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Animals by Mind Map: Animals

1. Porifera

1.1. Examples

1.1.1. Sponges

1.2. Symmetry

1.2.1. Asymmetrical

1.3. Gas Exchange

1.3.1. Diffusion

1.4. Excretion

1.4.1. Diffusion

1.5. Feeding

1.5.1. Filter Feed

1.5.1.1. Water enters pore, flows through tunnels, exits through osculum

1.5.1.2. Water brings in food, oxygen, removes CO2, nitrogenous wastes

1.5.1.3. Cells trap plankton

1.6. Structure

1.6.1. Pore Bearers

1.6.2. Sessile-doesn't move

1.6.3. Vase-like body surrounding hollow cylinder

1.6.4. Cells

1.6.4.1. Different types, but not organized into tissues

1.6.4.1.1. Epithelial Cells: "Skin"

1.6.4.1.2. Choanocytes: "Collar"

1.6.4.1.3. Archaeocytes: "Stem cell"

1.6.4.2. No organs, nerve, skin, and muscle tissue

1.6.5. Skeleton

1.6.5.1. Spicules-Hard

1.6.5.2. Spongin

1.6.5.2.1. Soft Protein Material

1.7. Reproduction

1.7.1. Asexual

1.7.1.1. Budding: Bud can detach and form into new sponge

1.7.1.2. Can regenerate

1.7.1.3. Gemmules (freshwater): Dormant mass of archaeocytes

1.7.1.4. "Hibernate" in drought of freezing

2. Cnidaria

2.1. Classes

2.1.1. Schyphozoans

2.1.1.1. Body: Medusa

2.1.1.2. Examples: Jellyfish

2.1.2. Hydrozan

2.1.2.1. Body: Polyp

2.1.2.2. Examples: Hydra, Portuguese man-o-war

2.1.3. Anthozoan

2.1.3.1. Body: Polyp

2.1.3.2. Examples: Sea anemone

2.2. Structure

2.2.1. Two Body Styles

2.2.1.1. Polyp: Sessile, cup shaped

2.2.1.2. Medusa: Free-floating; bell-shaped

2.2.2. Gastrodermis

2.2.2.1. Layers of specialized cells that line the gastrovascular cavity

2.2.3. Gastrovascular cavity

2.2.3.1. Digests/Absorbs food

2.2.4. Mouth

2.2.4.1. For eating and releasing undigested food

2.2.5. Mesoglea

2.2.5.1. Jelly-like layer provides support

2.2.6. Epidermis

2.2.6.1. Cells from outer, protective layer

2.2.6.2. Has contracting cells (like muscles)

2.2.7. Tentacle

2.2.7.1. For catching prey

2.2.8. Stinging cells

2.2.8.1. Cnidocyte contains nematocysts (stinging harpoons)

2.3. Symmetry

2.3.1. Radial: Splits in half infinitely; no head

2.3.2. Bilateral: Split in half; has head

2.4. Feeding + Digestion

2.4.1. Gland cells

2.4.1.1. Release digestive enzymes

2.4.2. Flagellated cells

2.4.2.1. Cells move around, to keep it from settling to bottom

2.4.3. Amoeboid

2.4.3.1. Cells transfer nutrients to other cells

2.5. Reproduction

2.5.1. Sexual

2.5.1.1. Polyp and Medusa body styles

2.5.2. Asexual

2.5.2.1. Budding

2.6. Gas Exchange

2.6.1. O2 diffusion in; CO2 out

2.7. Circulation

2.7.1. None; rely on diffusion

2.8. Excretion

2.8.1. Diffusion (no poop)

2.9. Response

2.9.1. Nerve net

2.10. Movement

2.10.1. Jet Propultion

3. Platyhelminthes

3.1. Classes

3.1.1. Turbellaria

3.1.1.1. Examples: Planarians, flatworms

3.1.1.2. Free living (not parasitic)

3.1.1.3. Mostly scavengers or predatory carnivores

3.1.2. Trematoda

3.1.2.1. Examples: Liver flukes

3.1.2.2. Parasitic

3.1.2.3. Tough outer covering

3.1.2.4. Infects internal organs or blood of host

3.1.3. Cestoda

3.1.3.1. Examples: Tapeworms

3.1.3.2. Parasitic: Lives in small intestine

