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Animals by Mind Map: Animals

1. Porifera

1.1. Examples

1.1.1. Sponges

1.2. Symmetry

1.2.1. Asymmetrical

1.3. Gas Exchange

1.3.1. Diffusion

1.4. Excretion

1.4.1. Diffusion

1.5. Feeding

1.5.1. Filter Feed Water enters pore, flows through tunnels, exits through osculum Water brings in food, oxygen, removes CO2, nitrogenous wastes Cells trap plankton

1.6. Structure

1.6.1. Pore Bearers

1.6.2. Sessile-doesn't move

1.6.3. Vase-like body surrounding hollow cylinder

1.6.4. Cells Different types, but not organized into tissues Epithelial Cells: "Skin" Choanocytes: "Collar" Archaeocytes: "Stem cell" No organs, nerve, skin, and muscle tissue

1.6.5. Skeleton Spicules-Hard Spongin Soft Protein Material

1.7. Reproduction

1.7.1. Asexual Budding: Bud can detach and form into new sponge Can regenerate Gemmules (freshwater): Dormant mass of archaeocytes "Hibernate" in drought of freezing

2. Cnidaria

2.1. Classes

2.1.1. Schyphozoans Body: Medusa Examples: Jellyfish

2.1.2. Hydrozan Body: Polyp Examples: Hydra, Portuguese man-o-war

2.1.3. Anthozoan Body: Polyp Examples: Sea anemone

2.2. Structure

2.2.1. Two Body Styles Polyp: Sessile, cup shaped Medusa: Free-floating; bell-shaped

2.2.2. Gastrodermis Layers of specialized cells that line the gastrovascular cavity

2.2.3. Gastrovascular cavity Digests/Absorbs food

2.2.4. Mouth For eating and releasing undigested food

2.2.5. Mesoglea Jelly-like layer provides support

2.2.6. Epidermis Cells from outer, protective layer Has contracting cells (like muscles)

2.2.7. Tentacle For catching prey

2.2.8. Stinging cells Cnidocyte contains nematocysts (stinging harpoons)

2.3. Symmetry

2.3.1. Radial: Splits in half infinitely; no head

2.3.2. Bilateral: Split in half; has head

2.4. Feeding + Digestion

2.4.1. Gland cells Release digestive enzymes

2.4.2. Flagellated cells Cells move around, to keep it from settling to bottom

2.4.3. Amoeboid Cells transfer nutrients to other cells

2.5. Reproduction

2.5.1. Sexual Polyp and Medusa body styles

2.5.2. Asexual Budding

2.6. Gas Exchange

2.6.1. O2 diffusion in; CO2 out

2.7. Circulation

2.7.1. None; rely on diffusion

2.8. Excretion

2.8.1. Diffusion (no poop)

2.9. Response

2.9.1. Nerve net

2.10. Movement

2.10.1. Jet Propultion

3. Platyhelminthes

3.1. Classes

3.1.1. Turbellaria Examples: Planarians, flatworms Free living (not parasitic) Mostly scavengers or predatory carnivores

3.1.2. Trematoda Examples: Liver flukes Parasitic Tough outer covering Infects internal organs or blood of host

3.1.3. Cestoda Examples: Tapeworms Parasitic: Lives in small intestine No mouth and digestive tract Absorbs food through body walls Attaches to intestine w/ hooks + suckers on scolex Mature segments (proglottids) @ posterior end break off an exit, full of eggs + sperm Can be several feet long

3.2. Characteristics

3.2.1. Cephalization: All senses in head

3.2.2. 3 body layers Ectoderm Skin + Nervous System Mesoderm Everything in between Solid tissue; no body cavity; aceolomate Endoderm Digestive Ststem

3.3. Body orientation

3.3.1. Anterior: Head

3.3.2. Dorsal: Back

3.3.3. Ventral: Stomach

3.3.4. Posterior: Rear

3.4. Feeding + Digestion

3.4.1. Single opening on ventral side Food enters; solid waste leaves

3.4.2. Extend pharynx to suck in food

3.4.3. Branched digestive cavity extends length of body

3.5. Reproduction

3.5.1. Sexual Hermaphrodites: One deposits sperm under skin of other

3.5.2. Asexual Can regenerate lost parts; Cut one into 2 -> Both grow

3.6. Gas Exchange + Circulation

3.6.1. Diffusion

3.7. Nervous System

3.7.1. No true brain: Concentration of ganglia @ anterior end

3.7.2. Sensory Receptors: Eyespots - can sense light

3.8. Excretion

3.8.1. Flame cells (small bulb-like cilia) collect waste and excess water in ducts throughout body

3.8.2. Excretory Pores: Waste/Water leave through pores

3.9. Movement

3.9.1. Uses cilia on ventral surface for sliding

3.9.2. Muscles for twisting/turning

3.9.3. Marine (ocean dwelling)

4. Nematoda

4.1. Examples

4.1.1. Ascarid Parasite of pigs + humans: Live in intestine If ingested by another host, eggs hatch in intestine Larvae bore through body and ends in lungs Host coughs them up, swallows them Live in host for 9-12 mo

