# 2012-2013 8th Grade Physical Science

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## 1. Motion

### 1.1. Students will:

1.1.1. describe the components of speed

1.1.2. calculate average speed

1.1.2.1. of hot wheels cars over a certain distance

1.1.3. read, interpret, and create position/time graphs

1.1.4. solve problems involving speed, time, and distance

1.1.5. distinguish between speed, velocity, and "change in velocity"

1.1.6. read, interpret, and create speed/time graphs

### 1.2. Keywords

1.2.1. speed

1.2.2. position

1.2.3. motion

1.2.4. average speed

1.2.5. velocity

1.2.6. acceleration

1.2.7. time

## 2. Forces

### 2.1. Students will:

2.1.1. describe the components of force

2.1.1.1. direction

2.1.1.2. magnitude

2.1.2. predict the effect of:

2.1.2.1. a single force acting on an object

2.1.2.2. equal and opposite forces acting on an object

2.1.2.3. unequal and opposite forces acting on an object

2.1.2.4. multiple forces acting on an object in a variety of ways

2.1.3. identify and describe common forces

2.1.3.1. gravity

2.1.3.2. compression

2.1.3.3. tension

2.1.3.4. normal force

2.1.3.5. electrical

2.1.4. describe the mathematical relationship between force, mass, and acceleration

2.1.5. describe, graphically represent, and experimentally explore Newton's Three Laws of Motion

2.1.5.1. 1. Every object stays in rest or constant motion, unless compelled to change that state by external forces acted upon it.

2.1.5.1.1. unequal forces acting on an object change its velocity

2.1.5.2. 2. F = m * a

2.1.5.3. 3. Two objects interacting exert equal and opposite forces upon each other. (i.e. normal force)

### 2.2. Keywords

2.2.1. force

2.2.2. direction

2.2.3. magnitude

2.2.4. opposite and equal

2.2.5. gravity

2.2.6. compression

2.2.7. tension

2.2.8. normal force

2.2.9. electromagnetic force

2.2.10. mass

2.2.11. acceleration

2.2.12. motion

### 2.3. Labs

2.3.1. Sample Lab

2.3.1.1. Description

2.3.1.2. Materials

## 3. Matter

### 3.1. Students will:

3.1.1. describe and draw the structure of an atom

3.1.1.1. distinguish and describe its components

3.1.1.2. Atom Poster

3.1.1.3. Atom Models

3.1.1.4. Practice Questions

3.1.2. describe and identify physical states of matter

3.1.2.1. relate these states of matter to molecular movement and draw diagrams

3.1.2.1.1. solids only vibrate in place

3.1.2.1.2. liquid molecules flow freely around eachother but keep constant volume

3.1.2.1.3. gas molecules float freely through space and have undefined volume

3.1.2.1.4. Making Icecream

3.1.2.1.5. Cheerio Model Demos

3.1.2.1.6. Story Analogy with Dancers

3.1.3. identify and describe different properties of substances

3.1.3.1. melting point

3.1.3.2. density

3.1.3.3. hardness

3.1.3.4. ductility

3.1.3.5. lustre

3.1.3.6. Metals

3.1.3.7. IceCream

3.1.3.8. Describe Materials?

3.1.4. distinguish between and describe elements, compounds, and mixtures

3.1.4.1. stick elements/atoms together to create compounds

3.1.4.1.1. Molecular Models Activity

3.1.4.2. mix compounds and elements together to create mixtures

3.1.4.3. find elements/atoms on the periodic table of elements

3.1.4.3.1. Color the Periodic Table

3.1.4.3.2. Describe the Properties of each region

3.1.4.4. Diagrammed Notes/Graphic Organizers

3.1.4.5. Oil/Water - Alka Seltzer

3.1.5. define "crystalline structure"

3.1.5.1. create models of crystalline solids

3.1.5.1.1. Borax Crystals Ornaments

3.1.5.2. find examples of items that have crystalline structures

3.1.5.2.1. Powder Microscopy

3.1.5.2.2. Rock Candy

3.1.6. describe what matter is, and what it is made of, and how its components determine its properties

