INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS

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INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS by Mind Map: INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS

1. PREPARING FOR INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS

1.1. You need to clarify what you want and why, determine your BATNA, gather data to present and compare (i.e., objective criteria) your arguments/proposals, consider ways to learn the other parties’ wants and needs, and collaborate to discover mutual benefits.

1.2. Start by doing background research on the organization’s culture, practices, and business. Beware of all differences in communication, the use of silence and time, laws and protocol.

1.3. Some information can be found on the Internet by searching government pages from the State Department website (go to www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ and then click on the región of interest). Other information can be obtained by identifying other firms that have done business with this organization or individuals who were born or spent time in the country.

2. ADAPTING ABROAD

2.1. Observe

2.1.1. Do you notice patterns of behavior? Do people act differently around older people or people of authority? Do people put money on the counter or in the cashier’s hand?

2.2. Listen

2.2.1. Do people speak in softer voices than where you are from? Or, maybe men speak loudly while women are quieter

2.3. Ask questions

2.3.1. People appreciate it when you try to understand their culture. Note that if you ask a question and people start laughing, it may not mean they thought it was funny.

3. WHEN IN ROME...

3.1. Be respectful of differences but don't attempt to take on (or imitate) the characteristics or practices of diverse others.

4. WHAT IT MEANS TO BE AN AMERICAN

4.1. Anticipate what others expect from you. Be at least somewhat true to the characteristics of your own culture.

5. CROSS-CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

5.1. Individualism/ collectivism

5.1.1. Degree to which members of a society act as individuals or members of a group.

5.1.1.1. Impact on Negotiation

5.1.1.1.1. Individualists may find themselves impatient with collectivists’ need to check back with all organizational members to ensure consensus and group benefit.

5.2. Power distance

5.2.1. Degree to which members view and expect elders and those senior to them in the hierarchy as possessing significant amounts of power and authority compared with younger and junior members.

5.2.1.1. Impact on Negotiation

5.2.1.1.1. Masculine negotiators are more focused on the task (i.e., terms of the contract) than the process (i.e., building the relationship) and can be perceived as brutish and insensitive.

5.3. Masculinity/ femininity

5.3.1. Degree to which a culture’s prevailing behaviors are dominated by masculine characteristics (e.g., aggressiveness, materialism) or feminine characteristics (e.g., collaboration, nurturing).

5.3.1.1. Impact on Negotiation

5.3.1.1.1. Masculine negotiators are more focused on the task (i.e., terms of the contract) than the process (i.e., building the relationship) and can be perceived as brutish and insensitive.

5.4. Uncertainty avoidance

5.4.1. Extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable in or threatened by unstructured situations.

5.4.1.1. Impact on Negotiation

5.4.1.1.1. Those high in uncertainty avoidance prefer clear agendas and procedures whereas those who are low in uncertainty avoidance “go with the flow” and can adapt fairly easily to new goals, terms, or negotiators.

5.5. Long-term orientation

5.5.1. Approach to the relationship and project, whether long term or short term.

5.5.1.1. Impact on Negotiation

5.5.1.1.1. Those who think long term look at the negotiating process as one of many within a long-term relationship, and, therefore, the issue of reciprocity is averaged over multiple negotiating events as opposed to those who think short term, who are likely more concerned about instant and equal reciprocity.

6. THE RELATIONSHIP AND THE NEGOTIATION

6.1. Take the time to establish a collaborative, trusting relationship before rushing into details of a deal or contract.

7. GUIDELINES TO FOLLOW WHEN INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS ARE PERFORMED IN ENGLISH

7.1. Keep your English simple

7.2. Speak slowly

7.3. Avoid repeating yourself

7.4. Avoid repeating yourself

7.5. Begin on a formal note

7.6. Confirm understanding