4.1.2. Hookworms Enter through bare feet Travel to intestines, where they hang on and consume blood

4.2. Characteristics

4.2.1. Free living or parasitic

4.2.2. Lives from tropics to polar regions, dirt, host, aquatic

4.2.3. 1mm to 1m

4.2.4. Hydrostatic skeleton: Muscles supported by water

4.2.5. Cuticle: Tough outer covering provides protection

4.2.6. Mesoderm Body cavity partly lined w/ mesoderm; pseudocoelomate

4.3. Digestion + Feeding

4.3.1. 2 Openings More efficient digestion Mouth-> Pharynx-> Intestine-> Anus

4.3.2. Eats Decaying matter, fungus, algae, bacteria Food, blood of host (Parasitic)

4.4. Reproduction

4.4.1. Most are DIOECIOUS 2 separate sexes

4.4.2. Females larger than males

4.5. Nervous System

4.5.1. Simple, with GANGLIA, NERVES and several types of SENSORY ORGANS- touch, chemoreceptors (smell, taste)

4.6. Gas Exchange/Circulatory/Excretory Systems

4.6.1. Diffusion

5. Annelida

5.1. Classes

5.1.1. Polychaeta "Many Bristles" Marine Free living or tube dwelling Largest class Parapodia: movement, increases SA for gas exchange

5.1.2. Oligochaeta "Few Bristles" Examples: Earthworms Terrestrial Few setae, no parapodia

5.1.3. Hirudinea Leeches Mostly parasites: Inject anesthesia, gain 10x body weight No setae or parapodia

5.2. Characteristics

5.2.1. Segmentation allows for more specialization

5.2.2. Each septum limits diffusion

5.2.3. Bilateral symmetry

5.2.4. Hydrostatic skeleton

5.2.5. Coelomates

5.3. Use in Enviroment

5.3.1. Food chain

5.3.2. Earthworms aerate soil & provide organic matter poop (castings)

5.3.3. Leeches: Medical uses

5.4. Digestive + Feeding

5.4.1. Mouth: Eat

5.4.2. Pharynx: Swallow

5.4.3. Esophagus: Connect

5.4.4. Crop: Storage

5.4.5. Gizzard: Grinds food

5.4.6. Anus: Releases castings

5.5. Circulatory System

5.5.1. Closed system of blood vessels

5.5.2. Thicker, larger animas

5.5.3. Carries nutrients, O2

5.5.4. Dorsal blood vessel + Ventral blood vessel

5.5.5. 5 "hearts" (aortic arches)

5.6. Gas Exchange

5.6.1. Diffusion

5.7. Excretory System

5.7.1. Nephridia: 2 excretory tubes per segment

5.7.2. Nitrogenous waste & excess water removed via Nephridia

5.7.3. Water/waste exit through excretory pores

5.8. Nervous System

5.8.1. Anterior "brain"

5.8.2. Ventral nerve cord w segmented branches

5.8.3. Senses: receptors for light, moisture, temp, vibrations

5.9. Reproduction

5.9.1. Hermaphrodites Doesn't self-fertilize Each passes sperm to other worm's sperm receptacle Mucus cocoon is secreted from clitellum Rolls off anterior end Collects eggs/sperm as it rolls -> Becomes egg capsule

5.10. Mesoderm

5.10.1. Body cavity fully lined w/ mesoderm: Permits organs to function: Coelomate

6. Arthropoda

6.1. Examples

6.1.1. Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans

6.2. Characteristics

6.2.1. Exoskeleton

6.2.2. Jointed Appendages Adapted for different purposes: Catching, Swimming, Crawling, Walking, Sensing, Feeding

6.2.3. Segmented

6.3. Classes

6.3.1. Uniramia Centipede Body plan Millipede Body plan Insect Body plan

6.3.2. Crustacea Crayfish Body plan 4 pairs of legs, 2 claws, 2 pairs of antennae cephalothorax, abdomen Sensing 1st & 2nd antenna Eating Jaw, 1st & 2nd maxilla; 1st, 2nd, & 3rd maxilliped Respiration Gill & Gill separator Movement Walking leg, Swimmeret, Uropod, Telson Sperm 1st abdominal appendage of male: Transfer to female

