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Technology Mapping by Mind Map: Technology Mapping
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Technology Mapping

Research ship

Large, fossil fuel



Data Mapping

GIS Algalita

From: Knudsen, Simen Sent: 20. mars 2013 13:54 To: Gernez, Etienne Subject: have you looked at this? Feedback from cpt moore: “Algalita is creating a GIS database worldwide and working on mapping datasets to get a handle on where the stuff is. --- Contact person. Executive Director, Marieta Francis, Med vennlig hilsen/ Best regards for Det Norske Veritas AS Simen A.H. Knudsen Simen A.H. Knudsen (MSc) Environmental Consultant Environment and Energy Efficiency Maritime Advisory Mobile +47 90 68 18 11 Switch +47 67 57 99 00

Ushahidi Type map / Open source mapping

Google Maps - Eric Schmidt Ocean Institute

All cruises recorded and uploaded on google map & google earth with picture, text, video & scientific data

Waterborne sensor

Side scan sonar

Survey speed 3-4 knots Altitude above seafloor = 1/10 of sonar range: 5m above seafloor = 50 m sonar range Identification of objects larger than 1m Example of a 6months cruise using a side scan sonar from 5th International Marine Debris Conference (Hawai 2011, see technical proceedings p229): less than 200 linear km scanned per month

Video Plankton Recorder

The Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) is an underwater video microscope system that that takes images of plankton and particulate matter as small as 50 microns and up to a few centimeters in size. The instrument is used to help scientists quickly measure the distributional patterns of plankton without destroying their delicate forms, as can happen when using nets and bottles.

(new! Laser) Optical Plankton Counter

The Optical Plankton Counter (OPC) is an operational instrument that detects, sizes, and counts individual particles based on measuring the attenuance, or diminution in intensity, of a collimated light beam intercepted by transiting particles. The OPC can determine the size of individual particles with effective diameters in the range 250 µm-2 cm. Thus, nearly the full size spectrum of mesozooplankton can be registered, as well as euphausiids, fish eggs, other small organisms, marine snow, and seston, or small particulate matter in suspension. The nature of the particles being sensed and quantified must be determined by physical capture, a process that is sometimes referred to as calibration. Particle concentrations as high as 10,000 particles per cubic meter can be resolved for counting purposes. The OPC is often towed, at speeds up to 8 knots, but it can also be attached to moorings and other platforms, and may be used in the laboratory. Its ordinary depth rating is 1000 m, but that of a special model is 4000 m.

Acoustic methods

From: Fielding, Sophie [] Sent: 15. mars 2013 17:37 To: Gernez, Etienne Subject: RE: Email query via BAS website from: Etienne Gernez Hello Etienne, Peter briefly mentioned some of the work you have been doing regarding the sailing robot. I would be happy to talk with you on the phone regarding your queries. My contact details are below - although it probably makes sense to organise a time so we aren't chasing each other. I am busy Monday, Wednesday and some of Thursday next week (i.e. Tuesday and Friday are currently free). The ability to detect small plastic particles in the sea will depend on their concentration and their size (and their depth in the water) and the levels you want to measure (i.e. large aggregations, or actually the small bits). Acoustics could be used assuming the particles were large enough and numerous enough for the frequency used - although you would need ground-truthing as to how you differentiate between biota and plastic. The other complexity is the volume of data that you would generate creates a challenge for both battery life and iridium usage. We are currently experimenting with an echosounder on a seaglider - but we don't transmit data back. The alternative is to use light sensors, but then you are limited to low range (compared with acoustics) - which raises the question of where your plastics may be. These are already used on gliders and data is transmitted back through iridium. Finally for surface applications there may be spectrophotometers measuring surface colour. Just some initial thoughts - that perhaps you have already visited. Should you wish to talk, please email me with some suitable times. Kind regards, Sophie Dr Sophie Fielding Marine Ecologist/Acoustician British Antarctic Survey High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET Tel: 01223 221629

Biogeochemical methods

Net/Trawl based

Spaceborne platform

Geo stationnary Satellite (Fixed point)

Orbiting Satellite (Mobile)

Airborne sensor

Any detection mission starts with a sampling strategy: circulation model (large patch) > satellite real time observation (medium patch) > aerial (unmanned if possible) survey (small patch) > water sample, removal


Radar: to detect small variations on the sea surface level, rather than debris. For example oil slicks are detected because they damp the small surface waves, returning a patch where the background signal level is reduced


Lidar is more expensive and precludes operation from small unmanned aircraft, but adds valuable information (Churnside et al., 2010). It is particularly valuable in reducing the number of false detections caused by waves, clouds, and sun glint.


The most promising general-purpose single sensor would be a filtered multi-spectral camera. With a relatively low cost, available hardware, data sets available for algorithm development, and high resolution and frame rate, this sensor could be utilized in all types of aircraft. Ideally, the spectral bands would be chosen to optimize detection for the background conditions and the types of debris expected.

RGB Camera

Red Green Blue video: visible spectrum. Only during daylight hours. Trade off spatial coverage and spatial resolution (sensor altitude and focal length).

