THEORIES AND FRAMEWORKS

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THEORIES AND FRAMEWORKS by Mind Map: THEORIES AND FRAMEWORKS

1. re: Educational Technologies

1.1. Design of the application's environment is critical

1.1.1. Environment/design should facilitate experimentation

1.2. Behaviourist educational technolgoies (such as iClickers) should incorporate rewards/consequences as stimuli

2. CONSTRUCTIVISM [Dewey, Montessori, Piaget, Vygotsky]

2.1. Individual learn by doing. Knowledge is constructed via experience and interactions with the environment.

2.2. Problem-solving skills are learned via experience working through complex problems.

2.2.1. Teacher serves as facilitator

2.3. Implications for Education

2.3.1. re: Education Practices

2.3.1.1. Problem-based learning

2.3.1.1.1. Individuals learn best when engaged in authentic tasks (i.e. when they work on solving real-world problems; active, case-based problem-solving)

2.3.1.2. Teacher serves as facilitator

2.3.1.2.1. "Zone of Proximal Development" [Vygotsky]. Instructional design should incorporate opportunities for scaffolding.

2.3.1.3. Instructional design should incorporate opportunities for discovery learning

2.3.2. re: Educational Technologies

2.3.2.1. Should focus on process towards an end goal (ex. Scratch as a game-building tool teaches users a different process for storytelling / creating a story)

2.3.2.1.1. Real-world problem-solving activities (ex. SimCity activity that deals with municipal planning in response to overpopulation or natural disaster threats)

2.3.2.2. Should incorporate scaffolding (the application can serve as facilitator)

2.3.2.3. Should incorporate discovery learning

2.3.2.4. Opportunities for collaborative problem-solving may enhance learning (ex. scaffolding amongst collaborators)

3. CONNECTIVISM [Siemens, Downes]

3.1. may not constitute a stand-alone theory (?)

3.2. could have a role in each of the learning theories noted (?)

3.3. Knowledge is distributed across a network or sources, and learning involves acquiring skills for seeing connections amongst fields, ides, concepts; and acquiring skills for utilizing and making connections via networks to find the information/knowledge we need

3.4. Current (up-to-date) knowledge is the intent, and the capacity to know more is more important than what is currently known

3.4.1. New knowledge is constantly produced via the network of sources; collective knowledge creation

3.4.1.1. Need to nurture and maintain connections to support continued learning

3.5. Implications for Education

3.5.1. Instructional design should incorporate student- directed learning, with the teacher serving as facilitator

3.5.1.1. Student create their own PLN (personal learning network)

3.5.1.2. Reflective work on one's own learning process

3.5.1.3. An ePortfolio to document one's own learning process and attainments, etc.

3.5.2. Collaborative activities should be incorporated to provide facilitate the collective creation of knowledge

3.5.3. Process-focussed, not knowledge-focussed

3.5.4. Evaluation should focus on assessing whether the student is acquiring appropriate process skills, with the teacher/facilitator providing corrective support (ex. if a student is found to be having difficulty filtering relevant sources, the facilitator will provide support to help the student acquire competence in this part of the process)

3.5.4.1. Evaluation should include a tool aimed at assessing whether the student is able to synthesize information/knowledge

4. LEARNING THEORIES

4.1. COGNITIVE LOAD (Cognitivism) [Piaget, Vygotsky]

4.1.1. Individuals learn by building on prior knowledge - (seriality). Memory is a key element or learning.

4.1.1.1. Knowledge is organized into schemas; learning occurs when new information doesn't "fit" into an existing schema, and the schema is then reorganized to accommodate the new information.

4.1.1.2. Scaffolding (premised on Vygotsky's "zone of proximal development") involve the gradual diminishing of teacher/facilitator support as the student gains more and more knowledge that enables him/her to become more independent in problem-solving.

4.1.2. Memory consists of working (short-term) memory and long-term memory.

4.1.2.1. Working memory can be OVER or UNDER loaded by information processing

4.1.2.1.1. Example of cognitive overload is my inability to read when there is background noise (especially music).

4.1.3. Implications for Education

4.1.3.1. re: Education Practices

4.1.3.1.1. Chunking of information to avoid cognitive overload and to facilitate serial learning

4.1.3.1.2. Instruction design that incorporates opportunities for scaffolding

4.1.3.1.3. Instructional design that incorporates

4.1.3.2. re: Educational Technologies

4.1.3.2.1. Design matters (user interface, aesthetics)

4.1.3.2.2. Organization matters (layout, navigation)

4.2. BEHAVIOURISM [Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner]

4.2.1. Individuals learn via stimulus response (operant conditioning / consequences: reinforcement, punishment). The individual's relationship with the environment is therefore critical.

