Copy of Goldstein's Methods: Intro/Chapter 1-7

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Copy of Goldstein's Methods: Intro/Chapter 1-7 by Mind Map: Copy of Goldstein's Methods:      Intro/Chapter 1-7

1. Mixed Race

1.1. Rape was the contributor to why mixed race exist

1.2. Two kisses to a white person and not a mixed race can show directly the racism of an indic

2. Lower Class Discrimination

2.1. Boa Aparencia

2.1.1. A good appearance clause that employers use to discourage dark skinned people from applying.

3. Gender Commodities

3.1. Men

3.1.1. Age doesn't matter to attractiveness

3.1.2. Finances well-being tends to be a contributing factor

3.1.3. Coroa

3.1.3.1. An older, richer, whiter man

3.2. Women

3.2.1. Beauty and sex appeal

3.2.2. Darkness can oversee their poverty or race

3.2.3. Sexualized Mulata is internalized

3.2.3.1. Idea of carnival

3.2.3.2. Mixture of black and white

3.2.3.3. Positive image

4. Private and Public Spaces

4.1. Splits up classes

4.2. Housing is divided into social spaces, intimate space and service spaces

5. Brazilian Class, Race, and Culture

5.1. Upper/Middle Class

5.1.1. Donna Beth; Rio de Janeiro (social worker), Gloria's boss.

5.1.2. Donna Beth

5.1.2.1. Daughter whom wants independence

5.2. Lower/Working Class

5.2.1. Favelas

5.2.1.1. Gloria's parents from favela, Gloria's mother was a domestic worker (p. 72)

5.2.2. Families are very dependent on each other

5.3. Three kinds of race

5.4. Black, white, brown or mixed, dark, light, closed and freckled (p. 106)

5.4.1. Dark skin seen as ugly and associated with slavery

6. Celebration within Brazil

6.1. Carnival

6.1.1. Reinforces gender, sexual and class hierarchies

6.1.2. Gives Brazil the opportunity to present itself to the world

6.1.3. Pokes fun at the rich and the circumstances of the poor

7. Humor and Locals

7.1. "Human is one of the fugitive forms of insubordination" (p. 5)

7.2. To Women- "Giving voice to this group of wo,me who have little access to the public sphere" (p. 4)

8. Empregada- domestic worker

8.1. Domestic work was one of the lowest paying jobs with the Brazillian economy. These workers where typically Afro-Brazillian women.

8.2. Gloria worked as a domestic worker for a middle class women.

8.2.1. 6 day work week,

8.2.2. Days starts at 5:30am

8.2.3. 14-15 hour work days

8.2.4. Responsibilities of haven-duty cleaning

8.2.4.1. Clean entire living area

8.2.4.2. Doing everyone's laundry

8.2.4.3. Some cooking and bed changing

8.2.5. Wages are very low: $6 a day

8.2.6. Payments is on a daily basis

8.2.7. Paternalist view working relationship

9. Humor

9.1. "Felicidade Eterna

9.1.1. 2 or 3 families owned cars (p, 21)

9.1.2. Rio's Shantytown (p. 1)

9.1.3. Laughter (p. 2)

9.1.3.1. Black humor

9.1.3.1.1. Used by Gloria and her friends to oppose official Brazillian class, gender and racial ideology (p. 35)

9.1.3.1.2. Making fun of death and rape

9.1.3.2. Used about contradictions within own poverty and political and economical structures.

9.2. Kind of homeostatic mechanism

9.2.1. escape-valve

9.3. Bakhtin

9.3.1. Poor would reintroduce the body as a form of comedy by items that would be considered "bad taste"

9.3.2. Camivalesque aesthetic

9.4. Douglas- humor as anti-rite

9.4.1. Laughter can be a way for the poor class to slyly show their dignity

9.5. About the ways class is experienced by women living in shantytowns during the last decade of the 20th century (p. 50)

