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Animals by Mind Map: Animals

1. Nematoda

1.1. Examples

1.1.1. Ascarid Parasite of pigs + humans: Live in intestine If ingested by another host, eggs hatch in intestine Larvae bore through body and ends in lungs Host coughs them up, swallows them Live in host for 9-12 mo

1.1.2. Hookworms Enter through bare feet Travel to intestines, where they hang on and consume blood

1.2. Characteristics

1.2.1. Free living or parasitic

1.2.2. Lives from tropics to polar regions, dirt, host, aquatic

1.2.3. 1mm to 1m

1.2.4. Hydrostatic skeleton: Muscles supported by water

1.2.5. Cuticle: Tough outer covering provides protection

1.2.6. Mesoderm Body cavity partly lined w/ mesoderm; pseudocoelomate

1.3. Digestion + Feeding

1.3.1. 2 Openings More efficient digestion Mouth-> Pharynx-> Intestine-> Anus

1.3.2. Eats Decaying matter, fungus, algae, bacteria Food, blood of host (Parasitic)

1.4. Reproduction

1.4.1. Most are DIOECIOUS 2 separate sexes

1.4.2. Females larger than males

1.5. Nervous System

1.5.1. Simple, with GANGLIA, NERVES and several types of SENSORY ORGANS- touch, chemoreceptors (smell, taste)

1.6. Gas Exchange/Circulatory/Excretory Systems

1.6.1. Diffusion

2. Annelida

2.1. Classes

2.1.1. Polychaeta "Many Bristles" Marine Free living or tube dwelling Largest class Parapodia: movement, increases SA for gas exchange

2.1.2. Oligochaeta "Few Bristles" Examples: Earthworms Terrestrial Few setae, no parapodia

2.1.3. Hirudinea Leeches Mostly parasites: Inject anesthesia, gain 10x body weight No setae or parapodia

2.2. Characteristics

2.2.1. Segmentation allows for more specialization

2.2.2. Each septum limits diffusion

2.2.3. Bilateral symmetry

2.2.4. Hydrostatic skeleton

2.2.5. Coelomates

2.3. Use in Enviroment

2.3.1. Food chain

2.3.2. Earthworms aerate soil & provide organic matter poop (castings)

2.3.3. Leeches: Medical uses

2.4. Digestive + Feeding

2.4.1. Mouth: Eat

2.4.2. Pharynx: Swallow

2.4.3. Esophagus: Connect

2.4.4. Crop: Storage

2.4.5. Gizzard: Grinds food

2.4.6. Anus: Releases castings

2.5. Circulatory System

2.5.1. Closed system of blood vessels

2.5.2. Thicker, larger animas

2.5.3. Carries nutrients, O2

2.5.4. Dorsal blood vessel + Ventral blood vessel

2.5.5. 5 "hearts" (aortic arches)

2.6. Gas Exchange

2.6.1. Diffusion

2.7. Excretory System

2.7.1. Nephridia: 2 excretory tubes per segment

2.7.2. Nitrogenous waste & excess water removed via Nephridia

2.7.3. Water/waste exit through excretory pores

2.8. Nervous System

2.8.1. Anterior "brain"

2.8.2. Ventral nerve cord w segmented branches

2.8.3. Senses: receptors for light, moisture, temp, vibrations

2.9. Reproduction

2.9.1. Hermaphrodites Doesn't self-fertilize Each passes sperm to other worm's sperm receptacle Mucus cocoon is secreted from clitellum Rolls off anterior end Collects eggs/sperm as it rolls -> Becomes egg capsule

2.10. Mesoderm

2.10.1. Body cavity fully lined w/ mesoderm: Permits organs to function: Coelomate

3. Arthropoda

3.1. Examples

3.1.1. Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans

3.2. Characteristics

3.2.1. Exoskeleton

3.2.2. Jointed Appendages Adapted for different purposes: Catching, Swimming, Crawling, Walking, Sensing, Feeding

3.2.3. Segmented

3.3. Classes

3.3.1. Uniramia Centipede Body plan Millipede Body plan Insect Body plan

3.3.2. Crustacea Crayfish Body plan 4 pairs of legs, 2 claws, 2 pairs of antennae cephalothorax, abdomen Sensing 1st & 2nd antenna Eating Jaw, 1st & 2nd maxilla; 1st, 2nd, & 3rd maxilliped Respiration Gill & Gill separator Movement Walking leg, Swimmeret, Uropod, Telson Sperm 1st abdominal appendage of male: Transfer to female