3.1.3.3. No mouth and digestive tract

3.1.3.4. Absorbs food through body walls

3.1.3.5. Attaches to intestine w/ hooks + suckers on scolex

3.1.3.6. Mature segments (proglottids) @ posterior end break off an exit, full of eggs + sperm

3.1.3.7. Can be several feet long

3.2. Characteristics

3.2.1. Cephalization: All senses in head

3.2.2. 3 body layers

3.2.2.1. Ectoderm

3.2.2.1.1. Skin + Nervous System

3.2.2.2. Mesoderm

3.2.2.2.1. Everything in between

3.2.2.2.2. Solid tissue; no body cavity; aceolomate

3.2.2.3. Endoderm

3.2.2.3.1. Digestive Ststem

3.3. Body orientation

3.3.1. Anterior: Head

3.3.2. Dorsal: Back

3.3.3. Ventral: Stomach

3.3.4. Posterior: Rear

3.4. Feeding + Digestion

3.4.1. Single opening on ventral side

3.4.1.1. Food enters; solid waste leaves

3.4.2. Extend pharynx to suck in food

3.4.3. Branched digestive cavity extends length of body

3.5. Reproduction

3.5.1. Sexual

3.5.1.1. Hermaphrodites: One deposits sperm under skin of other

3.5.2. Asexual

3.5.2.1. Can regenerate lost parts; Cut one into 2 -> Both grow

3.6. Gas Exchange + Circulation

3.6.1. Diffusion

3.7. Nervous System

3.7.1. No true brain: Concentration of ganglia @ anterior end

3.7.2. Sensory Receptors: Eyespots - can sense light

3.8. Excretion

3.8.1. Flame cells (small bulb-like cilia) collect waste and excess water in ducts throughout body

3.8.2. Excretory Pores: Waste/Water leave through pores

3.9. Movement

3.9.1. Uses cilia on ventral surface for sliding

3.9.2. Muscles for twisting/turning

3.9.3. Marine (ocean dwelling)

4. Nematoda

4.1. Examples

4.1.1. Ascarid

4.1.1.1. Parasite of pigs + humans: Live in intestine

4.1.1.2. If ingested by another host, eggs hatch in intestine

4.1.1.3. Larvae bore through body and ends in lungs

4.1.1.4. Host coughs them up, swallows them

4.1.1.5. Live in host for 9-12 mo

4.1.2. Hookworms

4.1.2.1. Enter through bare feet

4.1.2.2. Travel to intestines, where they hang on and consume blood

4.2. Characteristics

4.2.1. Free living or parasitic

4.2.2. Lives from tropics to polar regions, dirt, host, aquatic

4.2.3. 1mm to 1m

4.2.4. Hydrostatic skeleton: Muscles supported by water

4.2.5. Cuticle: Tough outer covering provides protection

4.2.6. Mesoderm

4.2.6.1. Body cavity partly lined w/ mesoderm; pseudocoelomate

4.3. Digestion + Feeding

4.3.1. 2 Openings

4.3.1.1. More efficient digestion

4.3.1.1.1. Mouth-> Pharynx-> Intestine-> Anus

4.3.2. Eats

4.3.2.1. Decaying matter, fungus, algae, bacteria

4.3.2.2. Food, blood of host (Parasitic)

4.4. Reproduction

4.4.1. Most are DIOECIOUS

4.4.1.1. 2 separate sexes

4.4.2. Females larger than males

4.5. Nervous System

4.5.1. Simple, with GANGLIA, NERVES and several types of SENSORY ORGANS- touch, chemoreceptors (smell, taste)

4.6. Gas Exchange/Circulatory/Excretory Systems

4.6.1. Diffusion

5. Annelida

5.1. Classes

5.1.1. Polychaeta

5.1.1.1. "Many Bristles"

5.1.1.2. Marine

5.1.1.3. Free living or tube dwelling

5.1.1.4. Largest class

5.1.1.5. Parapodia: movement, increases SA for gas exchange

5.1.2. Oligochaeta

5.1.2.1. "Few Bristles"