10. Theorist

10.1. Peter Burke (p. 4)

10.2. Freud (p. 6)

10.3. Peter Gay (p. 6)

10.4. Mary Douglas (p. 6) c

10.5. Gramsci (p. 9)

10.6. James Scott (p. 7)

10.7. Oring (p.6)

10.8. Micheal Mulkay (p. 6)

10.9. Thompson (p. 7)

10.10. Bourdieu (p. 7)

10.11. Henri Bergson (p. 10)

10.12. De Matta (p. 11)

10.13. Bakhtin (p. 11)

10.14. Morris (p. 11)

10.15. Stam (p. 34)

10.16. E.P. Thompson (p. 49)

10.17. Scheper-Hughes (p. 33)

11. Definitions

11.1. Favela

11.1.1. Shantytown

11.2. Laughter Out of Place

11.2.1. Humor developed under pressure of cruel and unusual circumstance

11.3. Hegemony

11.3.1. Pre-dominance of ruling-class interests and the acceptance of those interests as commonsense by those subordinated to those interests

11.3.2. Cultural hegemony- system of attributes, beliefs and values that supports ruling class domination

11.3.3. Habit forming

11.4. "Taste"

11.4.1. "Taste is one of the mechanisms through which inequality, difference and privilege are strutted and embedded in ones habitus" (Bourdieu p.36)

11.4.2. Serves as a cloak for power

11.5. Primary Informant

11.5.1. People who inform the social science

12. Approachs

12.1. Participant Observer

12.1.1. A way to interact with the local people

12.1.2. Laughter helped the locals communicate and release on their particular situation

12.1.3. Being somewhat distinct while observing

12.2. Towards Gut Marxism

12.2.1. "Anthropologist and scholars who generally feel deeply about the world situation and hold that it conforms broadly to Marx's theories of political economy and class conflict" (p. 46)

12.3. "Combining thickness and sense of both political economy and historical underpinnings of contemporary, ethnographically observed practice" (p. 44)

13. Humor and Change

13.1. Absurdity and laughter

13.1.1. This show an understanding of the people seeing the world as being at bit mad

13.2. Humor plays a role in boundary formation within class structure

13.3. Means of escaping pain and human suffering

14. Gang Life

14.1. OLDEST SON PEDRO FALLS INTO GANG/STREET. GANG LIFE OFFERS HIM STATUS, MONEY, POWER, AND A GUN.

14.1.1. PEDRO'S RECOGNITION OF THE "IMPOSSIBILITY OF THE GOOD LIFE" FOR PEOPLE OF HIS RACE AND BACKGROUND SHOWS HIS INTELLECT AND THE POLITICAL AWARENESS OF POVERTY.

14.1.1.1. " It seemed to offer an alternative to backbreaking manual labor, at the same time promising a decent wage and offering instant economic improvement."

14.1.2. Pedro Paulo was shot and killed a few months after he got out of prison.

14.2. YOUNGER CHILDREN IN FAVELAS ARE OFTEN RECRUITED BY GANG MEMBERS TO DO THEIR "DIRTY WORK". THIS EARLY INTRODUCTION TO GANG LIFE SEDUCES MANY IMPRESSIONABLE CHILDREN.

14.3. IN THE FAVELAS ARE THE "CODE OF SILENCE", WHERE AFTER A CRIME HAS BEEN COMMITTED, NO ONE TALKS. This "JUSTIFIES" POLICE BRUTALITY.

14.4. POVERTY AND IT'S EFFECTS ON CHILDREN SUCH AS MALNUTRITION, VERBAL, SEXUAL AND PHYSICAL ABUSE MAKE THE "STREETS" SEEM ALLURING.

14.5. A "LOCAL" HOMETOWN DRUG CHIEF IS VIEWED AS A GOOD THING IN THE FAVELA. HE WILL HELP MAINTAIN PEACE BY LOOKING OUT FOR NEIGBORHOOD CHILDREN AND WARN PARENTS TO TAKE KIDS OFF THE STREET BEFORE A SHOOT OUT.

14.6. "RELIGIOUS CONVERSION" AS A MEANS OF CREATING A NEW IDENTITY, GET OUT OF GANG LIFE AND OFF THE STREETS. THIS CAN HAVE POSITIVE EFFECTS ON POOR BLACK WOMEN, IMPROVING SELF-ESTEEM.

14.7. "Alba Zaluar (1994:32) notes that while Rio’s gang culture is a form of organized crime, it lacks the centralization and organization—and therefore the connection with the state—that other historical forms, such as the Sicilian Mafia, maintained. The difference stems from a number of factors, including the fact that each local gang (quadrilha) has to maintain its own local base of protection and is not guaranteed protection by the larger, richer traffickers."

