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The Immune System by Mind Map: The Immune System
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The Immune System

Adaptive/Acquired Immunity


Active Immunity

when your body has to recognize antigens and produce antibodies

vaccines, injected weakened or dead viruses so your body can become immune to the virus

vertebrates only

develops more slowly to allow to learn about the pathogen before attacking

humoral response

activation of B cells

cell-mediated immune response

activation of cytotoxic T Cells


signs that cause your immune system to create an antibody against detected pathogen

"antibody generator"

antibodies..., not cells, produced by B cells, they cannot kill, however they can swarm around invaders making it very difficult for them to move, they can also attach themselves to the bad guys and send out chemical messages to phagocytes




Innate Immunity

Passive Immunity

injected with antibodies or given from your mother, your body gets antibodies without actually making them, when you are a baby, placenta, breast milk

every animal has this

also called non specific


protects against ALL pathogens

barrier defences, 1st line of defense, mucous membranes, secretions, skin, tears, sweat

internal defences, 2nd line of defense to barrier defenses, phagocytes, SEE DESCRIPTION IN LEUKOCYTES, inflammation/ inflammatory response, response to damage by injury or infection, mast cells, release of histomine, brings in white blood cells to help kill (helps with splinters or viruses), when your body acciddentaly thinks something is bad that really isn't, an allergic reaction occurs, when this occurs, we take antihistamines to stop the allergies, blood clots





when a white blood cell travels through capillaries then arrives at point of infection, they send a signal then ooze through the capillary to heal



eat the viruses in the cell (as opposed to the natural killer cells)

natural killer cells, circulate in the blood and kill viruses, bacteria and cancerous cells, MORE INFO IN INNATE IMMUNITY SECTION

4 kinds, neutrophils, move around bloodstream; quickly get to action, when they eat infected cells, they die and become pus, macrophages, BIG and don't travel a lot, they usually stay put around your vital organs, they can detect rogue (cancerous) cell and alert other immune cells, Antigen-presentation, may occur in other cells, macrophages is just one of the types that it happens on, this is when a cell destroys a pathogen so it leaves part of the pathogens genetic code on itself., Helper T cells can read this and figure out what kind of pathogen it was and whatnot, he figures this out because the macrophage produces Interleukin 1, which explains to the T Cell what happened, The T cell then produces Interleukin 2, he then produces himself into lots of helper T cells, most of which become Effector T Cells (see effector T cells in T cell section), the rest become Memory T cells which just keep track of the genetic code of the stuff to provide future prevention against it, dendritic cells, "mailman", they stay on the outside of your body, eat pathogen and record the information then bring the info back to your thymus, allows things to move from the innate immune system to the acquired immune system, natural killer cells, circulate in blood and kill viruses, bacteria and blood cells, kill other body cells, the only phagocytes to destroy and attack other human cells, humans have MHC 1 when they are healthy, natural killer cells kill body cells that are not producing MHC1


B Cells, covered in antibodies that can attach to specific antigens, memory B cell, when pathogen comes, B cell reprodeces and makes effector and memory cells (see hank green vid for illustration), do not become effectorcells, they store the memory of the antibody created to provide future immunity, effector/plasma cell, use antibodies as a blueprint to make a crap ton of anitbodies for that specific pathogen 2/sec, they attach to pathogens and keep them from moving until the phagocyte can come and kill it, Mature in bone marrow

T Cells, Cytotoxic T Cells, NOT phagocyes, release enzymes that kll the cell, defend against the infected cell, helps with suicide, if a body cell is infected and doesn't want to spread, it attaches itself to a normal cell presenting antigens, it then puts an enzyme in it that puts holes in the cell, KILLER CELLS, Memory T cells, have previously encountered and responded to antigen, cells that keep track of how THEY killed a pathogen (chicken pox), helper T cells, attach to B cells to tell genetic material of pathogen, release T cell cytokineses, they kinda call the shots for the whole immune system, mature in thymus, coordinate the immune system and attack