5.1.2.2. Examples: Earthworms

5.1.2.3. Terrestrial

5.1.2.4. Few setae, no parapodia

5.1.3. Hirudinea

5.1.3.1. Leeches

5.1.3.2. Mostly parasites: Inject anesthesia, gain 10x body weight

5.1.3.3. No setae or parapodia

5.2. Characteristics

5.2.1. Segmentation allows for more specialization

5.2.2. Each septum limits diffusion

5.2.3. Bilateral symmetry

5.2.4. Hydrostatic skeleton

5.2.5. Coelomates

5.3. Use in Enviroment

5.3.1. Food chain

5.3.2. Earthworms aerate soil & provide organic matter poop (castings)

5.3.3. Leeches: Medical uses

5.4. Digestive + Feeding

5.4.1. Mouth: Eat

5.4.2. Pharynx: Swallow

5.4.3. Esophagus: Connect

5.4.4. Crop: Storage

5.4.5. Gizzard: Grinds food

5.4.6. Anus: Releases castings

5.5. Circulatory System

5.5.1. Closed system of blood vessels

5.5.2. Thicker, larger animas

5.5.3. Carries nutrients, O2

5.5.4. Dorsal blood vessel + Ventral blood vessel

5.5.5. 5 "hearts" (aortic arches)