3.3.3. Chelicerata Ticks, Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe Crabs Body plan 4 pairs of legs, no antennae Cheliceral: Fangs used to stab & poison Cephalothorax, abdomen

3.4. Digestive system

3.4.1. Mouth-> Esophagus-> Stomach-> Intestine-> Anus

3.4.2. Stomach: 2 parts Cardiac: Storage, Contains gastric mill Pyloric: Digestion

3.5. Respiration

3.5.1. Gills: feathery; provides greater SA

3.5.2. Located under carapace, attached to walking legs

3.6. Circulation

3.6.1. Open: Hemolymph: Mixture of fluids + blood

3.6.2. Gills-> Heart-> Body sinuses-> Back to gills

3.7. Excretion

3.7.1. Green Glands

3.7.2. Anterior end

3.7.3. Remove nitrogenous waste & excess water

3.8. Nervous System

3.8.1. Anterior brain

3.8.2. Ventral nerve chord

3.8.3. Compound eyes

3.8.4. Sensory bristles

3.8.5. Statocyst: Fluid w/ sand

3.9. Reproduction

3.9.1. Dioecious

3.9.2. External fertilization

3.9.3. Female holds eggs in swimmerets

4. Mollusca

4.1. Classes

4.1.1. Bivalve 2 shells Muscles, clams, oysters Filter feeders Some burrow, some sessile, some "swim" Defense Close shell: Uses muscles to close Reproduction Dioecious External fertilization

4.1.2. Gastropod "Stomach-footed" 1 shell (Spiral) Conch, Cone snail, garden snail Radula: "tongue" to scrape algae off of rocks and make holes in others' shells Wave-like muscle contractions & secretes mucus Defense Shell Operculum: Predator and drying out Reproduction Hermaphrodite Internal fertilization

4.1.3. Cephalopod "Head-footed" No shells except squid-pen + chambered nautilus Squid, Octopus, Chambered Nautilus Radula inside beak; arms/tentacles capture prey Jet propulsion; crawling Defense Ink: diffusion Camoflauge Escape Reproduction Dioecious Internal fertilization

4.2. Characteristics

4.2.1. Soft body/Visceral Mass

4.2.2. Muscular foot

4.2.3. Hard shell

4.2.4. Mantle: Secrete shell, outer body of a squid

4.3. Systems (Digestion + Feeding)

4.3.1. Mouth-> Esophagus-> Stomach-> Intestine-> Anus

4.3.2. Twisted on inside: Adds more complexity

4.3.3. Coelomate

4.4. Respiration

4.4.1. Have gills

4.4.2. Gas diffuses from gill hearts into blood "vessels"

4.5. Circulation

4.5.1. Gastropod + Bivalve Open Circulation- Not a cycle; Blood floats in with tissues Hemolymph Mixture of boy fluids + blood

4.5.2. Cephalopod Closed system- All blood contained in vessels; no open space 3 hearts: 1 for whole body, 2 for gill hearts

4.6. Excretion

4.6.1. Nephridia: Removes nitrogenous waste & excess water

5. Echinodermata

5.1. Examples

5.1.1. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins

5.2. Characteristics

5.2.1. Spiny skin

5.2.2. Endoskeleton

5.2.3. Radial Symmetry

5.2.4. Water Vascular System

5.3. Water Vascular System

5.3.1. Network of seawater-filled tubes

5.3.2. Functions: Help obtain food, circulation, & movement

5.3.3. One opening: Madreporite

5.3.4. Madreporite-> Stone canal-> Radial canal-> Ampulla-> Tube feet

5.4. Movement (Sea Star)

5.4.1. Pump water into tube feet

5.4.2. Extend and attach onto surface

5.4.3. Water flows out of tube feet + back through system

5.4.4. Tube feet shorten, pulling sea star forward

5.5. Symmetry

5.5.1. Radial

5.6. Classes

5.6.1. Sea Stars Digestive System Feed on clams, oysters, snails Mouth on oral side Stomach in central disc; digestive glands in arms Respiration Diffusion across skin of tube feet Some also have tiny skin gills Excretion Diffusion across skin of tube feet + gills Circulation O2, metabolic waste carried by water vascular system, but no circulatory system Nervous system No brain Nerve ring encircles mouth & connects w/ 5 radial nerves Large sensory nerve network coordinates movement of spines/feet Tips of arms have light sensitive eyespot + nerves to sense food/chemicals Reproduction Most dioecious 2 gonads in each arm, open directly to outside External ferilization Some can regenerate