### 3.2. Keywords

3.2.1. protons

3.2.2. neutrons

3.2.3. electrons

3.2.4. orbitals

3.2.5. gas

3.2.6. liquid

3.2.7. solid

3.2.8. plasma

3.2.9. einstein-bose condensate

3.2.10. melting point

3.2.11. density

3.2.12. hardness

3.2.13. ductility

3.2.14. lustre

3.2.15. crystalline structure

3.2.16. elements

3.2.17. compounds

3.2.18. mixtures

3.2.19. matter

## 4. Solar System

### 4.1. Students will:

4.1.1. describe the composition of the universe

4.1.1.1. matter, dark matter, dark energy

4.1.1.2. chemical composition

4.1.2. classify different galaxies by their shapes and types

4.1.2.1. describe their own galaxy

4.1.2.2. play Galaxy Zoo

4.1.3. compare stellar objects on a scale using astronomical units

4.1.3.1. galaxies

4.1.3.2. Hypergiant Stars

4.1.3.3. Super Giant Stars

4.1.3.4. Giant Stars

4.1.3.5. Stars

4.1.3.6. Planets

4.1.3.7. Satellites

4.1.3.8. Asteroids and Comets

4.1.3.9. light-years

4.1.3.10. AU

4.1.4. describe different types of stars

4.1.5. create graphic representations of the evolution of stars

4.1.6. describe the chemical composition of different stars

4.1.6.1. use spectroscopy to determine compounds by light emissions

4.1.7. describe the evolution of our solar system

4.1.7.1. star -> supernova -> nebula -> sun

4.1.8. conceptually understand gravity and its origins

4.1.8.1. Newton's Law of Gravitation

4.1.8.1.1. Play the Orbit Simulation Game

4.1.8.2. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity

4.1.8.2.1. Play with the Fabric of Space-Time

### 4.2. Keywords

4.2.1. sun

4.2.2. star

4.2.3. planet

4.2.4. galaxy

4.2.5. hydrogen

4.2.6. dark matter

4.2.7. dark energy

4.2.8. matter

4.2.9. stellar objects

4.2.10. spectroscopy

4.2.11. gravity

4.2.12. orbit

4.2.13. HR diagram

4.2.14. Oort Cloud

4.2.15. Supernova

4.2.16. satellite

4.2.17. International Space Station

### 4.6. Brainstorm

4.6.1. Spectroscopy

## 5. Periodic Table

### 5.1. Students will:

5.1.1. identify the regions of metals, non-metals, and gases in the periodic table

5.1.1.1. alkali metals

5.1.1.2. alkaline earth metals

5.1.1.3. transition metals

5.1.1.4. semi-metals

5.1.1.5. non-metals

5.1.1.6. noble gases

5.1.1.7. actinides and lanthanides

5.1.2. identify the parts of a periodic table square

5.1.2.1. create their own element and their own periodic table square

5.1.3. draw diagrams that show the relationship between:

5.1.3.1. the atomic number and the number of protons

5.1.3.2. the atomic mass and the number of protons and neutrons

5.1.3.3. the number of protons and the number of electrons

5.1.4. solve problems involving protons, neutrons, electrons, and isotopes

5.1.4.1. isotope carbon dating

5.1.4.2. nuclear fission

### 5.2. Keywords

5.2.1. metals

5.2.2. non-metals

5.2.3. noble gases

5.2.4. metalloids

5.2.5. atomic number

5.2.6. atomic mass

5.2.7. element symbol

5.2.8. protons

5.2.9. neutrons

5.2.10. electrons

5.2.11. isotope

5.2.12. nuclear fission

5.2.13. nuclear fusion

## 6. Chemical Reactions

### 6.1. Students will:

6.1.1. 1. identify the differences between chemical changes and physical changes

6.1.2. 2. determine the difference between ionic compounds and covalent compounds

6.1.3. 3. identify all the atoms and calculate the weight in a chemical compound

6.1.3.1. Chemical Formula Notes

6.1.3.2. Molecular Weight Stoichiometry Notes?

6.1.4. 4. distinguish between reactants and products in a chemical reaction

6.1.4.1. making pancakes!

6.1.4.3. Molecular Models Lab

6.1.5. 5. solve problems involving the conservation of matter in chemical reactions