5.6. Gas Exchange

5.6.1. Diffusion

5.7. Excretory System

5.7.1. Nephridia: 2 excretory tubes per segment

5.7.2. Nitrogenous waste & excess water removed via Nephridia

5.7.3. Water/waste exit through excretory pores

5.8. Nervous System

5.8.1. Anterior "brain"

5.8.2. Ventral nerve cord w segmented branches

5.8.3. Senses: receptors for light, moisture, temp, vibrations

5.9. Reproduction

5.9.1. Hermaphrodites

5.9.1.1. Doesn't self-fertilize

5.9.1.2. Each passes sperm to other worm's sperm receptacle

5.9.1.3. Mucus cocoon is secreted from clitellum

5.9.1.4. Rolls off anterior end

5.9.1.5. Collects eggs/sperm as it rolls -> Becomes egg capsule

5.10. Mesoderm

5.10.1. Body cavity fully lined w/ mesoderm: Permits organs to function: Coelomate

6. Arthropoda

6.1. Examples

6.1.1. Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans

6.2. Characteristics

6.2.1. Exoskeleton

6.2.2. Jointed Appendages

6.2.2.1. Adapted for different purposes: Catching, Swimming, Crawling, Walking, Sensing, Feeding

6.2.3. Segmented

6.3. Classes

6.3.1. Uniramia

6.3.1.1. Centipede

6.3.1.1.1. Body plan

6.3.1.2. Millipede

6.3.1.2.1. Body plan

6.3.1.3. Insect

6.3.1.3.1. Body plan

6.3.2. Crustacea

6.3.2.1. Crayfish

6.3.2.2. Body plan

6.3.2.2.1. 4 pairs of legs, 2 claws, 2 pairs of antennae

6.3.2.2.2. cephalothorax, abdomen

6.3.2.3. Sensing

6.3.2.3.1. 1st & 2nd antenna

6.3.2.4. Eating

6.3.2.4.1. Jaw, 1st & 2nd maxilla; 1st, 2nd, & 3rd maxilliped

6.3.2.5. Respiration

6.3.2.5.1. Gill & Gill separator

6.3.2.6. Movement

6.3.2.6.1. Walking leg, Swimmeret, Uropod, Telson

6.3.2.7. Sperm

6.3.2.7.1. 1st abdominal appendage of male: Transfer to female

6.3.3. Chelicerata

6.3.3.1. Ticks, Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe Crabs

6.3.3.2. Body plan

6.3.3.2.1. 4 pairs of legs, no antennae

6.3.3.2.2. Cheliceral: Fangs used to stab & poison

6.3.3.2.3. Cephalothorax, abdomen

6.4. Digestive system

6.4.1. Mouth-> Esophagus-> Stomach-> Intestine-> Anus

6.4.2. Stomach: 2 parts

6.4.2.1. Cardiac: Storage, Contains gastric mill

6.4.2.2. Pyloric: Digestion

6.5. Respiration

6.5.1. Gills: feathery; provides greater SA

6.5.2. Located under carapace, attached to walking legs

6.6. Circulation

6.6.1. Open: Hemolymph: Mixture of fluids + blood

6.6.2. Gills-> Heart-> Body sinuses-> Back to gills

6.7. Excretion

6.7.1. Green Glands

6.7.2. Anterior end

6.7.3. Remove nitrogenous waste & excess water

6.8. Nervous System

6.8.1. Anterior brain

6.8.2. Ventral nerve chord

6.8.3. Compound eyes

6.8.4. Sensory bristles

6.8.5. Statocyst: Fluid w/ sand

6.9. Reproduction

6.9.1. Dioecious

6.9.2. External fertilization

6.9.3. Female holds eggs in swimmerets

7. Mollusca

7.1. Classes

7.1.1. Bivalve

7.1.1.1. 2 shells

7.1.1.2. Muscles, clams, oysters

7.1.1.3. Filter feeders

7.1.1.4. Some burrow, some sessile, some "swim"

7.1.1.5. Defense

7.1.1.5.1. Close shell: Uses muscles to close

7.1.1.6. Reproduction

7.1.1.6.1. Dioecious

7.1.1.6.2. External fertilization

7.1.2. Gastropod

7.1.2.1. "Stomach-footed"

7.1.2.2. 1 shell (Spiral)

7.1.2.3. Conch, Cone snail, garden snail

7.1.2.4. Radula: "tongue" to scrape algae off of rocks and make holes in others' shells

7.1.2.5. Wave-like muscle contractions & secretes mucus

7.1.2.6. Defense

7.1.2.6.1. Shell

7.1.2.6.2. Operculum: Predator and drying out

7.1.2.7. Reproduction

7.1.2.7.1. Hermaphrodite

7.1.2.7.2. Internal fertilization

7.1.3. Cephalopod

7.1.3.1. "Head-footed"

