.1.2. constant preparation of war

13.5.1.2.1. development of obligatory circonstription + defined manhood

13.5.1.2.2. opposition to circonscription in UK (only applied during WW)

13.5.1.2.3. global strategic thinking to become hegemon

13.5.1.3. exclusion of women = cannot become soldiers because their role was to give life and not death "natural order"

13.5.1.4. "En temps de guerre la loi se tait" Cicéron

13.5.1.5. "monopoly on legitimate use of violence" Weber

13.5.1.5.1. tradition authority = dynasty legitimation

13.5.1.5.2. Charisma (Bonaparte)

13.5.1.5.3. the rational and legal piller = based on law

13.5.1.6. weapons = riffle, long range artillery, ironclad (used against chineses) machine gun (Maxim gun)

13.5.1.6.1. Rimbaud = illegal smuggler of weapons in West Africa (Ethiopia) = Menelik the II defeat the Italian (Adoua 1896)

13.5.1.6.2. creation of concentration camps during the Cuban civil war

13.5.2. control

13.5.2.1. 1864: Geneva convention

13.5.2.2. 1899 Hague convention control on war's methods, limits on weapons, arms (interdiction of poison gas, to kill surrendered soldiers....)

13.5.2.2.1. Methods of war (Hague, 1899 & 1907): limits on certain weapons/tactics

13.5.2.2.2. Also creates Permanent Court of Arbitration Court in The Hague

13.5.2.3. neither sets of treaties limited waging war: both allow for “military necessity” and use the principle of proportionality

13.5.2.4. Geneva treaties/Red Cross concerned Protections in war: first wounded soldiers, then medical personnel, later different categories of civilians

13.5.2.5. Neither included colonies signatories only recognized “civilised” states participated.

13.5.2.5.1. Law ISN'T neutral

13.5.3. Slow birth of Modern Warfare

13.5.3.1. Italian & German unification

13.5.3.2. Crimean War

13.5.3.3. USA CIVIL WAR

13.5.3.3.1. Birth of the Idea of Total War

13.5.3.4. Russo-Japanese Civil War

13.5.3.5. Raymont Aron

13.5.3.5.1. “Les guerres en Chaîne” = chain war

13.6. Taxation

13.6.1. DDHC art 13 = "general tex is indispensible" and "in proportion to their ability to pay"

13.6.2. window tax in France and UK

13.7. Secularization ?

13.7.1. "disenchantment" Max Weber

13.7.1.1. separation of church and state

13.7.1.1.1. 1791 US

13.7.1.1.2. 1905 France (previous attempts before)

13.7.1.2. decreasing influence of the pope

13.7.1.2.1. lost terrtories with italian unification 1871

13.7.1.2.2. BUT still spiritual power

13.7.1.3. new ideologies

13.7.1.3.1. Progressivism Condorcet

13.7.1.3.2. Positivism Agust Comte

13.7.2. revivalism

13.7.2.1. but still christianity with missionary movement

13.7.2.2. no secular university education

13.7.2.2.1. Princeton

13.7.2.2.2. Yales

13.7.2.3. propagation of great monotheist religions , evangelism

13.7.2.4. new cult of Marie = pelgrinage to Lourdes (Fr)

13.7.3. The Jewish question

13.7.3.1. persecution

13.7.3.1.1. middle age Christians: jews = "ppl who killed god"

13.7.3.1.2. nationalist anti-seminitism but also accusation of occultation of the economic power = target jewish bankers

13.7.3.1.3. but wave of solidarity: 1840 Damascus affair, jews accused to have killed a monk

13.7.3.2. different status

13.7.3.2.1. France: full citizenship

13.7.3.2.2. Ottoman empire: dimes (tax)

13.7.3.2.3. Russian empire: persecution

13.7.3.2.4. US good legal status and no persecution = immigration

13.7.3.3. Zionist project

13.7.3.3.1. 1897 zionist congress

13.7.3.3.2. Theodore Herzl = creation of jewish state

13.8. Other key components

13.8.1. - isms

13.8.1.1. Nationalism

13.8.1.1.1. (and its mixed origins in Rationalism & Romanticism)

13.8.1.2. Imperialism

13.8.1.2.1. (and its corollary, Racism)

