THEORIES & FRAMEWORKS

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THEORIES & FRAMEWORKS by Mind Map: THEORIES & FRAMEWORKS

1. Theories of Technology

1.1. Media Ecology

1.1.1. Basic Principals

1.1.1.1. -study of media environments, the idea that technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs. -Media ecology looks into the matter of how media of communication affect human perception, understanding, feeling, and value; and how our interaction with media facilitates or impedes our chances of survival. -studies how we are in an era of change (20th century)

1.2. SCOT

1.2.1. The Social Construction of Technology

1.2.1.1. Basic Principals

1.2.1.1.1. -Is a theory that argues that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology. -the ways a technology is used cannot be understood without understanding how that technology is embedded in its social context. -is a response to technological determinism and is sometimes known as technological constructivism. -those who seek to understand the reasons for acceptance or rejection of a technology should look to the social world.

1.2.1.2. Implications

1.2.1.2.1. -researchers must look at how the criteria of being "the best" is defined and what groups and stakeholders participate in defining it. -we must ask who defines the technical criteria success is measured by, why technical criteria are defined this way, and who is included or excluded. -it formalizes the steps and principles to follow when one wants to analyze the causes of technological failures or successes.

2. TPACK

2.1. What is it?

2.1.1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a framework that identifies the knowledge teachers need to teach effectively with technology. At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: -Content (CK) Pedagogy (PK) Technology (TK)

2.1.2. LINK:

2.2. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)

2.2.1. PK and CK connect to form Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): the idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content

2.2.2. -deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning and how it encompasses (among other things) overall educational purposes, values and aims. -generic form of knowledge that is involved in all issues of student learning, classroom management, lesson plan development and implementation, and student evaluation. -includes knowledge about techniques or methods to be used in the classroom, the nature of the target audience, and strategies for evaluating student understanding.

2.3. Technological Knowledge (TK)

2.3.1. PK and TK connect to make Technological Pedagogical Knowledge TPK: emphasizes the existence, components and capabilities of various technologies as they are used in the settings of teaching and learning.

2.3.2. -knowledge about standard technologies such as books and chalk and blackboard, as well as more advanced technologies such as the Internet and digital video -involves the skills required to operate particular technologies. In the case of digital technologies this would include knowledge of operating systems, and computer hardware, as well as the ability to use standard set of software tools such as word processors, spreadsheets, browsers, email

2.4. Content Knowledge (CK)

2.4.1. CK and TK connect to form Technological Content Knowledge TCK: the knowledge of the relationship between technology and content

2.4.2. -knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught -content covered in high school social studies or algebra is very different from the content to be covered in a graduate course on computer science or art history -teachers must know and understand the subjects they teach, including knowledge of central facts, concepts, theories and procedures within a given field

3. Learning Therories

3.1. Connectivism Theory

3.1.1. Basic Principals

3.1.1.1. -Theory of learning based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world rather than in the head of an individual. -proposes a perspective similar to Vygotsky's Activity theory in that it sees knowledge as existing within systems which are accessed through people participating in activities. -Based on observation and individual study on how we learn -People construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. -When we encounter something new, we have to compare it with our previous ideas and experiences (maybe changing what we believe, or discarding the new info as irrelevant).

3.1.2. Implications for Education

3.1.2.1. -Encourag students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. -Make sure to understand students' preexisting conceptions, and guide the activity to address them and then build on them. -It can fit in well with any research project. You can have students use tools like RSS feeds, Twitter, bookmarking tools, You Tube, etc.. to find information and connect to information sources

3.2. Behaviourism Theory

3.2.1. Basic Principles

3.2.1.1. -Describes learning as a complex process of responses to several kinds of distinct stimuli. -B.F Skinner referred to it as a three-term contingency comprised of a discriminative stimuli, or Sd, a response, or R, and a reinforcing stimulus, or Srein.

3.2.2. Implications for Education

3.2.2.1. -Repetition -Small, concrete, progressively sequenced tasks -Positive and negative reinforcement -Consistency in the use of reinforcers during the teaching-learning process -Habits and other undesirable responses can be broken by removing the positive reinforcers connected with them. -Immediate, consistent, and positive reinforcement increases the speed of learning. -Once an item is learned, intermittent reinforcement will promote retention.

