Gilded Age

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Gilded Age by Mind Map: Gilded Age

1. 1. Business Expansion/Wealthy Industrialists

1.1. Laissez-Faire Capitalism

1.1.1. Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations

1.1.1.1. The magnum opus of Adam Smith. writes against the mercantile system, and gives a complicated but brilliant account of an economic system based in human nature and deeply rooted social dynamics

1.1.2. An economic environment in which government doesn't interfere at all, except to protect property rights against theft and aggression.

1.2. Forms of Business Organization

1.2.1. Monopoly

1.2.1.1. A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller

1.2.2. Pool

1.2.2.1. A way to increase profits, in which competing companies agreed secretly and informally to fix rates and share traffic

1.2.3. Trust

1.2.3.1. an entity created to hold assets for the benefit of certain persons or entities, with a trustee managing the trust

1.2.4. Holding Company

1.2.4.1. company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control operations in electing/influencing board of directors.

1.3. Entrepeneurs

1.3.1. Robber barons vs Captains of Industry

1.3.1.1. Robber Baron

1.3.1.1.1. A business leader using political means to achieve their ends

1.3.1.2. Captains of Industry

1.3.1.2.1. a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes to society. It coud be through

1.3.2. Andrew Carnegie

1.3.2.1. steel mogul. example of vertical integration.

1.3.3. John D. Rockefeller

1.3.3.1. Standard Oil. Horizontal Integration

1.3.4. J. Pierpont Morgan

1.3.4.1. Bank.

1.3.5. Jay Gould

1.3.5.1. Leading American Railroad developer and speculator. Got the treasury to release gold on Black Friday

1.4. Vertical and Horizontal Integration

1.4.1. Vertical Integration

1.4.1.1. Where several steps of the distribution and development are controlled by a single entitiy

1.4.2. Horizontal Integration

1.4.2.1. Where a company increases its market share by taking over a similar company

1.5. Panics (1893) (1907)

1.5.1. Panic of 1893

1.5.1.1. caused when 2 banks overspeculated on western lands and tried to curb inflation by pulling back credit for state banks; decreased demand for goods abroad and trade dicifit with britain.

1.5.2. Panic of 1907

1.5.2.1. Known as Knickerbocker Crisis

1.5.2.2. Primary causes of the run include a retraction of market liquidity by a number of New York City banks and a loss of confidence among depositors

1.6. Philanthropy

1.6.1. Gospel of Wealth

1.6.1.1. Carnegie's philosophy of giving back to society. The wealthy should have the responsibility of distributing wealth for the good of society

2. 2. Urbanization

2.1. Negative Effects of Urbanization

2.1.1. Housing

2.1.1.1. dumbell tenements - high rise urban building that provided barracks likes housing for urban slum dwellers

2.1.1.2. Slums - immensley crowded, unsanitary tenement that provided minimal ventilation and were not very spacious became known as lung blocks

2.1.2. Health

2.1.2.1. Disease

2.1.2.2. sanitation

2.1.3. Working Conditions

2.1.3.1. Child labor

2.2. Positive Effects of Urbanization

2.2.1. New Technologies

2.2.1.1. Elevators

2.2.1.2. Skyscrapers

2.2.1.3. Street Lighting

2.2.1.4. Water and Sewage Systems

2.2.2. Cultural Benefits

2.2.2.1. Museums

2.2.2.2. Theaters

2.2.2.3. Parks

2.2.2.4. Libraries

2.2.2.5. Education

2.3. Philosophies

2.3.1. Puritan Work Ethic

2.3.1.1. hard work, frugality, and prosperity as a display of person's salvation

2.3.2. Social Darwinism

2.3.2.1. idea that survival of the fittest to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion and racism

2.3.2.2. belief that was held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society

2.3.2.3. basis of many people who promoted a laissez faire style of economy

2.3.2.4. Horatio Alger

2.3.2.4.1. novelist during the IR who wrote that virtue, honesty and industry would be rewarded with success, wealth and honor

2.3.3. Gospel of Wealth and Social Gospel

2.3.3.1. Gospel of Wealth

2.3.3.1.1. preached by Andrew Carnegie

2.3.3.1.2. people in the world who were destined to become rich and help society

2.3.3.1.3. wealthy must serve as trustees for their wealth and the public good

2.3.3.2. Social Gospel

2.3.3.2.1. religious doctrines preached by those who believed that the churches should directly address economic and social problems