15. Childhood

15.1. GIRLS IN THE FAVELA ARE AT A HIGHER RISK FOR ALL TYPES OF DANGERS EVEN MORE SO THAN BOYS. BEING A FEMALE ON THE "STREET" IMPLIES THE ASSUMTION OF PROSTITUTION.

15.2. GLORIA REFLECTS ON HAVING TO LEAVE HER OWN CHILDREN UNATTENDED FOR 16 HOURS A DAY, WHILE SHE RAISES SOMEONE ELSES CHILDREN.

15.3. GOLDSTEIN EXAMINES CHILDHOOD IN THE FAVELA: "NURTURED "CHILDREN ARE OF MIDDLE/UPPER CLASS, SPOILED BY THEIR PARENTS. --- "NURTURING"CHILDREN ARE POOR WHO ARE FORCED INTO GREAT RESPONSIBILITIES FROM AN EARLY AGE. THEY TYPICALLY CARE FOR SIBLINGS AND EARN WAGES TO HELP HOUSEHOLD.

15.3.1. MIDDLE/UPPER CLASS FAMILIES BUILD UP "WALLS" (LITERALLY) TO SEPERATE AND AVOID THESE AREAS PRONE TO VIOLENCE AND POVERTY ("OUT OF SIGHT, OUT OF MIND")

15.4. "In Rio’s poor neighborhoods, homicide is the leading cause of death for young men between the ages of 15 and 24."

16. FUNABEM

16.1. STATE INSTITUTIONS

16.2. POORLY FUNDED AND ORGANIZED, CHILDREN ARE OFTEN VICTIMIZED HERE TOO.

16.3. CROWDED AND DIRTY

17. Justice System

17.1. "REVENGE": IS USED TO BALANCE THE LEAGL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN THE FAVELA. THIS TERM HELPS TO EXPLAIN THE HIGH RATES OF VIOLENT DEATHS OF YOUNG MALES IN POOR NEIGHBORHOODS.

17.2. "VIGILANTE JUSTICE" IN THE FAVELA'S: GANG MEMBERS WILL OFTEN ASSAULT OR KILL CITIZENS WHO ARE SUSPECT OF SEXUALLY ABUSING CHILDREN. THE SAME FATE IS MET FOR ADULTERERS AND RAPISTS.

17.3. POLICE CORRUPTION IS RAMPANT IN THE FAVELA'S. OFF DUTY COPS TAKE ON THE ROLE OF "DEATH SQUAD" MURDERING STREET CHILDREN. UPPER/MIDDLE CLASS IS TORN BY THIS, ON ONE HAND THEY FEEL SAD FOR THE VICTIMS, BUT ON THE OTHER HAND FEEL THESE CHILDREN ARE INEVITABLE CRIMINALS IN THE MAKING.

17.4. CORRUPT CIVIL OFFICERS IN THE FAVELA'S WILL CHARGE A "PROTECTION" FEE TO THE LOCAL HEADMAN (DRUG DEALER). UNLIKE GANG INFESTED AREAS IN THE U.S, "DRUG CHIEFS" PROVIDE SERVICES TO THE COMMUNITY LIKE HOUSING AND EMERGENCY MONEY.

17.5. "Local poor communities would similarly have to develop some sort of force to protect themselves from the daily injustices in their own context, as well as from unprotected contact with police."

18. Mirelli's Story

18.1. Gloria's Goddaughter

18.2. Her father lost her mother in a card game, both parents unstable.

18.3. Lived mostly on the street, no real childhood.

19. Luca's Story

19.1. Establish Project Administration Procedures

19.2. "child circulation" case

19.3. Although Gloria was already poor with 8 kids living at home, Luca came to live with her

20. Chapter 6

20.1. Local Sexuality

20.1.1. Reader must avoid ethnocentrism

20.1.2. A number of disterubing elements that structure sexuality

20.1.2.1. A. "sexual paradise - for men" B. Transgressions permitted - for men C. Very flirty, whether young or old, public or private

20.1.3. Brazilians have an open, permissive approach to sexuality (p. 229).

20.1.4. Sacanagem is an important organizing concept in Brazlian sexuality (p. 246).

20.1.4.1. A. borderline sexually transgressive behavior B. pleasurable or painful, depends on indiviual perceptions

20.2. Discourses of sex-positives

20.2.1. Sexual joking teasing in Felicidade

20.2.1.1. Sexual teasing and banter are common in Felicidade Eterna.

20.2.1.1.1. Darlene, Glorias friend a sex worker

20.2.2. Popular humor is an expresson of discontent that is rarely given much importanceas a counterdiscourse among the more standard sex-positive discourses that are heard everyday (p. 235).