3.3. Cognitive Load Theory

3.3.1. Basic Principals

3.3.1.1. -explains the limits of human cognitive architecture (structures like working memory (WM), long term memory (LTM), & schemas (S)). -often takes a computer information processing model. Learning is viewed as a process of inputs, managed in short term memory, and coded for long-term recall. -If nothing has been altered in LTM, nothing has been learned -WM can only handle 7 disconnected items at once -Overload occurs when WM has to process too much too fast. -LTM is virtually unlimited and assists WM. -"S"s are memory structures written in LTM by WM. -WM is overloaded when its ability to build a schema is compromised. -If WM has capacity left over, it can access information from long term memory in powerful ways. -Automation (doing something without conscious thought) results from well developed "S"s due to WM's interacting with LTM. Well developed "S" come with repeated effort and effective practice.

3.3.2. Implications for Education

3.3.2.1. Chunking

3.3.2.1.1. -Working memory can operate more efficiently when information is presented in meaningful chunks. -Imitates schema development

3.3.2.2. Repetition

3.3.2.2.1. -For complex tasks, procedures need to be isolated and rehearsed multiple times for working memory to process and automation to develop. -Repetition will be required for instruction to be effective if teacher cannot address learner's point of view.

3.3.2.3. Information Landscapes

3.3.2.3.1. -Help unclogging cognitive traffic jams -Brain finds relief in instructional materials that follow clear and elegant design principles -More visual than text heavy

3.3.3. 3 types of Cognitive Load

3.3.3.1. Germane

3.3.3.1.1. caused by effortful learning resulting in schema construction and the process of automation

3.3.3.2. Intrinsic

3.3.3.2.1. caused by the irreducible complexity of elements interacting in working memory.

3.3.3.3. Extraneous

3.3.3.3.1. caused by inappropriate instructional designs that force working memory to focus away from building schemas into long term memory.

3.4. Constructivism Theory

3.4.1. Basic Principals

3.4.1.1. -human learning is constructed -new knowledge is built from previous learning and experience -learning is active (understanding can change when new situations are presented, then, this is applied to the next situation)

3.4.2. Implications for Education

3.4.2.1. -emphasizes authentic, challenging projects that include students, teachers, and experts in the learning community -learners assume their own responsibilities (they have to develop metacognitive abilities to monitor and direct their own learning and performance -collaboration helps students learn negotiation and see other's frameworks/perspectives to the activity (share understanding)

3.5. Check out the attached link for another quick easy comparison chart!

3.5.1. http://ci484-learning-technologies.wikispaces.com/Behaviorism,+Cognitivism,+Constructivism+%26+Connectivism

3.6. NOTE: Cognitive, Constructivism, and Behaviourism: -Theories Concerned with the PROCESS of learning NOT the VALUE -"Learning occurs inside the person"

4. Philosophy of Teachnology

4.1. What is it?

4.1.1. -addresses ideas and personal values of a teacher in terms of how technology can be used in their lessons -concerned with technology use in the class, in online learning and in Professional Development -at the beginning of the school year teachers can set out an outline of their Philosophy of Teachnology -my PLN could be included in Philosophy of Teachnology

4.2. HOW?

4.2.1. What tools can I use?

4.2.1.1. Personalized or Private Group Websites

4.2.1.2. Mind maps

4.2.1.2.1. sorting ideas and "chunking" for better visual organization and associating through teaching

4.2.1.3. Twitter

4.2.1.3.1. tweets

4.2.1.3.2. use of hashtags '#' for connecting topics

4.2.1.3.3. posting links

4.2.1.4. Facebook

4.2.1.4.1. statuses

4.2.1.4.2. group chats

4.2.1.4.3. posting links

4.2.1.5. different forms of technology

4.2.1.5.1. ipads

4.2.1.5.2. computers

4.2.1.5.3. cellphones with internet access

4.2.1.5.4. progectors

4.2.1.5.5. voice recorders

4.2.1.5.6. auditory aides

4.2.2. -Group setting? -Independent setting?

4.2.3. -classroom? -Place Based Learning? -Experiential Based learning?

4.2.4. -blackboard? -computers? -recordings? -videos? -verbal instruction -handouts? -pen and paper? -textbooks?