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Democratic Republic of Congo by Mind Map: Democratic Republic of
Congo
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Democratic Republic of Congo

Political

Executive Branch

Prime Minister, Adolphe MUZITO (since 10 October 2008), Appointed by President from the party wtih the majority at the National Assembly

Ministers of State appointed by the president

60 member cabinet, headed by Four Vice Presidents, headed by President, Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001) member of PPRD party, 2006 election results: Joseph KABILA 58%, Jean-Pierre BEMBA Gombo 42%, elections last held 30 July 2006 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011, Signed peace agreement with President of Rwanda to end civil war in DRC, but not signed by rebel or opposition groups

Legislative Branch

Senate, 108 seats, 5-year terms, Seats won by party: PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independents 26, others 18 (political parties that won a single seat)

National Assembly, 500 seats, 61 members elected by majority vote in single-member constituencies, 439 members elected by open list proportional-representation in multi-member constituencies, five-year terms, Seats won by party: NA; seats by party - PPRD 111, MLC 64, PALU 34, MSR 27, FR 26, RCD 15, independents 63, others 160 (includes 63 political parties that won 10 or fewer seats)

Political Parties

Mouvement de Libération du Congo (MLC)

Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (Union des Fédéralistes et des Républicains Indépendants--UFERI)

Mouvement Populaire Renouveau (MPR), From 1967 until 1990, MPR sole legal political party.

National Alliance's Party for Unity (Parti de l'Alliance Nationale pour l'Unité)

Parti du peuple pour la reconstruction et la démocratie (PPRD), led by Joseph Kabila

Rassemblement congolais pour la Démocratie (RCD)

Union pour la République-Mouvement National (UNIR-MN)

Union for Democracy and Social Progress (Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social--UDPS), principal opposition party, leader: Étienne Tshisekedi

Democratic and Social Christian Party (Parti Démocrate et Social Chrétien--PDSC)

Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (Mouvement National Congolais-Lumumba-- MNC-Lumumba)

Lumumbist Unified Party

Forces du Futur (FDF)

Forces Novatrices pour l'Union et la Solidarite (FONUS)

Mouvement Social Démocratie et Développement (MSDD)

Union des Nationalistes et des Fédéralistes Congolais (UNAFEC)

Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution--Fait Prive (MPR-FP)

Former rebel movements-turned-political parties; Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie (RCD)

Women in government (% of total): 12.5%

Threats to Government

Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FLDR), primary Rwandian Hutu Power rebel group during the latest part of the Second Congo War., Operates mostly within the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo., It is composed almost entirely of ethnic Hutus opposed to Tutsi rule and influence in the region

Still fighting "Africa’s first World War" - has involved 7 nations, reasons include conflicts over basic resources such as water, access and control over rich minerals and other resources as well as various political agendas., all sides have been accused of having commercial interests in this war due to the vast resources involved, Eastern provinces: particularly North and South Kivu and the Ituri and Haut-Uélé Districts of Orientale Province, mostly under foreign control, and over three quarters of the estimated number of killings have taken place there, This has been fueled and supported by various national and international corporations and other regimes which have an interest in the outcome of the conflict., some US companies supporting conflict for monetary gains, rich resources make it easy for rebels to finance the conflict, especially with regards to trading with Rwanda and Uganda

widespread and long history of corruption, Corruption and 'taxation' of regular citizens where the taxes are not used for the stated purposes or are extortionate, while exempting elites in various ways

Other rebel groups

Rwandan forces supposedly combating Rwandan rebels but also seizing Congo's natural resources

Background

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

new constitution: 18 February 2006

Formal registration of political parties allowed December 1990

negotiations with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government; elections held July 2003 with free elections held on 30 July 2006 and a run-off on 29 October 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president

Republic with strong presidential authority dominated since 1965 by dictator Mobutu Sese Seko until coup by Laurent Kabila, Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, after his assassination in January 2001, Mobutu had been supported by US when he came to power in 1965 in attempt to circumvent communism in Africa and secure resources of Congo, Mobutu Sese Seko, Laurent Kabila had been aided by Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Burundi and Eritrea in the coup; also supported by US, Rebels accused L. Kabila of being a dictator after he gained control; Kabila backed by Angola, Zimbabwe, and Namibia, rebels controlled about a third of the entire country (the eastern parts) and backed by the governments of Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi

Judicial Branch

Constitutional Court

Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation

Council of State

High Military Court

civil and military courts and tribunals

Elections

Suffrage: 18 years old; universal and compulsory

Senate elected by provincial assemblies

President elected by popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term)

Results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party

To research

what kind of power does the prime minister and four VPs have?

what powers are given to the government by the new constitution?

what factors are preventing the UN and other international actors from giving additional help?