20.3. Eating Metaphor

20.3.1. Eating someone = consuming them sexually - active, usually male role

20.3.2. "who is eating whom"

20.3.3. Metaphors about food and eating were often used to express ideas of sexuality (p. 236).

20.3.3.1. Being eaten = receiving end of the deal - passive, usually female role

20.3.4. Don't even joke about "eating" mother and daughter - deep-seeded fears about step-father as abuser

20.4. Theorist

20.4.1. The Carnivalization of desire

20.4.1.1. Peter Fray, Richard Parker, and James Green, Feminists are all examples of people who produced significant work in this feild

20.4.1.1.1. Peter Fry-Male homosexuality in Brazil consisted of two distinct types, an upper class model and a lower class model. Upper class model was an import from Western Europe and North American that adheres to a concept of homeosexuality connects one's sexual and social identity with one's sexual object choice. The lower class version recognized the categories of men and "faggots" (p. 233).

20.4.1.1.2. Parker- While sexual life in North America or Europe has been treated as an essentially individual phenomenon, in Brazil it has also emerged as a central issue at a social or cultural level and has been taken, for better or for worse, as a kind of ley to the peculiar nature of Brazilian reality (p. 228).

20.4.1.1.3. James Green- Suggests that subcultures of effeminare and noneffeminiare men with homoerotic desires existed prior to the introduction of Western Europe ideas (p. 233).

20.4.1.2. Public flirtation

20.4.1.3. Male homoeroticism

20.5. Sacanagem, Transgression, and female boundardy-setting

20.5.1. Can be described as an act that gives pleasure or one that hurts or humiliates another

20.5.2. Can be good or bad

20.5.3. Sacanagem is an important organizing concept in Brazlian sexuality (p. 246)

20.5.4. Brazilians have an open, permissive approach to sexuality (p. 229).

20.5.5. Transgression seems to be patterned by traditional gender relations, with men being expected to act as trangressors and women playing the role of "boundary setters" (p. 233).

20.5.6. Women, in order to remian "good women" are expected to attain their earlu sexual experiences directly from their male partners and experience them as vigins (p. 245).

21. Chapter 7

21.1. The Rape story, "Whats so funny about rape?"

21.1.1. Tale of rape and robbery - definitely not funny on its own

21.1.1.1. Dark humor comes from varying interpretations of event by participants A. Ignacio only concerned with loss of his watch B. Anita used it as chance justly escape virginity (totally oversimplified that)

21.1.1.1.1. Black humor as the only response

21.1.2. Two men came into Gloria's house and raped Anita and Claudia (Gloria's daughter and niece) in Gloria's house. They were only 14 and 15 years old. Gloria and the rest of the kids were in the room next door.

21.1.2.1. - Claudia was a virgin. -Anita was not a virgin, but she screamed to be perceived as one.

21.1.2.1.1. Anita discovered she was pregnant shortly after rap

21.1.3. Duque de Caxias

21.2. Humor

21.2.1. Humor is used as a "response to a moral and legal system that is currently incapable of addressing the grievances of women in the dominated classes."

21.2.2. Stories are only "funny" when full context of the story described.

21.2.3. They think its funny that Anita was fake screaming while being raped so her mom wouldn't think she was already sexually active

21.2.4. Hideous crimes like rape expressed through humor

21.3. Marilia tries to kill her husband

21.3.1. Marilia putting rat poison in Celso's drink in attempt to kill him (p. 263).

21.3.2. Marilia wanted to kill Cleos, because he cheated on her and abused her.

21.3.3. Marilia - was abused by step father (p. 253

21.4. Class

21.4.1. Low class

21.4.1.1. Low class viewed as sexually loose - can't wait to "give it up"

21.4.1.1.1. Esteves found that lower-class women making accusations of rape in court were forced to adopt a more elite view of sexuality in order to approximate judiciary views of sexuality that were dominant in elite culture at the time.

21.4.1.2. The women had 2 major complaints about male privilege - men are inadequate economic providers and are likely to foll around no matter their stable partner is (p. 238).

21.4.2. High class

21.4.2.1. High class are more reserved