5.6.2. Brittle Stars Small with 5 long, thin arms Fragile

5.6.3. Sand Dollars + Urchins Sand Dollars Disk-shaped Covered w/ tiny moveable spines Sediment feeders Urchins Spherical Sharp spines for defense Grazers, sediment feeders, or scavengers 5 part mouth

5.6.4. Sea Cucumbers Tubular 5 rows of tube feet Sticky tentacle-like feet surround mouth Eats organic debris in sand Shoots thin tubules out of its anus when threatened; can eject entire digestive system

5.6.5. Sea Lilies + Feather Stars Feather stars: Crinoids Most ancient Mouth on dorsal side

6. Chordata

6.1. 3 groups

6.1.1. Monotremes Lay eggs

6.1.2. Marsupials Have pouches

6.1.3. Placentals Develops inside mother's body, gets nutrients via placenta

6.2. Examples

6.2.1. Fish Cartelidge Skeleton Sharks, skates, rays, bone fish Live in water Scales, fins, gills External fertilization Eggs allow gas exchange/waste removal Circulatory System Single pump Blood-> Heart-> Gills-> Body Has 1 ventricle + 1 atrium

6.2.2. Amphibians Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts Larvae + Adult Stage 4 legs, body, tail Gas exchange: Gills (larvae), lungs + skin (adult) Skin must stay moist External fertilization in moist environment Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Not efficient b/c blood can mix in ventricle

6.2.3. Reptiles Alligators, crocodiles, turtles, lizards Dry, scaly skin; shed skin 4 legs, tail, lungs Internal fertilization Amniotic eggs Fully terrestrial Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Partial wall helps make system in heart more efficient

6.2.4. Birds Bald eagle, penguin, cardinal Feathers, 2 legs, 2 wings Amniotic eggs Internal fertilization Built for flight Excretes uric acid Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Complete wall makes heart fully efficient, no mixture

6.2.5. Mammals Platypus, echidna, kangaroo, humans, bears Fur Produce milk for young Internal fertilization Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Complete wall makes heart fully efficient, no mixture

6.3. Characteristics

6.3.1. Notochord: Becomes vertebrae of backbone

6.3.2. Dorsal nerve chord become spinal chord

6.3.3. Post-anal tail

6.3.4. Gill slits not present in mammals after embryo

6.4. Transition to Land

6.4.1. Amniotic eggs Reptiles + Birds: Waterproof shell, won't dry out, yolk is food supply, waste disposal sac

6.4.2. Waterproof skin So animal doesn't dry out

6.4.3. Legs Tetrapod: 4-legged Amphibians: Legs out to side, crawl on belly Reptiles: Legs out to side, can lift body off ground Mammal: Legs fully underneath, faster

6.4.4. Fully developed lungs Moist gas exchange surface protected within body-> Lungs Don't need to use skin to supplement O2 in, CO2 out

6.5. Definitons

6.5.1. Ectotherm Can't maintain constant internal body temp; cold-blooded Fish, amphibians, reptiles Pros/Cons Pro: Requires less food Con: Limited geographical distribution

6.5.2. Endotherm Can maintain constant internal body temp Birds, mammals Pros/Cons Pro: Can adapt to wide range of environments Con: Requires lots more food

7. Protists

7.1. Characteristics

7.1.1. Muti or unicellular

7.1.2. No tissues

7.2. Metabolism

7.2.1. Phototrophs Gets energy from sun Kelp, dinoflagellate

7.2.2. Organotrophs Feeds on organisms Amoeba

7.3. Reproduction

7.3.1. Asexual Binary fission

7.3.2. Sexual Conjugation

7.3.3. Both Has asexual + sexual portion of life

7.4. Diversity

7.4.1. Kelp Forest

7.4.2. Diatones Converts silicone to glass

7.4.3. Vulvox Large colony of cells

7.4.4. Ciliate Cilia

8. Eukaryota (General)

8.1. Animals

8.1.1. Evolution Cambrian Explosion 50M ya

8.1.2. Characteristics Muticellular Motile (moveable) Heterotrophs No Cell Walls Blastula

8.1.3. Invertabrates No tissue Sponges Tissue Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry

8.1.4. Vertebrates Lanceletes Head Lamphreys Jaws Cartilage fish Lungs Bony fish Lobed-fins Lobe-finned fish Legs Amphibians Legs Reptiles Amniotic Eggs Mammals Milk

9. Kingom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

9.1. King Puts Cookies On Fat Guy's Stomach

10. Porifera

10.1. Examples

10.1.1. Sponges

10.2. Symmetry

10.2.1. Asymmetrical

10.3. Gas Exchange

10.3.1. Diffusion

10.4. Excretion

10.4.1. Diffusion

10.5. Feeding

10.5.1. Filter Feed Water enters pore, flows through tunnels, exits through osculum Water brings in food, oxygen, removes CO2, nitrogenous wastes Cells trap plankton