Economics

Total GPD: $21.05 billion (2008 est)

GPD growth rate; 8% (2008 est.)

GPD per capital: $300 (2008 est.)

By sector:, agriculture: 55%, industry: 11%, services: 11%

Labor Force: 15 million

Budget

revenues: $700 million

expenditures: $2 billion

Inflation rate: 16.7%

Industries

Agriculture, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

Mining, mining (diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, coltan, zinc), largest producer of cobalt ore

Mineral Processing

Consumer products, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages)

Cement

Commercial Ship Repair

Oil, Production: 22,160 bbl/day (2007 est.), Consumption; 10,460 bbl/day (2006 est.), Exports: 19,820 bbl/day (2005), Imports: 8,220 bbl/day

Exports

diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee, diamond mine in DRC

Partners: Belgium 23.6%, China 21.7%, US 9.8%, Finland 9.1%, Brazil 9.1%, France 6.8%, Zambia 6%

Imports

foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

Partners: South Africa 22.5%, Belgium 10.3%, Zambia 8.9%, Zimbabwe 7.5%, France 6.8%, Kenya 6.3%, US 4.1%, Cote d'Ivoire 4.1%

External debt

$10 billion (2007 est.)

Currency

Congolese Franc (CDF)

2007, The World Bank granted up to $1.3 billion in assistance funds for 3 years

global economic downturn has led to lowered value of natural resources, which had hurt Congo's economy

elite networks running a self-financing war economy centered on pillage

Pipelines: gas 37 km; oil 39 km; refined products 756 km (2008)

To research

what is preventing them from fully profiting from their natural resources?

how could Congo fully exploit their natural resources?

How much of the population is unemployed?

Estimated earned income (PPP US$)

Women: 488

Men: 944

Geography

Location

Central Africa, northeast of Angola

straddles equator

has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

Borders, Uganda for 765 km, Sudan for 628 km, Republic of the Congo for 2,410 km, Angola for 2,511 km, Burundi for 233 km, Central African Republic for 1,577 km, Rwanda for 217 km, Tanzania for 459 km, Zambia for 1,930 km

Natural Resources

cobalt

niobium

tantalum

petroleum, natural gas reserves: 991.1 million cu m, Oil reserves: 180 million bbl

industrial and gem diamonds

gold, silver, copper, tin

zinc

manganese

uranium

coal

hydropower

timber

Environmental Hazards

periodic droughts in south

Congo River floods (seasonal)

Active volcanoes in the east, in the Great Rift Valley

poaching of wildlife populations

water pollution

deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation

soil erosion

mining of minerals adding to environmental damage

Land

Area:2,345,410 sq km

19 largest land mass in the world, slightly less than 1/4 the size of the US

land area: 2,267,600 sq km, Forest area (% total land): 58.9%; 1,336.1 thousand sq km

water area: 77,810 sq km

Coastline: 37 km

territorial sea: 12 nm

Land Use: arable land: 2.86% permanent crops: 0.47% other: 96.67%

Total Renewable Water Sources: 1,283 cu km (2001)

Irrigated Land: 110 sq km (2003)

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

Climate

tropical

hot and humid in equatorial river basin

cooler and wetter in eastern highlands

cooler and drier in southern highlands

north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February)

south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)

Main Cities

Capital: Kinshasa

Kananga, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, Mbuji-Mayi

10 provinces

Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa - capital, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu, Highly centralized system with little autonomy at regional or local level

Ports and terminals

Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Technology

Electricity

Electricity production: 7.243 billion kWh

Electricity Exports: 1.799 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity Imports: 6 million kWh (2006 est.)

Population without electricity (in millions): 53.8

Telephones

mobile phones; 6.592 million (2007)

Telephone main lines: 9,700 (2006)

domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas

Internet

Internet hosts: 3,211 (2008)

Internet Users: 230,400 (2007)

Transportation

Air, Airports: 200 (2008), Airports with paved runways: total: 26

Rail, total 5,138 km

Roadways, total: 153,497 km, paved: 2,794 km, unpaved: 150,703 km

Water, 15,000 km (2008), 1 merchant marine; by type: petroleum tanker 1

Media

Newspapers and periodicals: Circulation Daily: 129,000

Televisions 6,478,000, TV stations: 4 (2001), Households with television 1.69 %

Newspapers and periodicals, Number of titles: Daily 9

Radios 18,030,000

To research

what do the newspapers say about the violence and situation in DRC?

how independent are media sources from government control or censorship?