4.2.2. Mind is a blank slate

4.2.3. Implications for Education

4.2.3.1. re: Education Practices

4.2.3.1.1. Instruction design and classroom management techniques that incorporate rewards/consequences, as well as modelling, cuing, shaping, and drill and practice

4.2.3.1.2. Instructivism: Direct instruction (lecture) is the primary mode of knowledge transfer

5. TECHNOLOGY THEORIES

5.1. SCOT (Social Construction of Technologies) [Bijker, Pinch]

5.1.1. "...technology does not determine human action... human action shapes technology (from Wikipedia)

5.1.2. "...the ways a technology is used cannot be understood without understanding how that technology is embedded in the social context." (from Wikipedia)

5.1.2.1. Symmetry (bicycle example re: bicycles were valued differently when they were first invented, compared to today, therefore the "advance" in bicycle design is in response to the changing value of the bicycle over time, and the success of the bicycle as a technology depends on how successfully each "advance" responded to the specific needs and utility of the users of the given time)

5.1.3. Analysing the success or failure of technology

5.1.4. Implications for Education

5.1.4.1. Collaboration / group work to produce collective knowledge regarding current needs/utility/value of a technology (?)

5.1.4.2. Learning may include acquiring an understanding of historical and cultural connections / social context

5.1.4.3. Learning emphasizes analysis / development of analytical skills (?)

5.1.4.4. Case-based learning / problem-solving

5.2. MEDIA ECOLOGY [McLuhan, Innis, Postman]

5.2.1. Media has a "soft" influence on all aspects of human life and changed the way we live

5.2.1.1. Hot (low involvement) and cool (high involvement) media [McLuhan]

5.2.2. Scales of human perception (for which communication serves as a conduit) and its impact on the brain [Langer]

5.2.2.1. Sole focus on communication [McLuhan]

5.2.2.1.1. Technologies (including TV, telephone, money, clothing, weapons, cave painting) are media for communication

5.2.3. The specific medium of communication matters (ex. writing with the alphabet vs. hieroglyphics) - "THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE" [McLuhan]

5.2.3.1. Focus on media, technology, process and structure, vs. content [Postman]

5.2.3.2. Historical connections (i.e. as technologies have evolved through history; or single points in history )

5.2.4. Metaphor plays a larger role than statistical evidence

5.2.4.1. Style is at least as important as content [Postman]

5.2.5. Implications for Education

5.2.5.1. Lectures should involve persuasion, metaphors. Interactive lectures may involve debate.

5.2.5.2. Instructional design should consider how a selected media will impact perception and support learning (ex, how will the learning experience about ducks differ if students a.) write an essay about ducks, relying on textbooks, films, internet sources, or b.) spend time observing ducks in their natural habitat as a sole source of information on ducks, then create illustrations to document their observations.

5.2.5.2.1. In the learning process, can some technologies (ex. film/video) replace or stand-in for direct observation? What does the medium communicate, and how might the medium impact the message that is communicated?

6. TPACK (Mishra & Koehler)

6.1. Knowledge base(s) for purposeful teaching with technology

6.2. Incorporates three knowledge bases: Technological Knowledge (TK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) and Content Knowledge (CK)

6.2.1. These areas intersect to represent four more mutually influencing knowledge bases: (see Venn diagram at link)

6.2.1.1. TCK

6.2.1.2. PCK

6.2.1.3. TPK

6.2.1.4. TPCK (TPACK), the domain where all intersect/overlap

6.2.1.5. All together, these intersecting knowledge bases comprise “CONTEXT” (i.e. a teacher’s capacity)

6.3. SAMR Model (Puentedura)

6.3.1. 4 levels of technology use in teaching, moving students from ‘enhancement’ to ‘modification’

6.3.1.1. Redefinition

6.3.1.2. Modification

6.3.1.3. Augmentation

6.3.1.4. Substitution

7. TEACHNOLOGY

7.1. A teacher’s beliefs, ideas and values regarding the role of technology in their teaching practices

7.2. A personal/professional statement

7.2.1. May incorporates all the knowledge bases / domains (TK, CK, PK, TCK, PCK, TPK, TPCK)

7.2.2. Is important for professional development and goal setting

7.2.2.1. My PLN