6.3.3. Chelicerata Ticks, Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe Crabs Body plan 4 pairs of legs, no antennae Cheliceral: Fangs used to stab & poison Cephalothorax, abdomen

6.4. Digestive system

6.4.1. Mouth-> Esophagus-> Stomach-> Intestine-> Anus

6.4.2. Stomach: 2 parts Cardiac: Storage, Contains gastric mill Pyloric: Digestion

6.5. Respiration

6.5.1. Gills: feathery; provides greater SA

6.5.2. Located under carapace, attached to walking legs

6.6. Circulation

6.6.1. Open: Hemolymph: Mixture of fluids + blood

6.6.2. Gills-> Heart-> Body sinuses-> Back to gills

6.7. Excretion

6.7.1. Green Glands

6.7.2. Anterior end

6.7.3. Remove nitrogenous waste & excess water

6.8. Nervous System

6.8.1. Anterior brain

6.8.2. Ventral nerve chord

6.8.3. Compound eyes

6.8.4. Sensory bristles

6.8.5. Statocyst: Fluid w/ sand

6.9. Reproduction

6.9.1. Dioecious

6.9.2. External fertilization

6.9.3. Female holds eggs in swimmerets

7. Mollusca

7.1. Classes

7.1.1. Bivalve 2 shells Muscles, clams, oysters Filter feeders Some burrow, some sessile, some "swim" Defense Close shell: Uses muscles to close Reproduction Dioecious External fertilization

7.1.2. Gastropod "Stomach-footed" 1 shell (Spiral) Conch, Cone snail, garden snail Radula: "tongue" to scrape algae off of rocks and make holes in others' shells Wave-like muscle contractions & secretes mucus Defense Shell Operculum: Predator and drying out Reproduction Hermaphrodite Internal fertilization

7.1.3. Cephalopod "Head-footed" No shells except squid-pen + chambered nautilus Squid, Octopus, Chambered Nautilus Radula inside beak; arms/tentacles capture prey Jet propulsion; crawling Defense Ink: diffusion Camoflauge Escape Reproduction Dioecious Internal fertilization

7.2. Characteristics

7.2.1. Soft body/Visceral Mass

7.2.2. Muscular foot

7.2.3. Hard shell

7.2.4. Mantle: Secrete shell, outer body of a squid

7.3. Systems (Digestion + Feeding)

7.3.1. Mouth-> Esophagus-> Stomach-> Intestine-> Anus

7.3.2. Twisted on inside: Adds more complexity

7.3.3. Coelomate

7.4. Respiration

7.4.1. Have gills

7.4.2. Gas diffuses from gill hearts into blood "vessels"

7.5. Circulation

7.5.1. Gastropod + Bivalve Open Circulation- Not a cycle; Blood floats in with tissues Hemolymph Mixture of boy fluids + blood

7.5.2. Cephalopod Closed system- All blood contained in vessels; no open space 3 hearts: 1 for whole body, 2 for gill hearts

7.6. Excretion

7.6.1. Nephridia: Removes nitrogenous waste & excess water

8. Echinodermata

8.1. Examples

8.1.1. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins

8.2. Characteristics

8.2.1. Spiny skin

8.2.2. Endoskeleton

8.2.3. Radial Symmetry

8.2.4. Water Vascular System

8.3. Water Vascular System

8.3.1. Network of seawater-filled tubes

8.3.2. Functions: Help obtain food, circulation, & movement

8.3.3. One opening: Madreporite

8.3.4. Madreporite-> Stone canal-> Radial canal-> Ampulla-> Tube feet

8.4. Movement (Sea Star)

8.4.1. Pump water into tube feet

8.4.2. Extend and attach onto surface

8.4.3. Water flows out of tube feet + back through system

8.4.4. Tube feet shorten, pulling sea star forward

8.5. Symmetry

8.5.1. Radial

8.6. Classes

8.6.1. Sea Stars Digestive System Feed on clams, oysters, snails Mouth on oral side Stomach in central disc; digestive glands in arms Respiration Diffusion across skin of tube feet Some also have tiny skin gills Excretion Diffusion across skin of tube feet + gills Circulation O2, metabolic waste carried by water vascular system, but no circulatory system Nervous system No brain Nerve ring encircles mouth & connects w/ 5 radial nerves Large sensory nerve network coordinates movement of spines/feet Tips of arms have light sensitive eyespot + nerves to sense food/chemicals Reproduction Most dioecious 2 gonads in each arm, open directly to outside External ferilization Some can regenerate

