History of the computers

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History of the computers by Mind Map: History of the computers

1. First generation

1.1. "I cover the fifties. And it is known as the first generation. These machines had the following features: - These machines were built by means of vacuum tubes. - They were programed in machine language. - In this generation the machines are large and expensive (approximately hundreds of thousands of dollars).”

1.1.1. “In 1951 the UNIVAC appears, it was the first commercial computer, which had a thousand words of central memory and could read magnetic tape, was used to process the 1950 census in the USA."

1.1.2. “In the first two generations, the input units used punched cards, taken up by Herman Hollerith (1860 - 1929), who also founded a company that over time would become known like IBM (International Business Machines).”

1.1.3. "The IBM 701 was developed by IBM, of which 18 units were delivered between 1953 and 1957."

1.1.4. “The Remington Rand company made the model 1103, which competed with the 701 in the scientific field, so IBM developed the 702, which presented problems in memory, due to this it did not last in the market.”

1.1.5. “The most successful computer of the first generation was the IBM 650, of which several hundred were produced. Is computer that used a secondary memory scheme called a magnetic drum, which is the ancestor of current discs.”

2. Fourth generation

2.1. “Here the microprocessors appear, which is a great advance in technology. microelectronics, are high-density integrated circuits with a impressive speed.”

2.1.1. In 1976 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs invented the first microcomputer. massive use and later form the company known as Apple which was the second largest company in the world, preceded only by IBM; and it's about their share is still one of the five largest companies in the world.”

2.1.2. “In 1981, 80,000 personal computers were sold, the following year it rose to 1,400. 000. Between 1984 and 1987 about 60 million computers were sold personal, so there is no doubt that its impact and penetration have been huge.”

2.1.3. Gary Kildall and William Gates spent years creating operating systems and methods to achieve easy use of microcomputers (they are the creators of CP/M and Microsoft products).”

3. Second generation

3.1. "From the 1960s, computers continued to evolve, shrinking in size and growing in capacity. processing. Also at this time the way of communicating with computers began to be defined, which was called systems programming.

3.1.1. "Some of these computers were programmed with punched tape and others by means of wiring on a board"

3.1.2. “In this generation, computers are reduced in size and are less expensive. many appear companies and computers were quite advanced for their time like the Burroughs 5000 series and the ATLAS of the University of Manchester.

3.1.3. “The landscape was completely changed with the appearance of personal computers with better circuits, more memory, flexible disk drives and especially with the appearance of programs of general application where the user buys the program and gets to work”

3.1.3.1. “The computers of this generation were: the Philco 212 (this company withdrew from the market in 1964) and the UNIVAC M460, the Control Data Corporation model 1604, followed by the 3000 series, IBM improved the 709 and released the 7090, the National Cash Register began producing commercial data processing machines, introduced the NCR 315.”

3.1.4. “Word processing programs appear, such as the famous Word Star, the impressive spreadsheet (spreadsheet) Visicalc and others that change the image of the PC overnight”

3.1.5. “Word processing programs appear, such as the famous Word Star, the impressive spreadsheet (spreadsheet) Visicalc and others that change the image of the PC overnight”

3.1.6. “There is talk then of ergonomic hardware (adapted to human dimensions to reduce fatigue), designs of anti-glare screens and keyboards that rest on the wrist.”

4. Fifth generation

4.1. “Industrial society has taken on the task of putting the development of software and the systems with which computers are run. International competition arises for dominance of the computing market, in which Two leaders emerge."

4.1.1. In 1983, Japan launched the so-called "fifth-generation computer program," with the explicit goals of producing machines with real innovations in the mentioned criteria. Y In the United States, a program is already under development that pursues objectives similar.”

4.1.2. Parallel processing using special architectures and designs and large circuits speed.

4.1.3. Handling natural language and artificial intelligence systems.

4.1.4. "The foreseeable future of computing is very exciting, and it can be expected that this science will continue to be the subject of priority attention of governments and society as a whole.”

5. Third generation

5.1. With the advances in electronics and communication advances with computers in the 1990s, In the 1960s, the third generation of computers emerged. It is inaugurated with the IBM 360 in April 1964.3”

5.1.1. “IBM produces the 360 ​​series with models 20, 22, 30, 40, 50, 65, 67, 75, 85, 90, 195 that used special processor techniques, nine-channel tape drives, magnetic disk packs, and other features that are now standard.”

5.1.2. “The operating system of the 360 ​​series, it was called OS that had several configurations, it included a set of management techniques of memory and of the processor that soon became standards.”

5.1.3. “In 1964 CDC introduced the 6000 series with the 6600 computer that was considered the fastest for some years.”

5.1.3.1. Algunas minicomputadoras fueron las siguientes: la PDP - 8 y la PDP - 11 de Digital Equipment Corporation, la VAX (Virtual Address eXtended) de la misma compañía, los modelos NOVA y ECLIPSE de Data General, la serie 3000 y 9000 de Hewlett - Packard con varios modelos el 36 y el 34, la Wang y Honey - Well -Bull, Siemens de origen alemán, la ICL fabricada en Inglaterra”

5.1.4. “In the 1970s, IBM produces the 370 series (models 115, 125, 135, 145, 158, 168). UNIVAC competes are the 1108 and 1110 models, machines in large scale; while CDC produces its 7000 series with the 7600 model. These computers are characterized by being very powerful and fast.”

5.1.5. “In the mid-1970s, mid-size computers, or minicomputers, appear on the market that are not as expensive as large (also called mainframes, which also means a large system), but they have a large processing capacity”