7.1.3.2. No shells except squid-pen + chambered nautilus

7.1.3.3. Squid, Octopus, Chambered Nautilus

7.1.3.4. Radula inside beak; arms/tentacles capture prey

7.1.3.5. Jet propulsion; crawling

7.1.3.6. Defense

7.1.3.6.1. Ink: diffusion

7.1.3.6.2. Camoflauge

7.1.3.6.3. Escape

7.1.3.7. Reproduction

7.1.3.7.1. Dioecious

7.1.3.7.2. Internal fertilization

7.2. Characteristics

7.2.1. Soft body/Visceral Mass

7.2.2. Muscular foot

7.2.3. Hard shell

7.2.4. Mantle: Secrete shell, outer body of a squid

7.3. Systems (Digestion + Feeding)

7.3.1. Mouth-> Esophagus-> Stomach-> Intestine-> Anus

7.3.2. Twisted on inside: Adds more complexity

7.3.3. Coelomate

7.4. Respiration

7.4.1. Have gills

7.4.2. Gas diffuses from gill hearts into blood "vessels"

7.5. Circulation

7.5.1. Gastropod + Bivalve

7.5.1.1. Open Circulation- Not a cycle; Blood floats in with tissues

7.5.1.2. Hemolymph

7.5.1.2.1. Mixture of boy fluids + blood

7.5.2. Cephalopod

7.5.2.1. Closed system- All blood contained in vessels; no open space

7.5.2.2. 3 hearts: 1 for whole body, 2 for gill hearts

7.6. Excretion

7.6.1. Nephridia: Removes nitrogenous waste & excess water

8. Echinodermata

8.1. Examples

8.1.1. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins

8.2. Characteristics

8.2.1. Spiny skin

8.2.2. Endoskeleton

8.2.3. Radial Symmetry

8.2.4. Water Vascular System

8.3. Water Vascular System

8.3.1. Network of seawater-filled tubes

8.3.2. Functions: Help obtain food, circulation, & movement

8.3.3. One opening: Madreporite

8.3.4. Madreporite-> Stone canal-> Radial canal-> Ampulla-> Tube feet

8.4. Movement (Sea Star)

8.4.1. Pump water into tube feet

8.4.2. Extend and attach onto surface

8.4.3. Water flows out of tube feet + back through system

8.4.4. Tube feet shorten, pulling sea star forward

8.5. Symmetry

8.5.1. Radial

8.6. Classes

8.6.1. Sea Stars

8.6.1.1. Digestive System

8.6.1.1.1. Feed on clams, oysters, snails

8.6.1.1.2. Mouth on oral side

8.6.1.1.3. Stomach in central disc; digestive glands in arms

8.6.1.2. Respiration

8.6.1.2.1. Diffusion across skin of tube feet

8.6.1.2.2. Some also have tiny skin gills

8.6.1.3. Excretion

8.6.1.3.1. Diffusion across skin of tube feet + gills

8.6.1.4. Circulation

8.6.1.4.1. O2, metabolic waste carried by water vascular system, but no circulatory system

8.6.1.5. Nervous system

8.6.1.5.1. No brain

8.6.1.5.2. Nerve ring encircles mouth & connects w/ 5 radial nerves

8.6.1.5.3. Large sensory nerve network coordinates movement of spines/feet

8.6.1.5.4. Tips of arms have light sensitive eyespot + nerves to sense food/chemicals

8.6.1.6. Reproduction

8.6.1.6.1. Most dioecious

8.6.1.6.2. 2 gonads in each arm, open directly to outside

8.6.1.6.3. External ferilization

8.6.1.6.4. Some can regenerate

8.6.2. Brittle Stars

8.6.2.1. Small with 5 long, thin arms

8.6.2.2. Fragile

8.6.3. Sand Dollars + Urchins

8.6.3.1. Sand Dollars

8.6.3.1.1. Disk-shaped

8.6.3.1.2. Covered w/ tiny moveable spines

8.6.3.1.3. Sediment feeders

8.6.3.2. Urchins

8.6.3.2.1. Spherical

8.6.3.2.2. Sharp spines for defense

8.6.3.2.3. Grazers, sediment feeders, or scavengers

8.6.3.2.4. 5 part mouth

8.6.4. Sea Cucumbers

8.6.4.1. Tubular

8.6.4.2. 5 rows of tube feet

8.6.4.3. Sticky tentacle-like feet surround mouth

8.6.4.4. Eats organic debris in sand

8.6.4.5. Shoots thin tubules out of its anus when threatened; can eject entire digestive system

8.6.5. Sea Lilies + Feather Stars

8.6.5.1. Feather stars: Crinoids

8.6.5.2. Most ancient

8.6.5.3. Mouth on dorsal side

9. Chordata

9.1. 3 groups

9.1.1. Monotremes

9.1.1.1. Lay eggs

9.1.2. Marsupials

9.1.2.1. Have pouches

9.1.3. Placentals

9.1.3.1. Develops inside mother's body, gets nutrients via placenta

9.2. Examples

9.2.1. Fish

9.2.1.1. Cartelidge Skeleton

9.2.1.2. Sharks, skates, rays, bone fish

9.2.1.3. Live in water

9.2.1.4. Scales, fins, gills

9.2.1.5. External fertilization

9.2.1.6. Eggs allow gas exchange/waste removal

9.2.1.7. Circulatory System

9.2.1.7.1. Single pump

9.2.1.7.2. Blood-> Heart-> Gills-> Body

9.2.1.7.3. Has 1 ventricle + 1 atrium

9.2.2. Amphibians

9.2.2.1. Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts

9.2.2.2. Larvae + Adult Stage

9.2.2.3. 4 legs, body, tail

9.2.2.4. Gas exchange: Gills (larvae), lungs + skin (adult)

9.2.2.5. Skin must stay moist

9.2.2.6. External fertilization in moist environment

9.2.2.7. Circulatory System

9.2.2.7.1. Double pump

9.2.2.7.2. Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body

9.2.2.7.3. Not efficient b/c blood can mix in ventricle

9.2.3. Reptiles

9.2.3.1. Alligators, crocodiles, turtles, lizards

9.2.3.2. Dry, scaly skin; shed skin

9.2.3.3. 4 legs, tail, lungs

9.2.3.4. Internal fertilization

9.2.3.5. Amniotic eggs

9.2.3.6. Fully terrestrial

9.2.3.7. Circulatory System

9.2.3.7.1. Double pump

9.2.3.7.2. Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body

9.2.3.7.3. Partial wall helps make system in heart more efficient

9.2.4. Birds

9.2.4.1. Bald eagle, penguin, cardinal

9.2.4.2. Feathers, 2 legs, 2 wings

9.2.4.3. Amniotic eggs

9.2.4.4. Internal fertilization

9.2.4.5. Built for flight

9.2.4.6. Excretes uric acid

9.2.4.7. Circulatory System

9.2.4.7.1. Double pump

9.2.4.7.2. Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body

9.2.4.7.3. Complete wall makes heart fully efficient, no mixture

9.2.5. Mammals

9.2.5.1. Platypus, echidna, kangaroo, humans, bears

9.2.5.2. Fur

9.2.5.3. Produce milk for young

9.2.5.4. Internal fertilization

9.2.5.5. Circulatory System

9.2.5.5.1. Double pump

9.2.5.5.2. Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body

9.2.5.5.3. Complete wall makes heart fully efficient, no mixture

9.3. Characteristics

9.3.1. Notochord: Becomes vertebrae of backbone

9.3.2. Dorsal nerve chord become spinal chord

9.3.3. Post-anal tail

9.3.4. Gill slits not present in mammals after embryo

9.4. Transition to Land

9.4.1. Amniotic eggs

9.4.1.1. Reptiles + Birds: Waterproof shell, won't dry out, yolk is food supply, waste disposal sac

9.4.2. Waterproof skin

9.4.2.1. So animal doesn't dry out

9.4.3. Legs

9.4.3.1. Tetrapod: 4-legged

9.4.3.2. Amphibians: Legs out to side, crawl on belly

9.4.3.3. Reptiles: Legs out to side, can lift body off ground

9.4.3.4. Mammal: Legs fully underneath, faster

9.4.4. Fully developed lungs

9.4.4.1. Moist gas exchange surface protected within body-> Lungs

9.4.4.2. Don't need to use skin to supplement O2 in, CO2 out

9.5. Definitons

9.5.1. Ectotherm

9.5.1.1. Can't maintain constant internal body temp; cold-blooded

9.5.1.2. Fish, amphibians, reptiles

9.5.1.3. Pros/Cons

9.5.1.3.1. Pro: Requires less food

9.5.1.3.2. Con: Limited geographical distribution

9.5.2. Endotherm

9.5.2.1. Can maintain constant internal body temp

9.5.2.2. Birds, mammals

9.5.2.3. Pros/Cons

9.5.2.3.1. Pro: Can adapt to wide range of environments

9.5.2.3.2. Con: Requires lots more food

10. Protists

10.1. Characteristics

10.1.1. Muti or unicellular

10.1.2. No tissues

10.2. Metabolism

10.2.1. Phototrophs

10.2.1.1. Gets energy from sun

10.2.1.2. Kelp, dinoflagellate

10.2.2. Organotrophs

10.2.2.1. Feeds on organisms

10.2.2.2. Amoeba

10.3. Reproduction

10.3.1. Asexual

10.3.1.1. Binary fission

10.3.2. Sexual

10.3.2.1. Conjugation

10.3.3. Both

10.3.3.1. Has asexual + sexual portion of life

10.4. Diversity

10.4.1. Kelp Forest

10.4.2. Diatones

10.4.2.1. Converts silicone to glass

10.4.3. Vulvox

10.4.3.1. Large colony of cells

10.4.4. Ciliate

10.4.4.1. Cilia

11. Eukaryota (General)

11.1. Animals

11.1.1. Evolution

11.1.1.1. Cambrian Explosion 50M ya

11.1.2. Characteristics

11.1.2.1. Muticellular

11.1.2.2. Motile (moveable)

11.1.2.3. Heterotrophs

11.1.2.4. No Cell Walls

11.1.2.5. Blastula

11.1.3. Invertabrates

11.1.3.1. No tissue

11.1.3.1.1. Sponges

11.1.3.2. Tissue

11.1.3.2.1. Radial Symmetry

11.1.3.2.2. Bilateral Symmetry

11.1.4. Vertebrates

11.1.4.1. Lanceletes

11.1.4.1.1. Head

11.1.4.2. Lamphreys

11.1.4.2.1. Jaws

11.1.4.3. Cartilage fish

11.1.4.3.1. Lungs

11.1.4.4. Bony fish

11.1.4.4.1. Lobed-fins

11.1.4.5. Lobe-finned fish

11.1.4.5.1. Legs

11.1.4.6. Amphibians

11.1.4.6.1. Legs

11.1.4.7. Reptiles

11.1.4.7.1. Amniotic Eggs

11.1.4.8. Mammals

11.1.4.8.1. Milk

12. Kingom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

12.1. King Puts Cookies On Fat Guy's Stomach