13.8.1.3. (Industrial) Capitalism

13.8.1.4. Then Communism/Leninism (from 1910s) and Fascism (from 1920s)

13.8.2. - isations

13.8.2.1. Mechanisation: not just technology management of people: Taylorism

13.8.2.1.1. Workers as an input

13.8.2.2. Standardisation: measurements, gender / orientation, language

13.8.2.2.1. From easily standardized Pro. Army to the need to standardizing a Conscript Army

13.8.2.2.2. Homosexuality criminalized

13.8.2.3. Mobilisation: mass transport; conscription; education, motherhood

13.8.2.3.1. Abortion forbidden (Before = decision of the family)

13.8.2.3.2. Takeoff of the place of the Mother Figure

13.8.2.3.3. Education of the Children

13.8.2.4. Institutionalisation: bureaucracy / legal structures:

13.8.2.4.1. contract labour

13.8.2.4.2. Geneva Convention (1864) to the Hague Convention (1899)

13.8.2.5. Professionalisation: accreditation and formalisation of experts / occupations

13.8.2.5.1. Doctors’ jobs are “protected” and institutionalized

14. Modernization

14.1. Ottoman Empire

14.1.1. Crisis

14.1.1.1. Easily crushed by Napoleon

14.1.1.2. Loss of territory (Alger (invade by Charles X) / Greece)

14.1.2. Early reforms

14.1.2.1. 1789-1807: opening of military schools and French-inspired reforms of weaponry and tactics.

14.1.2.2. 1826: new military reforms

14.1.2.2.1. Abolition of the Janissaries

14.1.2.2.2. based on peasants conscripted by the central government and led by officers educated according to western European standards.

14.1.2.2.3. from 24,000 soldiers in 1837 to 120,000 in the 1880

14.1.2.3. 1830s: Creation / reforms of Institutions

14.1.2.3.1. Universities

14.1.2.3.2. Medical and military schools

14.1.3. Post Tanzimat

14.1.3.1. 1908, under pressure from the army, the sultan decided to restore the constitution

14.1.3.1.1. Main force = Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)

14.1.3.2. 1909, the Unionist reformers tilted away from their earlier all-embracing liberalism to a more Turkish, more Islamic, more surveillance-based regime, and provoked more discontent

14.1.3.3. 1913, with the empire on the verge of losing its last cities in Europe during a new round of Balkan wars and fearing a great-power partition of Anatolia, Young Turk officers grabbed the state in a military coup.

14.2. China

14.2.1. exportation of the modern state = China borrowed some features of european states

14.2.2. Western based administration in imperial marine = Robert Hart

14.2.2.1. but limited sources of westernization and modernization = no private entrepreneurship, no laissez-afire

14.2.2.2. 45 treaty ports at the end of the 19th century (1 at the beginning = Canton)

14.2.3. Debates post-Opium Wars

14.2.3.1. Military reforms

14.2.3.1.1. Coastal defense?

14.2.3.1.2. Securing frontiers?

14.2.3.1.3. "quasi-militariztion" = no central army but regionalized ones

14.2.3.1.4. limited because transfers of technology but not tactics

14.2.3.2. Administrative reforms

14.2.3.2.1. Xinjiang becomes province, 1884

14.2.3.2.2. minister of foreign affairs = Zongli Yamen 1861

14.2.3.3. Famine relief?

14.2.3.3.1. North China, 1876-79

14.2.4. The failed modernization

14.2.4.1. self-strengthening movement 1861-1895

14.2.4.1.1. Yan-Fu (1854-1921) = send to England to study = modern military strategy, sociology...

14.2.4.1.2. chinese identity no more based on confucian classics but more on blood relations

14.2.4.1.3. China inspired by Japan for constitutional model

14.2.4.1.4. motto : "confucian ethics, modern science"

14.2.4.1.5. other reforms

14.2.4.2. influenced by 1844 Wei Yuan ideas

14.2.4.3. Hundred days reforms 1898

14.2.4.3.1. Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao = super educated civil servant

14.2.4.3.2. aim = more activist state, finace war, industry, investment in education, technology...