8.6.2. Brittle Stars Small with 5 long, thin arms Fragile

8.6.3. Sand Dollars + Urchins Sand Dollars Disk-shaped Covered w/ tiny moveable spines Sediment feeders Urchins Spherical Sharp spines for defense Grazers, sediment feeders, or scavengers 5 part mouth

8.6.4. Sea Cucumbers Tubular 5 rows of tube feet Sticky tentacle-like feet surround mouth Eats organic debris in sand Shoots thin tubules out of its anus when threatened; can eject entire digestive system

8.6.5. Sea Lilies + Feather Stars Feather stars: Crinoids Most ancient Mouth on dorsal side

9. Chordata

9.1. 3 groups

9.1.1. Monotremes Lay eggs

9.1.2. Marsupials Have pouches

9.1.3. Placentals Develops inside mother's body, gets nutrients via placenta

9.2. Examples

9.2.1. Fish Cartelidge Skeleton Sharks, skates, rays, bone fish Live in water Scales, fins, gills External fertilization Eggs allow gas exchange/waste removal Circulatory System Single pump Blood-> Heart-> Gills-> Body Has 1 ventricle + 1 atrium

9.2.2. Amphibians Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts Larvae + Adult Stage 4 legs, body, tail Gas exchange: Gills (larvae), lungs + skin (adult) Skin must stay moist External fertilization in moist environment Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Not efficient b/c blood can mix in ventricle

9.2.3. Reptiles Alligators, crocodiles, turtles, lizards Dry, scaly skin; shed skin 4 legs, tail, lungs Internal fertilization Amniotic eggs Fully terrestrial Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Partial wall helps make system in heart more efficient

9.2.4. Birds Bald eagle, penguin, cardinal Feathers, 2 legs, 2 wings Amniotic eggs Internal fertilization Built for flight Excretes uric acid Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Complete wall makes heart fully efficient, no mixture

9.2.5. Mammals Platypus, echidna, kangaroo, humans, bears Fur Produce milk for young Internal fertilization Circulatory System Double pump Blood-> Heart-> Lungs-> Heart-> Body Complete wall makes heart fully efficient, no mixture

9.3. Characteristics

9.3.1. Notochord: Becomes vertebrae of backbone

9.3.2. Dorsal nerve chord become spinal chord

9.3.3. Post-anal tail

9.3.4. Gill slits not present in mammals after embryo

9.4. Transition to Land

9.4.1. Amniotic eggs Reptiles + Birds: Waterproof shell, won't dry out, yolk is food supply, waste disposal sac

9.4.2. Waterproof skin So animal doesn't dry out

9.4.3. Legs Tetrapod: 4-legged Amphibians: Legs out to side, crawl on belly Reptiles: Legs out to side, can lift body off ground Mammal: Legs fully underneath, faster

9.4.4. Fully developed lungs Moist gas exchange surface protected within body-> Lungs Don't need to use skin to supplement O2 in, CO2 out

9.5. Definitons

9.5.1. Ectotherm Can't maintain constant internal body temp; cold-blooded Fish, amphibians, reptiles Pros/Cons Pro: Requires less food Con: Limited geographical distribution

9.5.2. Endotherm Can maintain constant internal body temp Birds, mammals Pros/Cons Pro: Can adapt to wide range of environments Con: Requires lots more food

10. Protists

10.1. Characteristics

10.1.1. Muti or unicellular

10.1.2. No tissues

10.2. Metabolism

10.2.1. Phototrophs Gets energy from sun Kelp, dinoflagellate

10.2.2. Organotrophs Feeds on organisms Amoeba

10.3. Reproduction

10.3.1. Asexual Binary fission

10.3.2. Sexual Conjugation

10.3.3. Both Has asexual + sexual portion of life

10.4. Diversity

10.4.1. Kelp Forest

10.4.2. Diatones Converts silicone to glass

10.4.3. Vulvox Large colony of cells

10.4.4. Ciliate Cilia

11. Eukaryota (General)

11.1. Animals

11.1.1. Evolution Cambrian Explosion 50M ya

11.1.2. Characteristics Muticellular Motile (moveable) Heterotrophs No Cell Walls Blastula

11.1.3. Invertabrates No tissue Sponges Tissue Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry

11.1.4. Vertebrates Lanceletes Head Lamphreys Jaws Cartilage fish Lungs Bony fish Lobed-fins Lobe-finned fish Legs Amphibians Legs Reptiles Amniotic Eggs Mammals Milk

12. Kingom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

12.1. King Puts Cookies On Fat Guy's Stomach