2E2 Kimberly Koh G2.

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2E2 Kimberly Koh G2. by Mind Map: 2E2 Kimberly Koh G2.

1. The future

1.1. Why?

1.1.1. Why do we need to conserve water for the future?

1.1.1.1. Even though we have our 4 national taps that is NEWater , imported water , local catchment and water desalination , we still do not have enough water to support Singapore residence . Less then 1% of sea water is drinkable . In 2061 , our contract with Malaysia for water will end . So , we only have 3 national taps left . We need to save water starting from now for our future .

1.2. What?

1.2.1. What happen to Singapore if we do not save water?

1.2.1.1. We will have not enough water for ourselves . We will need to buy water from Malaysia if the contract ends, which we will need to pay them for the water .

1.3. When?

1.3.1. When does the contract of Malaysia between Singapore for water ends?

1.3.1.1. Our contract of importing of water will end in 2061 . This means that Malaysia will stop importing water to Singapore .We are left with Local catchment , NEWater and desalination water but this 3 national taps is not enough for people of Singapore

1.4. Who?

1.4.1. Who will solve this problem for water in the future?

1.4.1.1. If we have not enough water , PUB ( Public Utilities Board ) need to solve this problem .

1.5. How?

1.5.1. How to prevent such things ( no water ) in the future?

1.5.1.1. We can save water by turning off the tap if we are not using it . This prevents wasting of clean water . We can also save water by showering for at least 5 mins .

1.6. Where?

1.6.1. Where will we get our water in the future?

1.6.1.1. We can collect water from rain by building more reservoirs . We can also buy water from Malaysia after our contract end by 2061 .

2. What can the public do to ensure that Singapore has a sustainable supply?

2.1. Why?

2.1.1. Why is it so important to conserve water?

2.1.1.1. Water is a precious resource.

2.1.1.2. There is an increase in the price of water & there is a limit of water usage.

2.1.1.3. Water is so scarce

2.1.1.3.1. In Africa, women and children needs to walk for hours to fetch a few litres of water on containers like ostrich eggshells

2.2. What?

2.2.1. What can the public do?

2.2.1.1. Public can pass on the messages on water conservation. It can be disseminated through campaigns to save water, emergency water rationing exercises.

2.2.2. What are the methods to conserve water?

2.2.2.1. By recycling household water, collecting rainwater, repairing piping systems, using water efficient, technology and educating the public.

2.2.3. What is water conservation?

2.2.3.1. Water conservation refers to the careful use and protection of water resources so that the supply is sustainable and can be used by future generations.

2.3. Where?

2.3.1. Where can we go to conserve water?

2.3.1.1. Places like houses

2.3.1.1.1. By recycling laundry water flushing toilets and watering the garden.

2.4. Who?

2.4.1. Who do we ask to help us conserve water?

2.4.1.1. Everyone! Everyone has a part to play to conserve water. It takes everyone's effort.

2.5. When?

2.5.1. When can we conserve water?

2.5.1.1. Every time, everyday, every second!

2.6. How?

2.6.1. How do we conserve water?

2.6.1.1. By recycling household water, collecting rainwater, repairing piping systems, using water efficient, technology and methods. Lastly, educating the public.

2.6.2. How do we play a part in ensuring that Singapore has a sustainable water supply?

2.6.2.1. Conserve as much water as possible.

3. The past

3.1. Where?

3.1.1. Where was the Clean River Campaign

3.1.1.1. It was held at the Singapore River

3.2. How?

3.2.1. How many reservoirs did we have in Singapore before we gained Independence?

3.2.1.1. We had 3 reservoirs.

3.2.1.1.1. MacRitchie Reservoir

3.2.1.1.2. Lower Peirce Reservoir

3.2.1.1.3. Upper Seletar Reservoir

3.3. Who?

3.3.1. Who initiated the Campaign?

3.3.1.1. Our Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew

3.4. Why?

3.4.1. Why did Malaysia sell water to us?

3.4.1.1. Malaysia did not have treated water

3.5. When?

3.5.1. When was the Campaign put forth?

3.5.1.1. It was carried out in October 1977

3.5.2. When did Singapore have a Fresh Water Reservoir?

3.5.2.1. In November 2010

3.6. What?

3.6.1. what happened in the past?

3.6.1.1. Singapore had a Clean River Campaign

3.6.2. What water resources did Singapore have in the past?

3.6.2.1. Yes we did we obtained free water from Malaysia during colonial times

4. Present

4.1. What?

4.1.1. In Singapore, water management is closely integrated with land management. The latter is tightly controlled in order to prevent any pollution of water resources through sewage, sullage or other sources of pollution. The management of water supply, sanitation and stormwater drainage is managed by a single agency, the Public Utilities Board, in an integrated and coordinated manner.

4.2. Where?

4.2.1. Where do we get our water from?

4.2.1.1. Water from catchment areas

4.2.1.1.1. Two thirds of the country's surface area are classified as partly protected catchment areas with certain restrictions on land use, so that the rainwater can be collected and used as drinking water.

4.2.1.2. Imported water

4.2.1.2.1. Singapore imports water from Johor state in Malaysia through a pipeline that runs along a 1 km bridge

4.2.1.3. Reclaimed water:NEWater

4.2.1.3.1. NEWater is the brand name given to ultra-pure water that is produced from reclaimed water.

4.2.1.4. Desalinated seawater

4.2.1.4.1. The S$ 200 million plant, built and operated by Hyflux, can produce 30 million imperial gallons (140,000 m3) of water each day and meets 10 percent of the country's water needs.

4.3. How?

4.3.1. Innovative integrated water management approaches such as the reuse of reclaimed water, the establishment of protected areas in urban rainwater catchments and the use of estuaries as freshwater reservoirs have been introduced along with seawater desalination.

4.4. Who?

4.4.1. Who is incharge of Singapore water resources?

4.4.1.1. Public Utilities Board(PUB)

4.5. When?

4.5.1. Since 2007

4.6. Why?

4.6.1. Why do we need to import water?