14.2.4.3.3. followed by Guangxu emperor

14.2.4.3.4. crushed by Cixi = "empress Dowager"

14.2.4.3.5. later reforms inspired by the hundred days ones

14.2.4.4. Boxer rebellion

14.2.4.4.1. more an unprising bc not against the Qing

14.2.4.4.2. reasons

14.2.4.4.3. "Boxer united in righteousness"

14.3. Meiji Japan

14.3.1. Mission to Europe to learn industrial techniques and innovation = Iwakura mission

14.3.1.1. copy of the West? more complex = success of Japanese Red Cross society (900 000 members while only 55 000 in France)

14.3.2. Charles LeGendre : adviser to japanese government in 1872, planned Taiwan invasion

14.3.3. Administrative reforms

14.3.3.1. The rise of Ministries

14.3.3.1.1. 1869: daimyo of Choshu and Satsuma agree to ‘return’ their land and subjects (i.e., population registers) to the Emperor

14.3.3.1.2. The Ministries: The Kobusho (1870-1885) Ministry of Industry/Engineering/Construction

14.3.3.2. The army & the common people

14.3.3.2.1. Nationalization & Popularization of the military:

14.3.3.2.2. 1869: the Meiji emperor creates the Yasakuni shrine in Tokyo to the dead fighters of the Restoration

14.3.3.2.3. Over the following decades community shrines becomes official sites as part of a national State Shinto program

14.3.3.2.4. 1873: conscription instituted for all males

14.3.3.3. The Ministry of Education & the masses: from sermons to textbooks

14.3.3.3.1. A main task of the Ministry: socialization (i.e., ‘education’)

14.3.3.3.2. All ‘Japanese’ are to be included in the national enterprise

14.3.3.3.3. as society industrializes, family members are off to work, off to school, or stay at home; gender roles clearly defined

14.3.3.3.4. 1872: compulsory education launches 10% of household income making dependents out of children, noted: school taxes take up as much producers

14.3.3.3.5. Home had been a vocational setting

14.3.3.3.6. ‘Because positions at nonfamilial enterprises could not be passed on to the son, fathers [of all classes now] had less incentive to socialize & care for their offspring’

14.3.3.3.7. Unification of Language

14.3.3.4. The Ministry of Education & the ‘Japanese woman’

14.3.3.4.1. We must not simply equate ‘modern’ with ‘progressive’

14.3.3.4.2. The patriarchal state replaces the household patriarchy

14.3.3.4.3. 1887: Ministry of Education’s The Meiji Greater Learning for Women (Meiji onna daigaku): frugality; modesty; “the home is a public place where private feelings should be forgotten”

14.3.3.4.4. 1899: ‘Good Wife, Wise Mother (ryosai kenbo)’ program follows the Sino-Jap. War: childbearing & economizing patriotic

14.3.3.4.5. Eligible girls in compulsory education:

14.3.3.5. To wrap up: Japan’s experience of national formation: Bureaucracy first

14.3.3.5.1. Who are the bureaucrats? unelected functionaries carrying out programs of the Meiji visionaries

14.3.3.5.2. Bureaucracy formed immediately in 1868 to collect taxes

14.3.3.5.3. By late 1870s, all Ministries are in place

14.3.3.5.4. 1889 Constitution comes after the building blocks of government

14.3.3.5.5. In each Ministry, career vice ministers hold true power over their appointed, temporary chiefs = stability

14.3.4. Modernization through wars

14.3.4.1. 1874: Japan's expedition to Taiwan

14.3.4.1.1. Taiwan = part of Qing empire but not administred in a "modern way"

14.3.4.1.2. Beginning of Japanase Imperialism

14.3.4.1.3. Participated to the cultural "westernization"

14.3.4.1.4. Japanese painting : The Battle of Stonegate

14.3.4.2. 1894-95: Sino-Japanese War

14.3.4.2.1. influence over Korea

14.3.4.2.2. both countries were militarized but Japan had more manoeuvrable boats and real torpedos

14.3.4.3. 1904-05: Russo-Japanese War

14.3.4.3.1. before: Anglo-Japnanese treaty of 1902 = counter Russian advance

14.3.4.3.2. 1904 = attack of Port Arthur by the Japanese

14.3.4.3.3. Jap victory

14.3.5. "Quitting Asia"

14.3.5.1. "our basic assumptions could be summarized in two words: "Good-Bye Asia" [...] We do not have time to wait for the enlightenment of our Neighbors so that we can work together toward the development of Asia. It is better for us to leave the ranks of Asian Nations and cast our lot with civilized nations the West." - Datsu-A-Ron, 1885, attributed to Fukuzawa Yukichi

14.3.5.1.1. Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895 on the "japanese-Qing" war

14.3.5.2. Japanese identity

14.3.5.2.1. Industrialization and colonization at the same time

14.3.5.2.2. aim = place themselves on "civilized" side of the spectrum

14.3.5.3. real escape?

