Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Problems

1.1. These theories do not address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology). They also fail to describe how learning happens within organization

2. Learning Theories

2.1. Constructivist

2.1.1. Human learning is Constructed

2.1.2. Learners build new knowledge upon the foundation of previous learning

2.1.3. Learning is active

2.1.4. The mind is a Rhizome (Network)

2.1.5. Collaborative Learning

2.1.6. Learners construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

2.1.7. Teachers is a Facilitator rather than a lecturer

2.1.8. Discovery Learning

2.1.9. Ex. Video Games/ classroom discussion and reflection.

2.2. Connectivism

2.2.1. “ A learning theory for the digital age”

2.2.2. Any communication tool: email webcam chat

2.2.3. Anywhere we can store data.

2.2.4. Learning is active

2.2.5. Informal learning is a significant aspect of our learning experience.

2.2.6. Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks.

2.2.7. Technology base learning

2.2.8. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

2.2.9. Knowledge is out there for the learner to find

2.2.10. Connectivism provides insight into learning skills and tasks needed for learners to flourish in a digital era.

2.3. Behaviourism

2.3.1. Watson, Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner

2.3.2. “ practice makes perfect”

2.3.3. Stimulus-response

2.3.4. Operant condition

2.3.5. Modeling,Shaping,Cuing and Drill/practice

2.3.6. Behaviorist Technologies:

2.3.7. Coumputer Assisted Assessment

2.3.8. To shape the behaviour;Consequences can be positive or negative – rewarding or punishing.

2.4. Cognitive Load

2.4.1. The mind is like a computer Schema/Scaffolding

2.4.2. There are two kinds of memory:Working memory and long term memory.

2.4.3. Cognitive Load Theory: Processing information can over or under load working memory

2.4.4. Number 7: Working Memory can only handle 7 disconnected items at once.

2.4.5. 3 Types of Cognitive Load: Extraneous, Intrinsic, and Germane

2.4.6. Extraneous load force working memory to focus away from building schemas into long term memory.

2.4.7. Germane load is caused by effortful learning resulting in Schema construction and the process of automation.

2.4.8. Teachers need to be aware of how much new information they are presenting all at once.

2.4.9. Ex. for meaningful effect: Motivation Seriality Practice for retention Organization ( Prezi) Mneumonic (memory) devices Metaphor/symbolism

3. Technology theories

3.1. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

3.1.1. Human action shapes technology and not the other way around

3.1.2. Success or failure of a technology is socially determined regardless of how good the technology really is.

3.1.3. Technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology

3.1.4. emergence of the questions or problems to be solved are governed by social determinations

3.1.5. SCOT holds that those who seek to understand the reasons for acceptance or rejection of a technology should look to the social world

3.1.6. Wiebe Bijker and Trevor Pinch.

3.1.7. Technology affected by humans while Media Ecology is humans affected by technology.

3.2. Media Ecology

3.2.1. It is the study of media environments, the idea that technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs

3.2.2. A movement to both physical and social science

3.2.3. study of complex communication systems as environments.

3.2.4. The interactions of communications media, technology, technique, and processes with human feeling, thought, value, and behaviour

3.2.5. Christine Nystrom

3.2.6. Media as environments

3.2.7. Technology affects the way we see the world

3.2.8. Humans affected by technology rather than SCOT

3.2.9. Human action shapes technology and not the other way

4. Philosophy of Teachnology

4.1. Similar to a philosophy of teaching

4.2. studying the nature of technology and its social effects.

4.3. Philosophy should not ignore technology

4.4. Constructivist, authentic and cooperative learning

4.5. Includes Technology use in the classroom in online learning and in professional development

4.6. Teachers can develop written statements which outline their philosophy of teaching

4.7. Teachers are responsible for integrating technology into the curriculum and instructional programs in order to enhance student achievement .

5. TPACK

5.1. A Venn diagram is used to demonstrate how the three spheres intersect one another

5.2. Web Link TPACK Image

5.3. The Art of investigating content

5.4. The science of operating interfaces

5.5. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

5.6. Three Primary forms of Knowledge

5.6.1. Content (CK)

5.6.2. Pedagogy (PK)

5.6.3. Technology (TK)

5.7. Teachers can bring together knowledge of subject matter and technology

5.8. reflects Shulman's idea of pedagogical content knowledge

5.9. TPACK is where these types of knowledge intersect so that teachers know the right kind of technology will best convey content in a pedagogically sound manner.