6.1.5.1. Balancing Chemical Equations

6.1.5.2. Molecular Models Lab

6.1.6. 6. classify reactions as either endothermic or exothermic

6.1.6.1. classification sheet

6.1.6.2. Revisit Chemical Reactions Lab

6.1.7. 7. describe the potential for conductivity in solids and liquids

6.1.8. 8. describe how electron flow creates electrical current to do work

6.1.9. 9. classify substances as either acidic or basic using the pH scale

6.1.9.1. Red Cabbage Lab

### 6.2. Keywords

6.2.1. reactant

6.2.2. product

6.2.3. law of conservation

6.2.4. chemical formula

6.2.5. equilibrium

6.2.6. pH

6.2.7. acidic

6.2.8. basic

6.2.9. conductivity

6.2.10. electromagnetism

6.2.11. ionic

6.2.12. covalent

6.2.13. electrical current

6.2.14. endothermic

6.2.15. exothermic

6.2.16. orbitals

### 6.4. Rationale

6.4.1. No Electricity Day

### 6.6. Brainstorm

6.6.1. Cooking vs. Mixing

6.6.2. Hydrogen Explosion

## 7. Organic Molecules

### 7.1. Students will:

7.1.1. identify the 6 most common elements found in organic material

7.1.1.1. SCHNOP

7.1.2. indentify the most common types of organic molecules

7.1.2.1. fats

7.1.2.2. lipids

7.1.2.3. DNA

7.1.2.4. proteins

### 7.2. Keywords

7.2.1. fats

7.2.2. lipids

7.2.3. DNA

7.2.4. proteins

7.2.5. sulfur

7.2.6. carbon

7.2.7. hydrogen

7.2.8. nitrogen

7.2.9. oxygen

7.2.10. phosphorus

7.2.11. carbon-chemistry

7.2.12. organic molecules

## 8. Density and Buoyancy

### 8.1. Students will:

8.1.1. define mass in contrast to weight

8.1.2. define volume in terms of space and in contrast to area or length

8.1.3. describe different units of measurement for mass and volume

8.1.4. define density as mass per unit volume

8.1.5. solve algebraic problems using density, volume, and mass

8.1.6. describe the buoyant force in terms of density

8.1.6.1. less dense materials are displaced by more dense materials

8.1.7. predict whether a substance will sink or float using its density

8.2.1. mass

8.2.2. weight

8.2.3. volume

8.2.4. area

8.2.5. length

8.2.6. density

8.2.7. buoyancy

8.2.8. lift

### 8.6. Brainstorm

8.6.1. Synthetic Ocean/Floating Plastic

## 9. Doing Science!

### 9.1. Students will:

9.1.1. describe what impact science has on their daily lives

9.1.2. extrapolate the consequences of not taking reliable measurements and data

9.1.3. distinguish between "bad" science and "good" science

9.1.4. distinguish between inferences and observations

9.1.5. describe the differences between science and systems of belief

9.1.5.1. "system of belief" vs. "system of description"

9.1.6. describe the difference between a law, a theory, a hypothesis, and everyday usages

9.1.7. distinguish between "opinion" and "argument"

9.1.7.1. practice formulating arguments with evidence

9.1.8. solve simple dimensional analysis problems

9.1.9. become familiar with using different units to represent different dimensional concepts

9.1.10. create, interpret, and read graphs to determine trends in the data

9.1.11. create, interpret, and read data tables to record data

9.1.12. calculate averages and standard deviations and understand why these calculations are made

9.1.13. design and carry out well designed experiments

9.1.13.1. clear variables and controls

9.1.14. work collaboratively in groups to complete scientific endeavors

9.1.15. communicate the findings of their science to the rest of the class

9.1.16. identify stakeholders and their viewpoints in certain scientific scenarios

9.1.17. convince shareholders to fund their research or manufacturing

9.1.18. identify the different components of a research paper

9.1.19. learn how to read research papers

9.1.19.1. skip over the stuff that they don't understand and mark it

9.1.19.1.1. research it later

9.1.20. learn how to access research and scholarly papers

### 9.2. Keywords

9.2.1. units

9.2.2. peer review

9.2.3. evidence

9.2.4. hypothesis

9.2.5. theory

9.2.6. law

9.2.7. argument

9.2.8. opinion

9.2.9. dimensional analysis

9.2.10. published article

9.2.11. abstract

9.2.12. pseudo science

9.2.13. bias

9.2.14. accuracy

9.2.15. precision

9.2.16. independent variable

9.2.17. dependent variable

9.2.18. control

9.2.19. stakeholder

9.2.20. average

9.2.21. standard deviation

### 9.4. Brainstorm

9.4.1. Creating Data Tables

9.4.2. Sodium Explosion - Observations vs. Inferences

9.4.3. Measurements - Cooking

9.4.4. Making sense of large numbers

9.4.5. Knowledge vs. Process of science

9.4.6. Nature of Science Case Studies

9.4.7. Mystery Boxes - Inferences

## 10. Intro to Physical Science

### 10.1. Students will:

10.1.1. explain what physical science involves

10.1.2. identify skills that scientists use to learn about the natural world

10.1.3. explain the roles of models, laws, and theories in science

10.1.4. explain why scientists use a standard meausrement system

10.1.5. identify the SI units of meaurement for length, mass, volume, density, time and temperature

10.1.6. describe what math skills scientits use in collecting data and making measurements

10.1.7. describe how you determine a line of best fit or the slop of a graph

10.1.8. explain why line graphs are powerful tools in science

10.1.9. describe what you should do if an accident occurs

10.1.10. take SI measurements using meter sticks, mass balances, graduated cylinders, thermometers, etc.

10.1.11. create graphs using data sets and determine a trend using the graph

## 11. General Skills

### 11.1. Students will:

11.1.1. review and critique models of work

11.1.1.1. determine its strengths and weaknesses

11.1.1.2. use this information to inform the execution of their own work