2.3.3.2.2. movement within American Protestantism that attempted to apply biblical teachings to problems associated with industrialization

3. 3. Migration/Immigration

3.1. Internal Migrations

3.1.1. Homestead Act of 1862

3.1.1.1. allowed settlers to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it and paying a fee of about 30 dollars

3.1.2. Morrill Act

3.1.2.1. allowed for the creation of land-grant agricultural colleges

3.1.2.2. awarded proceeds from the sale of public lands to states for the establishment of agricultural colleges

3.1.3. Reservation System

3.1.3.1. was made through questionable treaties with teh "leaders" of each tribe. (Non-Treaties)

3.1.3.2. Established boundaries for each group, and attempted to break them up into two groups: north and south

3.1.4. Plain Wars

3.1.4.1. between various American Indian Groups; various European American groups

3.2. Periods of Immigraion

3.2.1. Colonial Immigration

3.2.1.1. 1600 - 1800

3.2.1.2. To the 13 colonies

3.2.1.3. The English - Jamestown. Puritans, Pilgrims established Massachusetts Bay, Quakers established Pennsylvania, and Catholics established Maryland

3.2.1.4. The Dutch - Settled on HUdson River, and established New Amsterdam, but were conquered by Pennsylvania

3.2.1.5. The Germans - Settled in Western Frontiers

3.2.1.6. Soct-Irish - Mostly in western frontiers, but continued to emigrate in western frontier by late 18th century

3.2.1.7. Swedish/Finnish - Established and settled in Selaware

3.2.1.8. Africans - Slaves

3.2.2. "Old" Immigration

3.2.2.1. 1800- 1850

3.2.2.2. Northern and Western Europeans

3.2.2.2.1. Flee political and economical developments in Europe

3.2.2.2.2. Attracted by farm frontier of Louisiana Purchase

3.2.2.2.3. Culturally and sociall acceptable given Protestant backgrounds

3.2.2.2.4. They suffer discrimination because they are seen as stealing jobs

3.2.2.3. Irish

3.2.2.3.1. Flee Potato Famine

3.2.2.3.2. About 1/3 of the immigrant population by the mid-19th century

3.2.2.3.3. Settled mostly in cities because they come from poor tenant farming background

3.2.2.3.4. Were discriminated because of their massive influx and their Catholicism

3.2.2.4. Mexicans

3.2.2.4.1. After Mexican-American War, people in Mexican Cession became American citizens

3.2.2.5. Asians and Central/South Americans

3.2.2.5.1. California Gold rush leads to massive migration to California and the Pacific West

3.2.2.5.2. Mostly Chinese, leading to the exclusion act

3.2.2.6. American Response to massive Migration

3.2.2.6.1. American Party (Know Nothing Party)

3.2.2.6.2. Violence

3.2.3. "New" Immigration

3.2.3.1. 1850 - 1930

3.2.3.2. 25 million immigrants between 1880 and 1920

3.2.3.2.1. came mostly from Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe and Far East Asia

3.2.3.3. Southern Europeans

3.2.3.3.1. 5.3 million Italian Immigrants,

3.2.3.3.2. Mostly Catholic

3.2.3.4. Eastern Europeans

3.2.3.4.1. Came from Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Russia, Baltic nations

3.2.3.4.2. Mostly Catholics, Orthodox and Jews

3.2.3.5. Economic Response

3.2.3.5.1. Gilded Age Industrialization led factory owners and corporations to hire immigrants as cheap labor

3.2.3.5.2. Became members of labor unions such as Knights of Labor

3.2.3.5.3. Intended to leave after a few years, but most remained

3.2.3.6. Political Response

3.2.3.6.1. Political Machines and Bosses

3.2.3.6.2. Deomcrats

3.2.3.6.3. Immigration Policy

3.2.3.7. Social Response to Immigration

3.2.3.7.1. Social Darwinism

3.2.3.7.2. Nativism and Adjustment

3.2.3.7.3. Urban LIfe

3.3. Reaction Against Immigration

3.3.1. Nativism

3.3.1.1. movement based on hostility to immigrants; motivated by ethnic tensions and religious bias; considered immigrants as despots overthrowing the American republic; feared anti-Cathoic riots and competition from low-paid immigrants

