Will Our Taps Run Dry?

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Will Our Taps Run Dry? by Mind Map: Will Our Taps Run Dry?

1. Present

1.1. 4 National Taps

1.1.1. 1st National Tap

1.1.1.1. Local Catchment Water

1.1.1.1.1. Imported Water

1.1.1.1.2. Uses two seperate system to collect rainwater and used rainwater

1.1.2. 2nd National Tap

1.1.3. 3rd National Tap

1.1.3.1. Newater

1.1.3.1.1. Using todays' water treatment technologies

1.1.3.1.2. First NEWater plants

1.1.3.1.3. The lastest and largest NEWater plant

1.1.3.1.4. Primarily for non-potable industrial uses

1.1.4. 4th National Tap

1.1.4.1. Desalinated Water

1.1.4.1.1. Was turned on in September 2005

1.1.4.1.2. Advancements in technology and cheaper membrane prices

1.1.4.1.3. 3 Stages of Desalination

2. Past

2.1. -History of modern water supply started with the construction of :

2.1.1. MacRitchie Reservoir (1868)

2.1.2. Lower Pierce Reservoir (by 1910)

2.1.3. Upper Seletar Reservoir (by 1910)

2.2. 1927-1932

2.2.1. Singapore and Malaya signed an agreement that allowed Singapore to rent a land in Johor and use its water for free

2.2.2. A pipeline to transport raw water to Singapore was constructed.

2.3. 1961-1962

2.3.1. Signed two new agreements

2.3.2. Built two new water treatment plants

2.3.3. Built a new extended pipeline from Johor (previous pipeline was blown up unintentionally during World War II

2.4. 1963

2.4.1. Public Utillities was created

2.4.1.1. they embarked on the construction of more water schemes

2.5. 1975

2.5.1. Damming of the Estuary of the kranji river and the construction of a reservoir in Pandan

2.5.2. Upper pierce reservoir was completed

2.6. 1981-1983

2.6.1. 4 rivers were dammed

2.6.2. A dam was built across the Estuary of the Seletar River to form the Lower Seletar Reservoir

2.6.3. Still not enough water supply

2.7. 1998

2.7.1. Began new negotiations with malaysia to extend its water agreement beyond 2011 and 2061 respectively.

2.7.2. In return, Malaysia increased the raw water price to about 60 sen

2.8. 2002

2.8.1. Singapore decided to achieve self-sufficiency in its water supply before 2061 and the negotiations ended in 2003 without result

3. Future

3.1. Local CatchmentWater

3.1.1. PUB wants to treat water of varying salinity thus this will boost Singapore's water catchment area to 90% by 2060

3.2. NEWater

3.2.1. By 2060, the PUB plan to triple the current NEWater capacity so that it can meet half of their future water needs

3.3. Used water superhighway for the next 100 years

3.3.1. It is a S$3.65 billion Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS)

3.3.2. efficient and cost efficient solution to meet Singapore's long term needs for ised water collection, treatment, reclamation and disposal

3.3.3. consist of two large , deep tunnels crisscrossing the island, 2 centralised water reclamation plants, deep sea outfall pipes and a link sewer network

3.3.4. http://www.pub.gov.sg/dtss/PublishingImages/DTSS_Animation.swf

4. As An Individual As A Singaporean

4.1. How Singapore can do to help as an individual

4.1.1. We could wash fruits and vegetables in a pan of water instead of using running water from the tap.

4.1.2. After washing the fruits and vegetables, we could also reuse thee water to water our houseplants.

4.1.3. We could also replace your shower head with a water-efficient model.

4.2. How do the PUB help to save water in Singapore?

4.2.1. Building more reservoirs

4.2.2. Sending our posters or flyers to encourage people to save water

4.2.3. Water audits and encouragement of water recycling practices by customers

4.2.4. Using of non potable water such as, industrial water and seawater, as a substitude for potable water to the extent possible

4.2.5. Public education in schools

4.3. List of reservoirs

4.3.1. Bedok Reservoir

4.3.2. Jurong Lake

4.3.3. Kranji Reservoir

4.3.4. Lower Peirce Reservoir

4.3.5. Lower Seletar Reservoir

4.3.6. MacRitchie Reservoir

4.3.7. Murai Reservoir

4.3.8. Poyan Reservoir

4.3.9. Pulau Tekong Reservoir

4.3.10. Serimbun Reservoir

4.3.11. Tengeh Reservoir

4.3.12. Upper Peirce Reservoir

4.3.13. Upper Seletar Reservoir

4.3.14. Changi Creek Reservoir

4.3.15. Fort Canning Reservoir

4.3.16. South End Reservoir

4.3.17. Yishun Service Reservoir

4.3.18. Marina Bay

4.3.19. Punggol Reservoir

4.3.20. Serangoon Reservoir

4.4. Why was the reservoir created?

4.4.1. It is because Singapore does not have natural aquifers and lakes with little land to collect rainwater. Thus, Singapore need to build reservoirs and maximise whatever it can harvest