High resolution camera

Digital camera: high resolution, still camera

Image processing

Image enhancement

Real time. Used by Rozalia and many others. Developped in Sweden

Waterborne platform

Wave energy driven

Wind energy driven


Towfish type

Robotic fish type

But it may be some time before robotic fish become permanent fixtures in our waters. Prototypes currently cost about £20,000 each, although Mr Speller says costs will drop once more are produced. But battery life is also an obstacle. At the moment, the fish need to be recharged about every eight hours.SHOAL aims to develop number of robotic fish that will work together in order to monitor and search for pollution in ports and other aquatic areas. Traditional methods of monitoring pollution involve getting samples in some way (divers) and then sending the samples back to the lab to be tested, the whole process takes time and makes real-time pollution information far from a reality. Shoal aims to make this process real-time. By having autonomously controlled fish with chemical sensors attached we aim to do these tests in-situ. Further to this the fish will also be given an intelligence so that if they do find significant amounts of pollution and they deduce it's comming from a source they will all work together to find the source of the pollution so that the port can stop the problem early before more pollution occurs.

ROV SeaRover

SeaTrepid owns and operates the SeaRover ROV systems with the confidence that only comes with years of experience which allows our technicians the ability to safely and confidently place these systems into the harshest working environments. Equipped with High Intensity (HID) lighting and capable of accommodating a range of state of the art sensors, this ROV system is at home in a wide range of job tasks. From subsea inspections (well head, umbilical, SUTA, etc), MMS Platform inspections, or diver assistance, the SeaTrepid SeaRover ROV system can complete the job in a timely and cost effective manner. With four horizontal brushless DC thrusters and two more thrusters providing lift, this ROV is capable of lifting almost a quarter of its own weight and then transporting that load to the job site with ease.

AUV Remus

Typical REMUS 600 applications Hydrographic Surveys Mine Counter Measure Operations Harbor Security Operations Environmental Monitoring Debris Field Mapping Search and Salvage Operations Fishery Operations Scientific Sampling and Mapping

Autonomous Moored Platform

Autonomus Moored Profiler (AMP) is a submersible vertically profiling platform for use in marine to freshwater water bodies.

Airborne platform


ArduCopter is an easy to set up and easy to fly platform for multirotors and helicopters. Its features go far beyond the basic manual control RC multicopters on the market today. Unlike RC-only multicopters, ArduCopter is complete UAV solution, offering both remote control and autonomous flight, including waypoints, mission planning and telemetry displayed on a powerful ground station.


Paraglider makes emergency landing on cruise ship in General · 25-09-2010 00:00:00 · 0 Comments A powered paragliding enthusiast was forced to make an emergency landing on a cruise ship docked at Portimão port earlier this week in an unusual and unprecedented incident. The 25-year-old Brazilian man was forced to land on the vessel, Holland America’s ‘Prinsendam’ cruise liner, following complications with his equipment. He is believed to have sustained a fractured leg following the incident. After crash-landing on the vessel the man was immediately given medical assistance and taken to the local Barlavento Hospital. His equipment, which was caught on the top deck of the ship, was collected by the Maritime Police for inspection and to ascertain the cause of the incident. Powered paragliding, otherwise known as paramotoring, is a form of ultra-light aviation where the pilot has a motor strapped to their back (a paramotor) which provides enough thrust to take off using a paraglider wing. It can be launched in windless conditions, and on level ground, by the pilot alone — no assistance is required. Paramotorers are seen frequently on both sides of the Arade River, in the vicinity of Ferragudo and along the Praia da Rocha beach, Portimão, and Alvor beach.


The Kite Assist System consists of a winch, flying line, launching mast, a variety of kites, line climber, cameras, and anemometer. Kites can be flown from 50 to 600 meters (160 - 2000 feet) altitude with a line angle of 45 degrees. Researchers can choose from an array of kites ranging from two to seven meters (six to 20 feet) across depending upon weather conditions, sea state, and wind speed. The Kite Assist System requires 10 minutes to launch, and three minutes to retrieve each kite system. Multiple camera systems and sensors can be deployed simultaneously in collaboration with Sargassum sampling and satellite imaging. The KAI team is bringing a suite of specialized instrument elevating kites and camera equipment that will be flown above Lone Ranger in order to aid scientists in the search and imaging of Sargassum.


Aerial survey aircraft


Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network

The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) project brings together sophisticated new robotic vehicles with advanced ocean models to improve our ability to observe and predict the ocean. The operational system includes data collection by smart and adaptive platforms and sensors that relay information to a shore in near real-time (hours) where it is assimilated into numerical models, that create four dimensional fields and predict future conditions. Key to our effort is the development of control strategies to command our mobile vehicles to places where their data will be most useful. We call this 'adaptive sampling’. The ability to predict physical properties of the ocean, such as temperature and current, as well as biological (ecosystem productivity) and chemical (nutrient fertilization) counterparts provides a fundamental test of our understanding of ocean processes, as well as an intrinsically useful capability. The success of the AOSN program depends on the collaboration of a network of institutions spread across the United States.


The FishNET project focuses on developing integrated low cost technology solutions that drastically improve our ability to observe and collaborate data about illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing so that action can be taken to stop this destructive, illegal activity. The central hub to FishNET is a web-based information system that can capture and analyze official and crowd-sourced data on fishing vessels and exploited areas. This flexible and complementary suite of technologies, increased community participation and the FishNET database can drastically improve our ability to manage our impact on the oceans, shape effective ocean policy, maintain food security and fish sustainably. FishNET would be a powerful tool for ocean stakeholders to use to fight IUU fishing activities.

Collection at sea

Small debris collector

Large debris collector

Collection on land (beach!)