Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Constructivism

1.1.1. Implications for Education

1.1.1.1. Problem-based learning, project-based learning, discovery learning, and active learning.

1.1.1.2. Rejects traditional teacher dominant teaching methods.

1.1.1.3. By classroom discussion, students gain the skills of knowledge construction.

1.1.1.4. Teacher as a facilitator as opposed to just a lecturer; allows for active learning instead of passive learning.

1.1.2. Basic Principles

1.1.2.1. All knowledge is actively constructed by learners and is not merely passively received.

1.1.2.2. Construct knowledge through assimilation and accommodation and use existing knowledge to build new knowledge.

1.1.2.3. Learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences.

1.1.2.4. Learning is a process of connecting particular information sources.

1.2. Connectivism

1.2.1. Implications for Education

1.2.1.1. Students may access discussion forums, social networking sites, and search engine for quick and easy information.

1.2.1.2. The teacher provides activities and challenges for students to complete and make connections with their previous knowledge.

1.2.1.2.1. Connectivism, Constructivism, and Cognitive Load all highlight the importance of building off of existing knowledge to acquire new knowledge.

1.2.2. Basic Principles

1.2.2.1. Knowledge exists outside the learner, and the learner connects information to build knowledge.

1.2.2.2. Capacity to know more is more important than what we already know.

1.2.2.3. Learning is the process of connecting specialized information sources.

1.2.2.4. Maintaining and nurturing connections is necessary to facilitate learning.

1.3. Cognitive Load

1.3.1. Basic Principles

1.3.1.1. Processing information may overload or under-load the working memory. Over load occurs when the working-memory has to process too much information, too fast.

1.3.1.2. Working load can only handle seven disconnected items at once.

1.3.1.3. Learning is shaped by previously acquired learning strategies, as well as prior knowledge and strategies called schemas.

1.3.1.4. Memory systems are active and organized processors of information, and previous knowledge is a key aspect of learning.

1.3.2. Implications for Education

1.3.2.1. Learning is very teacher-centered

1.3.2.2. Information must be presented in an organized manner in order to achieve efficient learning.

1.3.2.3. Learners are active participants; the mind processes the information and stores it away to be retrieved later.

1.3.2.4. Students may find it difficult to adapt new changes if it has already been processed in their minds.

2. Technology Theories

2.1. Media Ecology

2.1.1. Implications for Education

2.1.1.1. Analysis of how technology has changed every aspect of human life.

2.1.1.2. Debates regarding reliance on technology.

2.1.2. Basic Principles

2.1.2.1. The study of media as environments

2.1.2.2. Technology, modes of information, and methods of communication play a lead role in our lives.

2.1.2.3. Humans are affected by technology.

2.1.2.4. Looks at how our interaction with media improves or deters our chances of survival.

2.2. SCOT

2.2.1. Implications for Education

2.2.1.1. Projects based on the social context of technology.

2.2.1.2. Online discussions regarding the important role of society on technology.

2.2.2. Basic Principles

2.2.2.1. Human action shapes technolgy

2.2.2.1.1. Opposite of Media Ecology which sees humans as being affected by technology.

2.2.2.2. Social Construction of Technology

2.2.2.3. In order to understand technology properly, one must gain understanding of how technology is entrenched in its social context

2.2.2.4. The success or failure of any technology is not determined by how good or bad it is, but is socially determined.

3. TPACK

3.1. Basic Principles

3.1.1. Incorporates three different types of knowledge

3.1.1.1. Content Knowledge

3.1.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.1.1.3. Technology Knowledge

3.1.1.4. These three areas overlap and create different subdivisions of TC, TP, and PC.

3.1.2. Identifies the knowledge teachers need to teach effectively with technology.

3.1.3. Approach goes beyond seeing all of these areas in isolation, but intersections between them all.

3.1.4. Further extension of Shulman's idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.2. Implications for Education

3.2.1. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.2.1.1. Teaching environment

3.2.1.2. Planning

3.2.1.3. Effectively grouping students

3.2.1.4. Effective classroom rules and procedures

3.2.2. Technological Knowledge

3.2.2.1. Effectively incorporating technology into classroom activities

3.2.2.2. Equipment for research assignments and other projects

3.2.2.3. Tutorials to help students understand materials better and at their own pace

3.2.3. Content Knowledge

3.2.3.1. Analogies, metaphors, similes, and other devices to help students understand information easily.

3.2.3.2. Facts, concepts, and ideas known by the teacher.

4. Philosophies of Teachnology

4.1. Basic Principles

4.1.1. Similar to teaching philosophy, but incorporates technology as a large aspect.

4.1.2. Provides students with critical literacy skills that allow students to retain, analyze, and produce content relevant to their personal situations.

4.1.3. All students possess an inherent capability to learn that can be further developed through mentorship.

4.1.4. Motivated and pedagogical knowledge is a necessary aspect.

4.1.5. Teacher is a monitor, mediator, and facilitator.

4.2. Implications for Education

4.2.1. Limited lectures in order to increase interaction.

4.2.2. Use lots of group work in order to promote teamwork and cooperation.

4.2.3. Cyber writing in order to show students how they can blend their academic rhetorical purposes through technology.