Military

weapons have come from the former Soviet bloc countries as well as the United States, who have also provided military training

Branches

Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Army, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2008)

The majority of FARDC members are land forces; also has a small air force and even smaller navy

Together the three services may number around 130,000 personnel

Manpower available

Age, 18-45 years of age for military service

males age 16-49: 8,925,355

females age 16-49: 9,047,356

Manpower reaching military age annually, male: 814,199, female: 811,238

Annaul expenditure for military 2.5% of GDP

presidential force called the Republican Guard, but it and the National Congolese Police (PNC) are not part of the Armed Forces

The government, the UN, the EU, and bilateral partners including Angola, South Africa, and Belgium attempting to create viable force with ability to provide DRC with stability and security

Problems

funded by rich natural resources but weakened by war and underfunding

widespread corruption, extortion of civilians by FARDC

one of most unstable forces in Africa

Major General Joseph Kabila Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces

FARDC chief of staff: Major General Sungilanga Kisempia (PPRD)

UN deployed team MONUC to help human rights but plagued by lacks equipment, personnel, international backing, and has weak mandate

over 16,000 peacekeepers

To research

what is the government doing to combat corruption in the military?

how legitimate is the military seen by civilians?

what has made the military so corrupt?

where do the DRC get their weapons from?

Social

Population

total population: 68,692,542, male/female ratio: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Age structure, 0-14 years: 46.9% (male 16,161,301/female 16,038,024), 15-64 years: 50.6% (male 17,289,453/female 17,483,027), 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 699,667/female 1,021,070) (2009 est.)

Median age: 16.4 years

Growth rate: 3.208% (2009 est.)

Infant Mortality rate: total: 81.21 deaths/1,000 live births

Birth rate: 42.63 births/1,000 population (2009 est.), Births attended by skilled health personnel: 61%

Death rate: 11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.), Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40: 41.1%

urban population: 34% of total population (2008), rate of urbanization: 5.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth: 54.36 years

Fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (2009 est.), Contraception pervalence rate (% of married women 15-49) (1997-2005): 31%

Religion

Roman Catholic 50%

Protestant 20%

Kimbanguist 10%

Muslim 10%

other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%

Education

School life expectancy: 9 years, male: 10 years, female: 8 years

Literacy: total population: 67.2%;, male: 80.9%, female: 54.1%

At all levels of education, males greatly outnumber females

The elite continue to send their children abroad to be educated, primarily in Western Europe.

Ethnic Groups

over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu

the four largest tribes (45% of population), Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic), Luba (Bantu), Kongo (Bantu), Mongo (Bantu)

Human Rights Problems

use of child soldiers by non-state actors

widespread rape and abuse of women as terror tactic by non-state actors

human trafficking; slavery, much occurs in unstable eastern provinces by armed groups outside government control

mutilation

Forced labor and displacement, 1.5 internally displaced peoples or refugees, Refugees by country: 132,295 (Angola); 37,313 (Rwanda); 17,777 (Burundi); 13,904 (Uganda); 6,181 (Sudan); 5,243 (Republic of Congo), 90% of refugees from eastern Congo fleeing fighting

pillaging civilians by rebels and military

murder for resisting extortion and reasons

Health

HIV/AIDS adult prevalence: 4.2% or 1.1 million (2003 est.)

Major infection disease risk: very high, food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever, 46% of population not using improved water source (2004), vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), water contact disease: schistosomiasis, animal contact disease: rabies, % population using improved sanitation (2004): 30%

famine and malnutrition widespread, 2/3 of population malnourished

Some 5.4 million people have died since outbreak of conflict in 1998, Most deaths from non-violent causes but difficult to get treatment b/c of the conflict, Although 19% of the population, children account for 47% of the deaths, About 45,000 die each month

Health expenditure per capital (PPP US$): 15 (2004)

Public expenditure on health (% of GDP): 1.1% (2004)

Private expenditure on health (% of GDP): 2.9% (2004)

Physicians per 100,000 people (2000-2004): 11

Languages

French (official)

Lingala (a lingua franca trade language)

Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili)

Kikongo

Tshiluba

To research

how much has the UN and others helped civilians?

Health and social services offered by government

what security or assistance is available to civilians?

Role of women in society vs. men