14.3.5.3.1. escaping asia TO SAVE it from the western powers

14.3.5.3.2. WW2: Co-prosperity = Japan helps other Asian power to eliminate European presence

14.4. Jean baptiste Ventura payed to modernize the Sikh empire

14.5. "Mimesis of Western imperialism, in other words, went hand in hand with mimemis of Western civilization" Robert Eskildsen

14.6. writting book and studying people = in order to implement reforms

14.7. The missionary movement

14.7.1. Early Modernization in Japan

14.7.1.1. Jesuit Francis Xavier mission project in Japan in 1548. main goal = education

14.7.1.2. failure of Jesuit order = kick out of Japan by Tokugawa system in 1612

14.7.2. China

14.7.2.1. before 19th century

14.7.2.1.1. Jesuit : Matteo Ricci

14.7.2.1.2. jesuit strategy: focused on the elite to influence the country. introducing mathematics, clocks, astrology... and rewerded with office in courts = conversion top to bottom

14.7.2.1.3. importance of astronomy, astrology bc "Mandate of Heaven"

14.7.2.2. 19th century

14.7.2.2.1. strategy shift = missionary mission focused on the poors, maginalized...

14.7.2.2.2. missionary program as a part of imperialism

14.7.2.2.3. many missionaries presented themselves as "friends of China" admiring lost culture (needed to be restored thanks to Christianity)

14.7.2.2.4. protestant missionaries

14.7.2.2.5. medical missionaries

14.7.2.2.6. Holy childhood association

14.7.2.3. uprisings

14.7.2.3.1. boxer rebellion 1899-1901

14.7.2.3.2. tension

14.7.3. Vietnam

14.7.3.1. before french colonial project

14.7.3.1.1. 1659 "Holy See" mission

14.7.3.1.2. end of 18th century = split: North (Spanish) and South (France)

14.7.3.1.3. Tianjin massacre in 1870

14.7.3.1.4. 19th century = 5 to 10% Vietnamese converted to Christianity

14.7.3.1.5. Société des missions étrangères: training in Paris and Penang = influence Vietnamese government

14.7.3.2. french colonial project

14.7.3.3. reaction

14.7.3.3.1. the "scholar rising" in central Vietnam 1874

14.8. Russia

14.8.1. Alexander I (r. 1801-25)

14.8.1.1. Reform of the Administration (1801-25)

14.8.1.2. o 1814: Victory over France

14.8.1.2.1. Russia = Great European Power

14.8.1.2.2. feared but “not welcomed in a European world”

14.8.2. 1825: Death of the Tsar followed by the Coup of the Decemrbrist”

14.8.3. Nicholas I ( r. 1825-55)

14.8.3.1. Creation of the "Third department"

14.8.3.1.1. Surveillance

14.8.3.2. 1830: slogan = “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality.”

14.8.3.3. Some reforms though but in the initiative of the Emperor (not the people)

14.8.3.3.1. 1830s: codification and publication of Russian Law

14.8.3.4. Intellectual flourishment (fought by the Tsar)

14.8.3.4.1. Russia = West or Slavic?

14.8.3.4.2. Dostoïevski nearly executed (pardoned at the last minute)

14.8.4. Alexander II (r. 1855-81)

14.8.4.1. 1861: Abolition of serfdom and massive property transfer to provide them with land

14.8.4.1.1. “Serfdom was abolished in both Habsburg and Romanov empires before slaves were emancipated in the United States.”

14.8.4.1.2. For social peace: "it is better to liberate the peasants from above" than to wait until they won their freedom by risings "from below"

14.8.4.2. Military service was made universal for males and its term reduced;

14.8.4.3. local assemblies were set up to conduct welfare services in the countryside;

14.8.4.4. a system of jury trials was put in place

14.8.4.5. censorship of publications was relaxed in the cause of glasnost (publicity).

