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Organic Chemistry by Mind Map: Organic Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry

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Alcohols Suffix = ol hydroxy

Different classifications based on where the OH is located

Primary alcohol, The OH group is attached to a carbon that is all on its own

Secondary alcohol, the OH group is attached to a carbon that is attached to 2 other carbons

Tertiary alcohol, The OH group is attached to a carbon that is attached to 3 other carbons

Physical properties

OH group is polar

Solubility, small alcohols are soluble due too HYDROGEN BONDNG

Boiling point, higher boiling points then hydrocarbons do to the hydrogen bonding, BP increases as the number of carbons increases, BP decreases from primary to tertiary alcohols due to top steric hindrance

Functional group

Hydroxyl group OH

Chemical preperation

Hydration (oxidation) of alkenes make alcohols

Hydrogenation (reduction) of an aldehyde or ketone, aldehydes will be reduced to primary alcohols, ketones will be reduced to secondary alcohols through the addition of an H2

Chemical reactions

Combustion, methanol and ethanol in race cars, oxygenated gas

Oxidation, Only primary and secondary alcohols undergo oxidation with mild oxidizing agents, to form aldehydes and ketones because 2 hydrogen atoms are removed, Aldehydes further oxidized to carboxylic acids

Dehydration (removal of water molecule), Intramolecular dehydration (elimination reaction), removal of water from a singe alcohol, makes an alken and water, can be done to 1*,2* and 3*alcohols, Zaitsev's rule, applies to the intramolecular dehydration of 2* and 3* alcohol, used to determine the major product because more then one alkene can be produces, the adjacent carbon containing fewer H's will lose the H atom, Intermolecular dehydration (condensation reaction), removal of water collectively from 2 alcohols to form an ether and water, need acid catalyst and 140 degrees, only occurs with primary alcohols

Halogenation, halogen atom substituted for the OH group, produces alkyl halide, single product is formed using heat

Polymerization, alcohol monomers repeatedly added together

need 180 degrees and an acid catalyst

Phenols OH is always carbon 1 phenol

functional group

hydroxyl group attached to a benzene ring

Physical proerties

solubility, slightly soluble in water

state at room temperature, solids or oily liquids

properties, antiseptic: a substance that kills microorganisms on living tissue, disinfectant is a substance that kills microorganisms on an inanimate objects

Chemical properties

flammible, cannot be dehydrated

can be oxidyzed with strong oxidizing agengts, weak acids in solution


2% phenol is used as a surgical antiseptic

derivatives used as an antiseptic and a disenfectant

foods, used as an antioxidant, used as a peservatives


Ethers oxy

oxygen single bonded to 2 carbons c-o-c

ethers are produced through intermolecular dehydration of primary alcohols


MTBE is a gasoline additive

diethyl ether is was ageneral anaesthetic


constitutional isomers, due to different partitioning of R groups or functional groups isomers with alcohols

Physical properties of ethers

solubility, more soluble in water than alkanes due to H-bonds with water, similar solubility to alcohols

Boiling point, similar to alkanes, lower then alcohols

Chemical properties

flamible, form explosives

unreactive with acids, bases, and oxidizing agents

good solvents due to there unreactivity, easy to remove after areaction

Cyclic ethers

oxygen atom contained in carbon ring (o replaces a c in the ring)


sulphur analog of alcohols because of the functional group R-SH

lower boiling points than alcohols, NO hydrogen bonds

strong and bad odour

easily oxidized to form disulfides R-S-S-R, important in protein structure (hair)

Carboxylic Acids


Aldehydes al

contain the carbonyl functional group C=O

polar bond with trigonal planar shape

have a carbonyl group at the end carbon ONLY

prepared by

oxidizing a primary alcohol with a mild oxidizing agent, removes 2 H atoms to form C=O, can be further oxidized to form a carboxilic acid by adding an oxygen atom, thus aldehydes must be protected from the air if you do not want further oxidation to occur

Simple aldehydes

Methanal, formed by oxidizing methenol an irritating gas carcinogenic to the skin, used to preserve biological speciments

Benzaldehyde, benzene ring attatched to methanal, gives almonds their flavour

What they both have in common

physical properties

boiling points, between alcohols and alkanes, higher boiling points than alkanes because C=O is polar thus dipole dipole atrtactions between the carbonyl groups, lower boiling points then alcohols because they can't H-bond between molecules

solubility, aldehydes and ketones H-bond with water so low molecular mass compounds are soluble in water, the longer the chain the less soluble or eventually insoluble they become


high molecular massed aldehydes and ketones have a pleasant smell and pleasant flavours

found widely in nature


Constitutionally isomerism, skeletal for both positional for ketones and functional groups subtypes

Chemical reactions

Oxidation, only aldehydes will further oxidize, Tollens test (silver mirror) AgNO3 added to an aldehyde soution, positive test indicated by the oxidation of aldehyde to carboxylic acid and the reduction of Ag+ ions to silver metal, Ag, example of a redox reaction, where Ag is the oxidizing agent, Benedict's test (copper brick) solution of CuSO4 added to unknown solution, if clear blue solution turns into a brick read suspension aldehydes were oxidized to carboxilic acids, the blue Cu2+ ions were reduced to red Cu+ ions, example of a redox reaction where Cu2+ is the oxidizing agen, originally used to detect glucose in the blood and urine to diagnose diabetes

Reduction, can be reduced by adding hydrogen gas to reform primary and secondary alcohols

Hemiacital formation, can be intermolecuar - to form a straight chain o rit can be an intramolecular reaction to form a cyclic hemiacital which are more stable, caused by a reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with an alcohol, the H atom of the alcohol is added to the O atom of the carbonyl group and or OR portion of the alcohol is added to the C atom of the carbonyl group in the presence of an acid catylist, hemiacital is an alcohol group and ether group attached to the same carbon

Acetal formation, reaction of a hemiacital with another alcohol molecule, condensation reaction because there is a removal of water (still need an acid catalyst), more stable, functional group is made up of 2 ether groups bonded to the same carbon

Polymerization, under acidic conditions phenol and formaldehyde monomers react to form phenol-formaldehyde network polymers, network polymers, monomers connected in a 3D cross-linked network, first man-made plastic was a phenol-formaldehyde polymer called makelite, today used as adhesive for plywood


Ketones one


through oxidation of seconday alcohols, with mild oxidizing agent to remove 2 hydrogen atoms to form C=O, can not be further oxidized

contain the carbonyl functional group C=O and R-CO-R

polar bond with trigonal planar shape

carbonyl group is located in the carbon chain

Cyclic ketones exist

Ketone functional group has lower priority than an aldehyde when both are present the ketone is named as a substituent (oxo) (oxopentanal)


propanone (acetone, simplest ketone formed by the oxidation of 2-propanol, used as a solvent because it is soluble in both water and nonpolar subsances, byproduct of fat breakdown, component of nail polish remover

steroid hormones, testosterone, progesterone,and cortisone

sunscreens and sun-tannng agents