Will Our Tap Run Dry One Day?

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Will Our Tap Run Dry One Day? by Mind Map: Will Our Tap Run Dry One Day?

1. measures that Singapore has put in place and discuss whether the measures are sustainable in the long run

1.1. What is being done today?

1.1.1. Drains are for rain

1.1.1.1. canals and drains are important in part of our water supply network

1.1.1.1.1. channel rain water and surfce run off to reservoirs (Singapore) which eventually supply water to our homes

1.1.2. The Greatest Catchment

1.1.2.1. Marina Catchment

1.1.2.1.1. 1/6 the size of Singapore.Largest and most urbanised water catchment.

1.1.3. Flood Control

1.1.3.1. Marina Barrage (MB)

1.1.3.1.1. comprehensive flood control scheme.is to alleviate areas in low lying areas in the city ( Jalan Besar,Geylang,Boat Quay,Chinaown)

1.1.4. Lifestyle Attraction

1.1.4.1. Free from tidal influence.Water level in MB kept constant all year around.

2. Suggestions on how public has put in place and discuss whether the measures are sustainable water supply

2.1. Ways to increase Water Supply

2.1.1. Extend Water Catchment Area

2.1.1.1. building more reservoirs

2.1.2. Digging into the ground to store water (e.g Singapore, US, Egypt, India)

2.1.2.1. construction of dams across a river to form a man-made lake

2.1.3. Aquifers

2.1.3.1. huge reservoirs of fresh water held in layers of porous rocks deep underground (e.g Australia, West Asia, North Africa, and Mexico)

2.1.4. Desalination of seawater

2.1.4.1. Sea water goes through a pre-treatment process where suspended particles are removed. In the second stage, the water undergoes reverse osmosis (RO). This is the same technology used in the production of NEWater. The water produced is very pure and is remineralised in the third stage

2.1.4.2. Desalination Plant has 2 systems

2.1.4.2.1. 1.Pre-treatment filtration(removes dirt)

2.1.4.2.2. 2.Reverse osmosis-process of filtering water through a thin membrane to remove impurities

2.1.5. Water reclamation

2.1.5.1. e.g. London(UK) California(USA) Namibia(W,AFRICA) Peru(S AMERICA)

2.1.6. Through International Agreements

2.1.6.1. Many countries signed international agreements on the use and development of water for example Singapore has 2 water agreements with Malaysia

2.2. water consumption

2.2.1. Recycle household water

2.2.1.1. it will reduce the water consumption by 30%

2.2.2. Collect rainwater

2.2.2.1. fixing systems in houses to collect rainwater from roofs, then store in plastic tanks which is to be used for flushing toilets, watering gardens amd washing.

2.2.2.2. in Singapore, rainwater is collected through pipes and drains and then connected to reservoirs.

2.2.3. Repair underground systems

2.2.3.1. water may be lost due to leakage cause by old pipes and faulty connections underground. it needs regukar checks and maintenance to ensure water is not lost due to negligence.

2.2.4. Use water-saving methods and technology

2.2.4.1. use less wasteful methods of growing crops e.g. using water drips instead of water sprays and irrigation canals.

2.2.4.2. factories can use water-saving equipment and machineries.

2.2.4.3. Educating the public

2.2.4.3.1. People must be made aware of the importance of water conservation

2.3. Increase in price

2.3.1. In countries like Europe and Asia

2.3.2. Impose additional cost in the form in water conservation tax e.g in Norway and USA-Washington and Oregon

2.3.3. In Singapore price of water increases from $1.17 per cubic metre to $1.40 per cubic metre if household water consumption is more than 40 cubic metres per month

2.3.4. Introducing two-tiered water conservation tax of 30% and 45% since 1 of July 2000

3. Past.

3.1. Why was there a shortage of water?

3.1.1. There was a shortage of water in Singapore. Most of the machinery used to filter and pump water was damaged during the war. Moreover, water pipes in building brust. As a result, there was not enough water for the people. People had to be careful about how they handle water.

3.2. When did the shortage of water happened?

3.2.1. After world war two

3.3. What organisation was in charge of the water supply ?

3.3.1. PUB supplies water to the Singaporeans in the 1963

3.4. How many reservoirs were there?

3.4.1. 14 reservoirs. these reservoirs collects rainwater that falls in the catchment areas. These form our first National Tap, water from local catchment.

3.5. There were only 2 national taps - local catchment (dependent on weather) and imported water from Malaysia

3.5.1. Not all homes are sewered (bucket system)

4. As an individual, what can we do to conserve water?

4.1. Take shorter showers

4.1.1. For example use a shower head instead of a bath tub

4.2. Check your toilets for leaks

4.3. Turn off the water after you wet your toothbrush or use a cup

4.4. Switch off the shower when applying soap on body and hair.

4.5. Recycle household water.

4.5.1. We can used laundry water for flushing toilets and watering the garden.

4.5.2. we can use water that we use to wash vegetables or rice to water the plants.

5. What are the governments future plans?

5.1. To reduce domestic water usage to 147 litres per capita per day by 2020 and to 140 litres per capita per day by 2030.

5.2. Water efficiency labels will be introduced to shower heads and washing machines after more water efficient models are introduced.

5.3. Governments builds pipes on new punggol 21+ high rise building and using the areas on top of the building to capture rain water and using it to flush the toilet and if it is possible, government intend to build pipes on other high rise buildings and if the project success, Governments will tend to build pipes at other new high rise buildings.

5.4. As demand for water continues to increase with population and economic growth, the government needs to plan and enforce water support ahead to secure sufficient and affordable supply of water for the future.

5.5. To help Singapore cope with intense rainfall, PUB is adopting "source-pathway-receptor" to manage floods. If this is not implemented, floods may affect livelihood. Prolonged floods can also threaten the reliability of our water supply. It then poses a major challenge for our water resource management.

6. 4 types of national taps in Singapore

6.1. Local catchment plant

6.1.1. Singapore uses two separate systems to collect rainwater and used water. Rainwater is collected through a comprehensive network of drains, canals, rivers and stormwater collection ponds before it is channelled to Singapore's 17 reservoirs for storage. This makes Singapore one of the few countries in the world to harvest urban stormwater on a large scale for its water supply.

6.2. Imported water

6.2.1. Singapore has been importing water from Johor, Malaysia, under two bilateral agreements. The first agreement expired in August 2011 and second agreement will expire in 2061.

6.3. NEwater

6.3.1. A Singapore success story and the pillar of Singapore’s water sustainability, NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water. It is produced from treated used water that is further purified using advanced membrane technologies and ultra-violet disinfection, making it ultra-clean and safe to drink.

6.4. Deslination

6.4.1. Sea water goes through a pre-treatment process where suspended particles are removed. In the second stage, the water undergoes reverse osmosis (RO). This is the same technology used in the production of NEWater. The water produced is very pure and is remineralised in the third stage