14.8.4.6. Assassinated in 1881

14.8.5. Alexander III (r. 1881-94)

14.8.5.1. Return to Absolutism

14.8.5.2. Attempt of Russification

14.8.5.2.1. Imposition of the Russian in the Administration

14.8.5.2.2. 1887: Quotas on Jewish presence in Universities

14.8.5.3. 1890s: boom of the Russian industry

14.8.5.3.1. Exploitation of the Caspian Oil

14.8.5.3.2. Investors from France

14.8.5.3.3. Technicians and entrepreneurs from Germany

14.8.5.4. Not allowed to conquered the West, Russia turned to the East

14.8.5.4.1. Russo Japanse war of 1904-5

14.9. Austria

14.9.1. “compromise” of 1867 that created the Dual Monarchy

14.9.2. 1867 citizenship laws had made Jews equal with others in legal rights.

14.9.2.1. Attracted Jews especially following the pogroms

14.9.2.2. Business explosion

14.9.3. Better off than Russia or the Ottomans

14.9.3.1. least censored press

14.9.3.2. the most active public

14.9.3.3. the most developed party politics

14.9.4. 1908 the dynasty was celebrated with a huge “Kaiser-Hommage”

15. Rebellions

15.1. Causes of Chinese rebellions

15.1.1. 19th century: x3 of population

15.1.1.1. This growth was in this “nowhere places”

15.1.1.2. Creation of frontier communities

15.1.1.2.1. Transit men workers mostly

15.1.1.2.2. Tension with the locals

15.1.1.2.3. 1700s: a lot of colonization by Hans in order to work in the silver mines

15.1.2. The periphery of Europe was way different from the periphery of China

15.1.2.1. European Empires: Caribbean, the labour “wasn’t reproducing by itself” ; culture too

15.1.2.2. China

15.1.2.2.1. More or less free market

15.1.2.2.2. More or less free moving

15.1.2.2.3. Labour reproduced autonomously (and cultural differences too)

15.1.3. China instability

15.1.3.1. tension between Han and Manchus

15.1.3.2. end of the 1st Opium war = humiliation

15.1.4. Environmental issues

15.1.4.1. 1833: The Yellow river changed of course

15.1.4.2. Ecological pressure

15.1.5. decay of infrastructures

15.1.5.1. Because of poverty due to the Westerners indemnities

15.1.5.2. Grand Canal (brought grain from Shanghai to Beijing) no longer operable

15.2. Taiping rebellion 1851-1864

15.2.1. Hong Xiuquan

15.2.1.1. failed the civil servent exam 4 times

15.2.1.2. 1837: after the 3rd exam => vision, strange dream

15.2.1.3. 1843: failed for the 4th time + revelation through a Christian pamphlet = think he is Jesus brother

15.2.1.4. part of Hakka Class = minority

15.2.2. Creation of Taiping heavenly kingdom 1851

15.2.2.1. Conquest

15.2.2.1.1. 1847: wrote a manifesto and declare a celestial kingdom (1851)

15.2.2.1.2. 1853: Fall of Nanjing / Nankin

15.2.2.1.3. Extremely brutal

15.2.2.2. Reorganization of the society

15.2.2.2.1. attempt of modernization

15.2.2.2.2. Economy

15.2.2.2.3. Property

15.2.2.2.4. Very Puritanical stance

15.2.2.2.5. social reforms = men and women equals but no real mixing of genders

15.2.3. Qing reaction

15.2.3.1. Reorganization

15.2.3.1.1. "new armies" (local militias) ready to fight with the Qing

15.2.3.2. Western Help

15.2.3.2.1. British and American armed and trained Qing armies (incentive to keep Qing regime in place)

15.2.3.2.2. France helped to recapture Nanking

15.2.3.2.3. From the Western Point of view, better to have the weak but easily exploited Qing than the strong christian Taiping

15.2.3.3. Reconquest

15.2.3.3.1. 1863 = Qing armies encircling Nanjing

15.2.3.3.2. 19 July 1864 = Qing took Nanjing = bloodiest battle, house by house massacres. In 3 days, 100 000 people have died

15.2.3.3.3. 1864: end of the Taiping rebellion

15.2.4. consequences

15.2.4.1. Up to 30 million deaths

15.2.4.2. The Qing dynasty is exhausted

15.3. Other chinese rebellions

15.3.1. Nian rebellion 1851-1868

15.3.1.1. no ideology leadership

15.3.1.2. confrontations between communities to survive. Predatory action of some communities upon others