3.3.2. Know-Nothing Party

3.3.2.1. American Party; a major political force, that had an objective to extend period of naturalization, undercut immigrant voting strengths and keep alines in their place

3.3.3. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

3.3.3.1. Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate

3.3.3.2. The Chinese were seen to be taking American Jobs, such as the railroad work

3.3.4. Dawes Act 1887

3.3.4.1. Attempt to americanize natives by giving each tribe 160 acres, which would become theirs if they were good for 25 years, and would also become american citizens

3.3.5. Gentleman's Agreement

3.3.5.1. Limited Japanese immigration to US, while the Americans would decrease the discriminative practices in California

3.3.6. National Origins Acts

3.3.6.1. a discriminatory immigration law that restricted the immigration of Souther and Eastern Europeans and practically excluded Asians and other nonwhites from entry into the US. The quota for the immigration was lowered by around 50%/

3.4. Theories oF Immigration

3.4.1. Melting Pot theory

3.4.1.1. mingling of diverse ethnic groups in America, including the idea that groups are or should be "melting" into a single culture

3.4.2. Assimilation and Americanization

3.4.2.1. Assimilation

3.4.2.1.1. Socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior

3.4.2.2. Americanization

3.4.2.2.1. To amek or become American in character, customs and in institutions

3.4.2.2.2. Modern Day - describe how Amerian culture is dominating the world, putting third world cultures in danger of extinction

3.4.3. Salad Bowl Theory

3.4.3.1. Cultures from immigration mixed together but separate from each other

3.4.3.2. Pluralism

3.4.3.2.1. is the energetic engagement with dicersity

3.4.3.2.2. the active seeking of understanding across lines of difference

4. 4. Politics and Corruption

4.1. Waving the Bloody Shirt

4.1.1. used most by the Radical Republicans

4.1.2. Appealing to voters by recalling the passions and hardships of teh war

4.2. Era of Good Stealings

4.2.1. post civil war period in which there was major corruption within the railroad industry, stock market, politics and judicial system

4.2.2. 1870 - 1900, and is also known as the Gilded Age

4.2.3. population mushrromed, due to immigration, and politics was corrupt

4.2.4. Railroads were cheating customers, stock market investors were the cancer to the public eye, and too many judges/legislators were

4.3. Rutherford B. Hayes

4.3.1. Compromise Candidate of the REpublicans who brought swing votes from Ohio in teh election onf 1876, in which he won

4.3.2. known as the Great Unknown, and his foremost qualification was that he came from electorally doubtfu but potent state of Ohio

4.3.3. Ended with Compromise of 1877

4.3.3.1. The election deadlock was broken by the electoral count Act

4.3.3.1.1. Electoral Count Act

4.3.3.2. Compromise of 1877

4.3.3.2.1. Withdrew federal soldiers from their remaining position in the South, enacted federal legislation that would spur industrialization in teh South, appointed Democrats to patronage positions in the South, and appointed a Democrat to the President's cabinet

4.4. Whiskey Ring

4.4.1. A group of whiskey distillers conspired to defraud the fed govt of taxes

4.4.2. The Whiskey ring bribed internal revenue officials and accomplieces in Washington in order to keep liquor taxes for themselves

4.4.3. Was a public scandal but considered impregnable because of its strong political connections

4.4.4. Secretary of Treasury Benjamin H. Bristow resolved to break the conspiracy. To avoid warning hte suspects, he assigned secret investigators from outside the Treasury Department to collect evidence

4.4.5. The Secretary of President Grant was acquitted through the personal intervention of the President

4.4.6. Many believed that the Whiskey Ring was part of a plot to finance the Republican Party by fraud

4.5. Credit Mobilier Scandal

4.5.1. Involved Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobiier, the construction company in teh building of the western portion of the First TransContinental Railroad.

