Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning theories

1.1. Cognitive load

1.1.1. Basic principles

1.1.1.1. Knowledge construct mentally in mind as an information processor

1.1.1.2. Use cognitive strategies to transfer knowledges

1.1.1.3. There are short-term, long-term, and working memory in human brain

1.1.1.4. Students remember ways of thinking (rules, patterns and strategies)

1.1.1.5. Thinking is mind manipulation & representations

1.1.1.6. Information overload of the working memory impairs learning

1.1.2. Implications for education

1.1.2.1. Discovery learning

1.1.2.1.1. Can discover relations between knowledges

1.1.2.1.2. Mind thinking reorganization to fit new encounters

1.1.2.1.3. Learning process is more important than the product

1.1.2.2. Spiral curriculum

1.1.2.2.1. Knowledge is presented in 3 modes of knowledge presentation

1.1.2.2.2. Same idea is reviewed at higher level

1.2. Constructivist

1.2.1. Basic Principles

1.2.1.1. All knowledge is actively constructed by learners

1.2.1.2. Knowledge is not passively received

1.2.1.3. Learning involves personal discoveries

1.2.1.4. An adaptive process to learn: collect ideas->use ideas->construct own knowledge

1.2.1.5. construct knowledge through assimilation and accommodation

1.2.1.6. Use existing knowledge to build new knowledge

1.2.1.7. cognitive constructivism-->social constructivism

1.2.2. Implication for educations

1.2.2.1. Reject traditional teacher dominant teaching methods

1.2.2.2. Social interaction between teachers & students

1.2.2.3. Constructivist teachers give directions to guide students to discuss

1.2.2.4. By classroom discussion, students gain the skill of knowledge construction

1.2.2.5. create a classroom environment for students to construct knowledges under individual social basis

1.2.2.6. Develop students' creative thinking

1.3. Connectivism

1.3.1. Basic Principles

1.3.1.1. ▪Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

1.3.1.2. ▪Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources

1.3.1.3. ▪Learning may reside in non-human appliances

1.3.1.4. ▪Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

1.3.1.5. ▪Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning

1.3.1.6. ▪Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill

1.3.1.7. ▪Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities

1.3.1.8. ▪Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality

1.3.2. Implications for education

1.3.2.1. Multiple access points to various networks for information creation, storing, sharing, and retrieval

1.3.2.2. Model the use of current information to provide real-world examples of knowledge and thinking in a continual state of flux

1.3.2.3. Scaffold activities to provide necessary skill development to aid in the sorting of information, which will allow for decisions to be made on the importance of information

1.3.2.4. Incorporation of on-line social networking tools to facilitate the flow and exchange of information within a network, pushing the boundaries of individual and group learning similar to Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development

2. Technology theories

2.1. SCOT

2.1.1. can be used to analyze why a piece of technology was successful or not

2.1.2. success or failure of a technology is socially determined regardless of how good the technology really is

2.1.3. Human action shapes technology and not the other way round

2.2. Media Ecology

2.2.1. This is the study of media as environments

2.2.2. technology has very strong influences on society

2.2.3. Technology affects the way we see the world

2.2.4. Media ecology association

2.2.5. Sees human as affected by technology rather than SCOT which sees technology being affected by human

3. TPACK

3.1. Three primary areas

3.1.1. Content Knowledge

3.1.2. Technology knowledge

3.1.3. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.2. Framework that identifies the knowledge teachers need to teach effectively with technology

3.3. TPACK image

3.4. The circle that intersect with all the three primary ares is the TPACK that can help teachers to develop unique teaching strategies for different students in different area

4. Philosophy of Technology

4.1. Technology should both teachers and students' best friend. It should help both teachers and students to acquire knowledge at anytime and anywhere

4.2. Teachers should technology is a tool that can provide students with the best way to learn

4.3. Technology should work as a tool for both teachers and students to communicate more efficiently.

4.4. Technology can help teachers for professional development.