15.3.1.2.1. Due to the change of course of the Yellow River

15.3.1.2.2. Lawless area

15.3.2. Red Turban Uprising, 1854-1856

15.3.2.1. Triads / secret societies

15.3.2.2. Below the radar of the State

15.3.3. Dungan Revolt, 1862–1877 and large Muslim revolts in China

15.3.3.1. Where?

15.3.3.1.1. Yunnan (south-west)

15.3.3.1.2. Shaanxi

15.3.3.1.3. Gansu

15.3.3.1.4. Xinjiang

15.3.3.2. Enormous and bloody war of communities

15.3.3.3. A lot of social engineering by the Qing

15.3.3.3.1. A lot of populations were deported

15.4. Indian mutiny 1857 and British Raj in India

15.4.1. Causes

15.4.1.1. Political and economic issues

15.4.1.2. Social discontentment

15.4.1.3. Military discontentment

15.4.1.4. Adimistered by the EIC

15.4.1.4.1. European military

15.4.1.4.2. India bureaucracy / military

15.4.1.4.3. MANY provinces remained untouched

15.4.2. Revolt

15.4.2.1. 10 May 1857, Meerut outbreak, Delhi...

15.4.2.1.1. Concentrated in the North

15.4.2.1.2. No real link between the different clusters

15.4.2.2. September 1857: Delhi’s recapture

15.4.2.2.1. December 1858, final recapture

15.4.2.3. Suppression of the revolt (helped by some local aristocrats

15.4.3. Consequences

15.4.3.1. Different narratives

15.4.3.1.1. Nationalist narrative

15.4.3.1.2. Patchwork of region revolts without coordination

15.4.3.1.3. MARXIST: revolt of peasants against the British

15.4.3.2. Transfer of power to the British Crown that laid to the foundation of the British Raj

15.4.3.2.1. VICTORIA promised to respect India Culture and RELIGION

15.4.3.2.2. Pardon granted except when murderer of British

15.4.3.2.3. Policy of divide and rule

15.4.4. One of the first conflict to have an international coverage

15.4.4.1. Thanks to telegraphs

15.4.4.2. Sentiment of international resistance to imperialism

15.4.4.2.1. Irish support to Sepoys

16. World War 1

16.1. Reasons

16.1.1. Arm Race

16.1.1.1. Naval (Britain vs Germany):

16.1.1.1.1. Germany launches long-term naval building program in 1898 to challenge Britain’s dominance.

16.1.1.1.2. Race for the Biggest Navy

16.1.1.1.3. Redrawing of alliances

16.1.1.1.4. Global Militarization

16.1.1.2. Land (France vs Germany):

16.1.1.2.1. 1913: German Army Law: increase in peacetime army numbers.

16.1.1.2.2. 1913: France ups compulsory military service from 2 to 3 years.

16.1.2. Geopolitical Tensions

16.1.2.1. Colonial Tensions

16.1.2.1.1. Agadir Crisis (1911)

16.1.2.2. Political Tensions

16.1.2.2.1. Balkans

16.1.2.3. Economic Rivalry

16.1.3. However, Unexpected

16.1.3.1. Great Illusion, Essay by Norman Angell, 1910

16.1.3.1.1. bestseller

16.1.3.1.2. Angell = British Educated Liberal / Nobel Prize of Peace

16.1.3.1.3. War is impossible

16.2. Climax of the long 19th

16.2.1. Mass mobilisation

16.2.1.1. Creation of citizen-armies: public education, conscription & propaganda.

16.2.1.1.1. Public education

16.2.1.1.2. Conscription

16.2.1.1.3. Propaganda

16.2.1.2. State’s Bonds for Everyone

16.2.2. Blurring of the lines between homefront and battlefield

16.2.2.1. Mobilisation of the homefront: women into factories; wives support troops; boy scouts

16.2.2.1.1. E.g. American Relief Administration

16.2.2.2. Civilians targeted, not just collateral (bombing; blockades; torpedoes: Lusitania in 1915)

16.2.3. Imperial subjects are brought in (WWI)

16.2.3.1. 1.4 million Indian soldiers (over 74,000 killed)

16.2.3.2. 1.3 million soldiers from the UK’s ‘white dominions’

16.2.3.3. From France’s colonies:

16.2.3.3.1. 600,000 soldiers

16.2.3.3.2. 200,000 workers

16.2.4. This all adds up to the creation of all-encompassing “wartime economies”

16.2.4.1. State control over key industries – Railways, munitions, mines etc…

16.2.4.2. Price controls, war bonds, food rations

16.2.4.3. Built on a lot on the State capacities developed in the 19th

16.2.5. Humanitarian surge