10.6. Structure

10.6.1. Pore Bearers

10.6.2. Sessile-doesn't move

10.6.3. Vase-like body surrounding hollow cylinder

10.6.4. Cells Different types, but not organized into tissues Epithelial Cells: "Skin" Choanocytes: "Collar" Archaeocytes: "Stem cell" No organs, nerve, skin, and muscle tissue

10.6.5. Skeleton Spicules-Hard Spongin Soft Protein Material

10.7. Reproduction

10.7.1. Asexual Budding: Bud can detach and form into new sponge Can regenerate Gemmules (freshwater): Dormant mass of archaeocytes "Hibernate" in drought of freezing

11. Cnidaria

11.1. Classes

11.1.1. Schyphozoans Body: Medusa Examples: Jellyfish

11.1.2. Hydrozan Body: Polyp Examples: Hydra, Portuguese man-o-war

11.1.3. Anthozoan Body: Polyp Examples: Sea anemone

11.2. Structure

11.2.1. Two Body Styles Polyp: Sessile, cup shaped Medusa: Free-floating; bell-shaped

11.2.2. Gastrodermis Layers of specialized cells that line the gastrovascular cavity

11.2.3. Gastrovascular cavity Digests/Absorbs food

11.2.4. Mouth For eating and releasing undigested food

11.2.5. Mesoglea Jelly-like layer provides support

11.2.6. Epidermis Cells from outer, protective layer Has contracting cells (like muscles)

11.2.7. Tentacle For catching prey

11.2.8. Stinging cells Cnidocyte contains nematocysts (stinging harpoons)

11.3. Symmetry

11.3.1. Radial: Splits in half infinitely; no head

11.3.2. Bilateral: Split in half; has head

11.4. Feeding + Digestion

11.4.1. Gland cells Release digestive enzymes

11.4.2. Flagellated cells Cells move around, to keep it from settling to bottom

11.4.3. Amoeboid Cells transfer nutrients to other cells

11.5. Reproduction

11.5.1. Sexual Polyp and Medusa body styles

11.5.2. Asexual Budding

11.6. Gas Exchange

11.6.1. O2 diffusion in; CO2 out

11.7. Circulation

11.7.1. None; rely on diffusion

11.8. Excretion

11.8.1. Diffusion (no poop)

11.9. Response

11.9.1. Nerve net

11.10. Movement

11.10.1. Jet Propultion

12. Platyhelminthes

12.1. Classes

12.1.1. Turbellaria Examples: Planarians, flatworms Free living (not parasitic) Mostly scavengers or predatory carnivores

12.1.2. Trematoda Examples: Liver flukes Parasitic Tough outer covering Infects internal organs or blood of host

12.1.3. Cestoda Examples: Tapeworms Parasitic: Lives in small intestine No mouth and digestive tract Absorbs food through body walls Attaches to intestine w/ hooks + suckers on scolex Mature segments (proglottids) @ posterior end break off an exit, full of eggs + sperm Can be several feet long

12.2. Characteristics

12.2.1. Cephalization: All senses in head

12.2.2. 3 body layers Ectoderm Skin + Nervous System Mesoderm Everything in between Solid tissue; no body cavity; aceolomate Endoderm Digestive Ststem

12.3. Body orientation

12.3.1. Anterior: Head

12.3.2. Dorsal: Back

12.3.3. Ventral: Stomach

12.3.4. Posterior: Rear

12.4. Feeding + Digestion

12.4.1. Single opening on ventral side Food enters; solid waste leaves

12.4.2. Extend pharynx to suck in food

12.4.3. Branched digestive cavity extends length of body

12.5. Reproduction

12.5.1. Sexual Hermaphrodites: One deposits sperm under skin of other

12.5.2. Asexual Can regenerate lost parts; Cut one into 2 -> Both grow

12.6. Gas Exchange + Circulation

12.6.1. Diffusion

12.7. Nervous System

12.7.1. No true brain: Concentration of ganglia @ anterior end

12.7.2. Sensory Receptors: Eyespots - can sense light

12.8. Excretion

12.8.1. Flame cells (small bulb-like cilia) collect waste and excess water in ducts throughout body

12.8.2. Excretory Pores: Waste/Water leave through pores

12.9. Movement

12.9.1. Uses cilia on ventral surface for sliding

12.9.2. Muscles for twisting/turning

12.9.3. Marine (ocean dwelling)