Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Constructivism http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html

1.1.1. Principles

1.1.1.1. learners existing knowledge influences what will happen with the new information

1.1.1.2. learners bring knowledge/experience to each situation

1.1.1.3. learners relate new information to old information

1.1.1.4. learners take responsibility for their learning

1.1.2. Application http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub1.html

1.1.2.1. Teacher

1.1.2.1.1. Teacher must learn to ask students thoughtful questions

1.1.2.1.2. Teacher emphasizes understanding of main concepts

1.1.2.1.3. Teacher has an interactive role, facilitating discussion and understanding

1.1.2.2. Learner

1.1.2.2.1. Learners work mainly in groups

1.1.2.2.2. Learner has an interactive role, making sense of information and relating it to existing knowledge

1.2. Cognitive Load http://im404504.wikidot.com/cognitive-learning-theory

1.2.1. Main Idea

1.2.1.1. Information goes into working memory (WM), after attending to the information, it goes into the long term memory (LTM), from there, it can be transferred back to WM as often as needed

1.2.2. Principles

1.2.2.1. WM can only attend to 7 disconnected items at a time

1.2.2.2. Schemas are organizing units put into LTM by WM

1.2.2.3. Automaticity is the result of a well developed schema

1.2.2.4. WM becomes overloaded when processing too much too quickly

1.2.2.5. WM becomes overloaded when it cannot build a schema

1.2.2.6. LTM is unlimited and aids WM

1.2.2.7. If WM has the left over capacity it can make powerful connections with LTM

1.2.3. 3 types:

1.2.3.1. Extraneous

1.2.3.1.1. Extraneous load is caused by overwhelming amounts of irrelevant information that disallow WM to transfer information to LTM

1.2.3.2. Intrinsic

1.2.3.2.1. Intrinsic load is caused by overwhelming amounts of complex information in the WM

1.2.3.3. Germane

1.2.3.3.1. Germane load is caused by learning due to the creation of schemas and automaticity

1.2.4. Application

1.2.4.1. Knowledge Compression (Chunking)

1.2.4.1.1. Graphic organizers and mneumonic devices can be used to chunk information

1.2.4.1.2. WM is more efficient when information is processed in meaningful chunks

1.2.4.1.3. Using meaningful chunks can create/ aid in the creation of schemas

1.2.4.1.4. High quality schemas can be used to access LTM

1.2.4.2. Repetition

1.2.4.2.1. Rehearsal is the key to storing processes in LTM and gaining automaticity

1.2.4.2.2. Being able to link new information to existing valuable information will gain the best learning results

1.2.4.3. Unclogging Cognitive Traffic Jams with "Information Landscapes"

1.2.4.3.1. Precise instructional materials will result in the simplest learning

1.2.4.3.2. Eliminate the Split Attention Effect: Create more visually appealing presentations, the with few, specific words

1.2.4.3.3. Create meaningful context for the new information

1.3. Connectivism http://www.connectivism.ca/about.html

1.3.1. Principles

1.3.1.1. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

1.3.1.2. Learning is a process of connecting specialized information sources

1.3.1.3. Learning may reside in non-human appliances

1.3.1.4. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

1.3.1.5. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning

1.3.1.6. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill

1.3.1.7. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities

1.3.1.8. Decision-making is itself a learning process

2. Technological Theories

2.1. Media Ecology http://www.media-ecology.org/media_ecology/index.html

2.1.1. how media of communication affect human perception, understanding, feeling, and value; and how our interaction with media facilitates or impedes our chances of survival

2.1.2. Media ecologists do not, as yet, have a coherent framework in which to organize their subject matter

2.2. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_construction_of_technology

2.2.1. Principles

2.2.1.1. technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology.

2.2.1.2. The ways a technology is used cannot be understood without understanding how that technology is embedded in its social context

2.2.2. Core Concepts

2.2.2.1. Interpretative Flexibility

2.2.2.1.1. each technological artifact has different meanings and interpretations for various groups

2.2.2.2. Relevant Social Groups

2.2.2.2.1. The groups can be distinguished based on their shared or diverging interpretations of the technology in question

2.2.2.3. Design Flexibility

2.2.2.3.1. There are always multiple ways of constructing technologies. A design is only a single point in the large field of technical possibilities, reflecting the interpretations of certain relevant groups

2.2.2.4. Problems and Conflicts

2.2.2.4.1. The different interpretations often give rise to conflicts between criteria that are hard to resolve technologically or conflicts between the relevant groups

2.2.2.4.2. Different groups in different societies construct different problems, leading to different designs.

2.2.2.5. Closure

2.2.2.5.1. 2 Types:

3. TPACK Framework http://www.tpack.org

3.1. 7 Components

3.1.1. Technology Knowledge

3.1.1.1. Knowledge of ways of thinking about/ working with technology, tools and resources

3.1.1.1.1. How To:

3.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.1.2.1. Knowledge about processes/ practices/ methods of teaching and learning

3.1.2.2. Educational purposes, values, and aims

3.1.2.3. Understanding how students learn

3.1.2.4. Classroom management

3.1.2.5. Lesson planning/ assessment

3.1.3. Content Knowldge

3.1.3.1. Knowledge about the information/subject matter that needs to be learned/taught

3.1.4. Technological Content Knowledge

3.1.4.1. Understanding how technology and content influence and constrain one another

3.1.4.1.1. Understand how subject matter can be changed by the application of specific technologies

3.1.5. Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.1.5.1. Transformation of the subject matter for teaching

3.1.5.1.1. Find multiple ways to represent it, adapt and tailor the materials and create connections to students' knowledge

3.1.5.2. Includes knowledge about teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting

3.1.6. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge

3.1.6.1. Understanding how teaching and learning can change when implementing specific technologies in specific ways

3.1.7. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.1.7.1. Understanding the representation of concepts using technologies

3.1.7.2. Knowledge of when to implement pedagogical techniques that make use of technologies efficiently and effectively

3.1.7.3. Knowledge of concept difficulty, and how technology can assist or impede learning of concepts

3.1.7.4. Teacher awareness of students’ knowledge

3.1.7.5. Knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge