Water ——— From vulunerablitiy to strength LiuZhenxian 2E1

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Water ——— From vulunerablitiy to strength LiuZhenxian 2E1 by Mind Map: Water  ——— From vulunerablitiy to strength                                        LiuZhenxian 2E1

1. Future

1.1. NEWater expansion

1.1.1. capacity for NEWater will increase by more than 160 mgd by 2030

1.2. Water project

1.2.1. clean-up of the Singapore River

1.2.2. building the Marina Barrage

1.2.3. creating the Deep Tunnel Sewerage Syste

1.3. Responsibility for water supply and sanitation

1.4. Sustainable measures

1.4.1. Desalinated water -the desalination capacity may be increased by ten times in 2060 -desalinated water wil be delivered to PUB for a 25-year period from 2013-2138 -intending to ramp up desalination capacity so that desalinated water can meet up to 25% of our water demand in the long term. -moving towards long-term self-sufficiency and to reduce its reliance \n foreign supply

1.4.2. imported water -S'pore will continue to import water from Johor,Malaysia until the agreement expires in 2061 -half of their water is still imported as the two agreements of importing water end in 2061

2. Past

2.1. Vital issues

2.1.1. -Failed Water Negotiations with Malaysia (1998-2002) - Malasia initially asked to increase the raw water price to 60 sen per 1,000 imperial gallons (4,500 L), corresponding to 4 US cents per cubic meter.[11] [12] -This price was still much lower than the cost of desalinated seawater or of NEWater -Singapore finally refused to accept a higher price and decided to give up on its goal to extend the agreements beyond 2061

2.1.2. -Until 1975,Singapore only had three reservoirs -Far behind to meet the water needs of people

2.1.3. -In the early days,drinking water had to be bought from water vendors on ox-drawn water carts.

2.2. Measures to cope with

2.2.1. -Singapore's first reservoir was completed in 1867. It was named as 'The Impounding Reservoir". It was funded by Tan Kim Seng, a wealthy Straits Chinese merchant.

2.2.2. -Local water supply and first water imports during colonial time (until 1965)

2.2.3. -Expansion of water imports from Malaya and of local reservoirs (1965-1997) -After the war, Singapore continued to grow rapidly and more water was needed to sustain the city’s growth

2.3. Towards Water Self-Sufficiency (since 2002)

2.3.1. -In 1998, the government determined to make experiments to find out if reclaimed water could be treated to potable standardsas a viable source of water.

2.3.2. -In 2002 Singapore commissioned its first reclaimed water plant, thus opening a "Third Tap"

2.3.3. -largest reservoir, the Marina Bay reservoir, was inaugurated in 2008

2.3.4. -Two similar barrages were completed in July 2011, forming the Punggol Reservoir and the Serangoon Reservoir

3. Now

3.1. Imported water

3.1.1. -partially dependent upon importing water from Malasia Under the first agreement the price of raw water is set at a very low level of 3 Malaysian sen per 1,000 imperial gallons (4,500 L), corresponding to about 0,2 US cents per cubic meter Singapore is entitled to receive up to 250 million imperial gallons (1,100,000 m3) per day, corresponding to 66% of its water use of 380 million imperial gallons (1,700,000 m3) in 2011

3.2. Desalinated seawater

3.2.1. Desalination -any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water. -More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals,as in soil desalination.

3.2.2. -At 110,000m3/day, the Tuas seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant has sufficient capacity to meet around 10% of the national demand

3.3. 17 reservoirs in Singapore

3.3.1. - it creates a freshwater lake to boost Singapore’s water supply, - acts as a tidal barrier to prevent flooding in low-lying city areas, and keeps the water level consistent, - offering a venue for water-based activities in the heart of the city.

3.3.2. - increased Singapore’s water catchment from half to two-thirds of Singapore’s land surface.

3.3.3. The 17 reservoirs are Pandan Reservoir,Kranji Reservoir, Jurong Lake Reservoir, MacRitchie Reservoir, Upp Peirce Reservoir, Lower Peirce Reservoir, Bedok Reservoir,Upp Seletar Reservoir, Lower Seletar Reservoir,Poyan Reservoir, Murai Reservoir, Tengeh Reservoir, Sarimbun Reservoir,Pulau Tekong Reservoir, Marina Reservoir,Serangoon Reservoir, Punggol Reservoir

3.4. Water from catchment areas

3.4.1. - Natural rain water

4. Suggestion on how people save water

4.1. Life

4.1.1. -Put some basins outiside the houses when rainning so as to get free water

4.1.2. Recycling laundry water for flushing toilet and watering garden Sub Idea 1 Sub Idea 2

4.1.3. -Use water-saving tap and closestool

4.1.4. -When washing dishes by hand, don't let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other (or a plastic tub) with rinse water.

4.1.5. -Install an instant water heater near your kitchen sink so you don't have to run the water while it heats up. This also reduces energy costs.

4.1.6. -Put food coloring in your toilet tank. - If it seeps into the toilet bowl without flushing, you have a leak. -Fixing it can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.

4.1.7. -Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. -You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.

4.1.8. Repairing underground pipe systems

4.2. Education

4.2.1. -Create an awareness of the need for water conservation among your children. -Avoid the purchase of recreational water toys which require a constant stream of water.

4.2.2. -Encourage your employer to promote water conservation at the workplace. -Suggest that water conservation be put in the employee orientation manual and training program.

4.2.3. -Encourage your school system and local government to develop and promote water conservation among children and adults.