4.5.2. Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to biild the railroad line, hearning high dividends

4.5.3. The government officials were kept quiet by cash bribes and stocks.

4.6. Bss Tweed and Tammany Hall

4.6.1. Boss Tweed

4.6.1.1. Employed bribery, graft and fraudulent elections to get 200 million dollars from New York

4.6.2. Political Machines

4.6.2.1. To win elections, they depended on teh votes fo teh immigrants pouring into America's cities. The neighborhood leaders, employed by the machines, would give the new immigrants help of various kinds, such as help finding a job or a place to live

4.6.2.2. On the day of election, the neighborhood leader would make sure the immigrants knew who to vote for to return the favor

4.6.3. Thomas Nast Cartoons

4.6.3.1. Considered the father of American Cartoon

4.6.3.2. Tweed personified Corruption and Greed

4.6.3.3. Cartoon pictured Tweed as a theirf, and calso created the Tammany Tiger as a symbol for the ring

4.6.3.4. Was succesful in creating a negative image of Boss Tweed, but was less successful in turning him out of power

4.7. Bribes and Kickbacks

4.7.1. Kickbacks - secret rebates

4.7.1.1. Was used by railbarons, who granted kickbacks to powerful shippers in return for steady and assured trafic

4.7.1.2. Also used by companies wanting to secure contracts with government. Kickbacks were offered to political machines

4.7.2. Bribes

4.7.2.1. Were given to hush up government officials, but also to secure contracts

5. 5.Reactions to the Gilded Age

5.1. Urban Working Class/Labor

5.1.1. Women

5.1.1.1. most affected by the Industrial age

5.1.1.2. Propelled into industry by recent inventions, chiefly the typewriter and teh telephone switchboard

5.1.2. Gibson Girl

5.1.2.1. a magazine image of an indpeendent and athletic new woman created in the 1890s

5.1.2.2. Became the romantic ideal of teh age

5.1.3. Middle Class Women

5.1.3.1. Careers often meant delayed marriages and smaller families

5.1.3.2. Most women workers toiled neither for independence nor for glamour, but out of economic necessity

5.1.4. Unions

5.1.4.1. Impact of New Machines

5.1.4.1.1. they displaced employees and though in teh long run more jobs were created than destroyed, in the short run the manual worker was often hard hit

5.1.4.1.2. The employer could bring in workers from across the country using railroads who were willing to work for low salaries in order to cut wages

5.1.4.2. Strike Breakers or scabs

5.1.4.2.1. were used to beat up labor organizer

5.1.4.2.2. the use of violence was so imminent that the laborers would not strike as often

5.1.4.3. Lockouts, Yellow-Dog Contracts, Black Lists

5.1.4.3.1. lock outs

5.1.4.3.2. Yellow Dog Contract

5.1.4.3.3. Black Lists

5.1.4.4. Knights of Labor

5.1.4.4.1. after the National Labor Union was dropped, the Knights of Labor took over

5.1.4.4.2. Knights of Labor preached tolerance and the solidarity of all working men and women,but even their inclusionary spirit had its limits

5.1.4.5. Haymarket Square Bombing, Coxey's Army, Pullman's Strike

5.1.4.5.1. HayMarket Square bombing

5.1.4.5.2. Coxey's Army

5.1.4.5.3. Pullman's Strike

5.1.4.6. American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers

5.1.4.6.1. leader of American Federation of Labor was Samuel Gompers

5.1.4.6.2. Samuel Gompers

5.1.4.6.3. American Federation of Labor

5.2. African Americans

5.2.1. Booker T Washington and Beliefs

5.2.1.1. Booker T Washington

5.2.1.1.1. exslave who had slept under a board sidewalk to save pennies for his schooling

5.2.1.1.2. began teaching with forty student sin a tumbledown shanty

5.2.1.1.3. taught black students useful trades so that they could gain self-respect and economic security

5.2.1.2. his belief

5.2.1.2.1. Avoided teh issue of social equalitiy

5.2.1.2.2. acquiesced in segregation inreturn for the right to develop the economic and education resources of teh black community

5.2.2. W.E.B Du Bois and beliefs

5.2.2.1. W.E.B Du Bois

5.2.2.1.1. assailed Booker T Washingotn for being an Uncle Tom for condemning their race to manual abor and perpetual inferiority

5.2.2.1.2. he was a mixture of African, French, dutch, and Indian blood

5.2.2.1.3. earend a Ph.D at Harvard, the first of his race to achieve the goal

5.2.2.1.4. helped NAACP

5.2.2.2. his belief

5.2.2.2.1. Complete equality for blacks; social and economic

5.3. Farmers

5.3.1. Impact of New tech and farming methods

5.3.1.1. steam engine could drag behind it simultaneously theplow, seeder and harrow

