# PHYSICS 2013 Ethan Woo 3H2

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PHYSICS 2013 Ethan Woo 3H2

## 1. Kinetic Model of Matter

### 1.2. States of Matter: -Solid -Liquid -Gas

1.2.1. Properties of Solids: -Particles vibrate around fixed positions -Solids have a fixed shape and volume. -Particles are closely packed together due to strong intermolecular forces holding particles together.

1.2.2. Properties of Liquids: -Particles move around freely by sliding past each other. -Particles have strong intermolecular forces between each other although not as strong as the forces in solids. -Fixed volume but no fixed shape.(ie. particles assume the shape of the container it is in.

1.2.3. Properties of Gases: -Particles move around freely in all directions at high speed. -Weak intermolecular forces holding particles together. -No fixed shape or volume.

### 1.3. Heat and Temperature

1.3.1. Heat: Heat is the amount of heat energy there is in an object. The more heat an object has, the faster its particles move. When an object has heated up enough, it will change state as increases in heat also weaken the intermolecular bonds between particles.

1.3.2. Temperature: Temperature is basically the measure of the amount of heat there is in an object.

### 1.4. Relationship between Temperature, Volume and Pressure.(Supposing mass of gas particles remains the same.)

1.4.1. Temperature increased, Volume increased and Pressure remaining constant: If we want the pressure in a container to remain constant whilst increasing the temperature, we will have to increase the volume of the container. This is because pressure is force per unit area and when the temperature increases, the speed of the particles increases, increasing the rate of collision between the particles and the walls of the container. Thus, we have to increase the volume of the container so as to keep the rate of collision constant, keeping the pressure constant.

1.4.2. Pressure increases as Temperature increases while Volume remains constant: When the temperature of the gas in the container increases, the molecules will move faster and will hit the walls of the container faster and with greater force. This causes the pressure to increase due to the increased rate of collision between the molecules and the walls of the container.

1.4.3. Temperature is constant, Pressure increases and Volume decreases: At a constant temperature, the average speed of the molecules remains the same. However, if we reduce the volume of the container by half, since pressure is force per unit area, the pressure will increase because there is lesser surface area for the particles to hit the walls of the container. And at the same time,the number of molecules will remain the same, thus, the number of molecules per unit area will increase. Because of this, the number of molecules hitting the wall per second will increase too, increasing the pressure while decreasing the volume and keeping the temperature constant.

## 2. Heat and Temperature

### 2.1. Heat:

2.1.1. Heat cab can be defined as the total energy of molecular motion in a substance

### 2.2. Temperature

2.2.1. Temperature on the other hand, can be defined the measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance

### 2.4. Movement of Heat between Objects

2.4.1. Three Methods of Transferring Heat between objects: -Conduction -Convection -Radiation

2.4.1.1. Conduction: Conduction is the transfer of heat through the collision of particles

### 2.5. Measure of Temperature

2.5.1. Three Units of Temperature measurement: -Kelvin (SI unit) -Celsius -Fahrenheit

2.5.2. Although Kelvin is the SI unit, Celsius is more commonly used. However, in countries like America, the Fahrenheit scale is more commonly used.

2.5.3. The Kelvin and Celsius Scale are directly proportionate, with the exception that -273 degrees celsius is equal to 0 Kelvin