5.3.1.1.1. it increased the speed of harvesting wheat dramatically

5.3.1.2. Reaper-thresher

5.3.1.2.1. drawn by twenty to forty horses which both reaped and bagged the grain

5.3.1.3. agricultural modernization caused many marginal farmers off the land, swelling the ranks of the new industrial work force

5.3.2. Causes of Farmer's Debt

5.3.2.1. The farmers were chained to one crop, wehat or corn, so were in the same boat wiht the southern cotton growers

5.3.2.2. low prices and a deflated currency

5.3.2.3. When they lost money, they produced more to balance. However, when they produced more, the prices fell even more, creating a whirlpool

5.3.3. Grange Movement

5.3.3.1. farmer's movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area to work for their political and economic advantages

5.3.4. Populists *Farmer's Alliance" platfrom

5.3.4.1. support the gree silver coinage

5.3.5. 1896 Election

5.3.5.1. William McKinley

5.3.5.1.1. winner

5.3.5.1.2. Supporter of big businness, andpushed for a high protective tariff

5.3.5.1.3. under his presidency, america became an imperial world power

5.3.5.2. William Jennings Bryan - Cross of Gold

5.3.5.2.1. democratic candidate

5.3.5.2.2. goal for free silver won support of the populist party

5.3.5.2.3. later opposed America's imperialist actions, and made his mark as a leader of teh dundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in teh Scopes monkey trial

5.3.5.2.4. Cross of Gold Speech

5.4. Native Americans

5.4.1. Plains Indians

5.4.1.1. Tribes

5.4.1.2. Loss of Buffalo impact

5.4.1.2.1. the life of the plains indians depended on the buffalo, since they used every part of the buffalo for their lives. So the loss of buffalo was disastrous

5.4.2. Sand Creek Massacre

5.4.2.1. attack on a village of sleeping cheyenne indians

5.4.2.2. resulted in teh death of more than 200 tribal emembers

5.4.3. Battle of Little Bighorn

5.4.3.1. uster's seventh calvary was massacred

5.4.3.2. crazy horse led the sioux and killed every single one of custer's troops

5.4.4. Wounded Knee

5.4.4.1. battle where the ghost dance cult was stamped out in the Dakota Sioux

5.4.5. Reservations

5.4.5.1. Chief Joseph and Nez Perce

5.4.5.1.1. Chief Joseph

5.4.5.1.2. Nez Perce

5.4.6. Helen Hunt "A Century of Dishonor"

5.4.6.1. biij written by helen Hunt chroniling the government's mistreatment of Indians

5.4.7. Dawes Act, Assimilation, Indian Boarding Schools

5.4.7.1. Dawes Act

5.4.7.1.1. promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture

5.4.7.1.2. was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

5.4.7.2. Indian Boarding Schools

5.4.7.2.1. Natives were immersed in European-American Culture through appearance changes with haircuts, and were forbidden to speak their natiev languages and traditional names were replaced with new names

5.4.8. Frederick Jackson Turner - Frontier Thesis

5.4.8.1. Frontier shaped the American being and characteristics

5.4.8.2. dorve American hisory and why America is what it is today

5.4.8.3. also concluded that the frontier had closed

5.5. Urban Middle Class

5.5.1. Muckrackers

5.5.1.1. names given to young reportes of popuar magazines

5.5.1.1.1. these agazines spent a lot of money on researching and digging up muck

5.5.1.1.2. investigative journalists tried to make public aware of problems that needed fixing.

5.5.1.2. Notable Muckrackers

5.5.1.2.1. Lincoln Steffans

5.5.1.2.2. Jacob Riss

5.5.1.2.3. Thomas Nast

5.5.1.2.4. Ida M Tarbell

5.5.1.2.5. Upton Sinclair

5.5.2. Progressives - Platform

5.5.2.1. progressives

5.5.2.1.1. middleclass men and women who were squeezed from above and below

5.5.2.1.2. felt pressure from teh new giant corporations,immigrants, and the labor unions

5.5.2.2. platform

5.5.2.2.1. use state power to curb the trusts and to stem th esocialist threat by generally improving teh common person's conditions of life and labor