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Immunology by Mind Map: Immunology
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Toll like Receptors

Leucine rich repeat motif with a cysteine-rich flanking motif and TIR domain - TLR --> MyD88 --> NF-kb --> expression of inflammatory genes: TNF, IL-1, IL-6. CCL2, CXCL8 E-selectin CD80, CD86

Surface TLRs, TLR 1, TLR 2, TLR 4, TLR 5, TLR 6

Intracellular TLRs, TLR 3, TLR 7, TLR 8, TLR 9

C-type Lectin

C-type Lectin-like receptors - plasma membranes of phatocytes - for example mannose receptor - recognices microbial surface carbohudrates with terminal mannose and fructose - recognices also lucans presente in fungi cell walls

NOD Like Receptor

NOD-like receptors: - cytoplasm receptors in phagocytes (mainly) - for example NOD1 and NOD 2 - recognices peptidoglyvans, flagellin, LPS... and products of damaged cells --> signalling complex: inflammasome .--> caspase-1 activation --> Pro-IL1b to active IL-1b

RIG-like receptors

RIG-like receptors: - cytoplasm of phagocytes and epithelial cells - recognices viral RNA (ds, ss) . induction of IFN type I production


- slow to develope, highly effective and specific, boostable - lymphocytes - immunological memory

B cells

B cell receptor, Co receptors, Ig alpha, Ig beta

B-cell development, Bone marrow, Ig gene rearrangement - V(D)J recombination

Antibody production, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE

T cells

Have antigens presented to them by MHC molecules (type I and II). They play important role in regulating the immune system.

T cell development, 1. Bonemarrow, 2. Thymus, 3. Activation and proliferation in peripheral tissues, CD4+ Th cells

T cell subsets, Treg, Natural FOXP3+ Treg, Inducible iTreg, CD4+, TH17, TH1, TH2, T(FH), CD8+, Cytotoxic T cells, gamma delta T cells

T cell receptor, Co receptors, CD3, Zeta


- first line defence: fast, responsive, powerful - recognition of self and non-self - major cell types from myeloid progenitor --> mast cells, monocytes (--> macrophages and DCs), granulocytes - Specificity for structures shared by classes of microbes (PAMPs) --> different microbes but identical receptors - receptors encoded in germline: limited diversity (PPRs) - Distribution of receptors: non clonal - identical receptors on all cells of the same lineage


Granulocyte, Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils, histamine & leukotriene, Mast cells

Monocytes, Macrophage, Dendritic

innate-like lymphocytes, Natural Killer NK cells, perforin, B-1 cells, epithelial gamma:delta cells, NK T cells

Non- Cellular




opsinisaton and complement activating proteins, Pentraxins, Collectins, Ficollins, Complement, Natural Antibodies



anti-inflammatory, IL-10, TGF beta, IL-2

inflammatory, TNF, targets, IL 1, IL 6, targets, IL 12, IFN Gamma, IL 8, IL-15, IFN type 1


chemokines are used for immune cell localisation.

Lymph node localisation, CCL19 & CCL21, CXCL5

recruitment into the infection site, CCL2, CCL11, CXCL8, CCL5, CCL3

homing of naive T and B cells

Lipid mediators

inflammatory, Prostaglandins (PGI2), Leukotrienes, Platelet activating factor

Anti-inflammatory, Glucocorticoids, Cortisol

Vasoactive amines


co stimulation

APC = B7 T cell = CD28 B to t cells CD40

B cell to T cell, CD40

Antigen presenting cell to T cell, Inhibitory, CTLR4, Activating, CD28

Intracellular signalling


general principles, 1) Receptor Activation, 2) Tyrosine Kinase (TK) Activation, TK Structure, 3) Transcription factors

BCR, TCR and TLR, TCR complex, Mechanism, BCR complex, Mechanism, regulation of TCR / BCR signaling, TLR Mechanism


causes inflammation, opsonisation or killing of pathogen by MAC (membrane attack complex). All pathways result in C5b being bound on the membrane and recruiting C9 into the membrane. C9 forms the pores that cause cell death

Classical Pathway

Antibodies + Complement

Alternative Pathway

Microbe surface element + complement

Lectin Pathway

Mannose binding lectin + complement

antigen presentation


called HLA in humans. HLA loci are alleles that different people have that affect their ability to present certain antigens. HLA is two alpha helixes with beta sheets in-between.

MHC class I, Production

MHC class II, production


Routes of infection: airway, insect bites, gastrointestional tract, reproductive tract, wounds, abrasion


Trypanosomai Brucei

Schitosomiasis spp.

fungal infection

- exposure to fungi: inhalation (spores, fungal elements), skin, GI tract

Aspergillus Fumigatus

Cryptococcus neoformans

Candida Albicans

Immune responses against fungal infections


Innate immune response, IFN type I, NK cells

Adaptive immune response, Antibodies, Cytotoxic T cells

Retroviruses, Human T lymphotropic VIrus (HTLV) 1, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)



Different expression of adhesion molecules allows localisation of immune cells. IL-1 and TNF alpha --> upregulation of integrins and selectins

integrin, LFA-1, Also help cell to cell adhesion for MHC sampling

selectin, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin



- hypersensitivity diseases: immune responses to innocuous antigens that lead to symptomatic reactions upon reexposure to the antigen repeatedly. Undesirable (damaging) reactions. type I: immediare hypersensitivity, caused by IgE antibodies type II: antibody mediated (IgM and IgG) type III: immune complex mediated, complement and Fc receptor madiates type IV: T cell mediated

Type I: IgE mediated, Anaphylaxis, Allergy, Atopy, Allergic Asthma

Type II: IgM and IgG mediated

Type III: immune complex mediated

type IV: T cell mediated, multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, contact sensitivity


Cancer does not elicit immune response. Tumour associated antigens (TAA) Also expressed on normal cells. Tumour specific antigens (TSA) Not expressed on normal cells.

Tumour Antigens

Vaccines against oncogenic DNA Viruses

Immune responses against cancer, NK cells, Macrophages, CD8+ T cells


Fc receptor

binds antibodies

B cells

acts as negative feedback. Binds free antibodies which blocks signalling and further antibody production


opsonises cells for phagocytosis

Mast cells

Binds antibody so allows quicker response to antigen. associated with allergy. IgE


High affinity

Low affinity

On complement

classical complement cascade

Allow recycling of antibodies

bind antibodies in phagosomes and mark them out for exocytosis

Medical Approach


Conventional Vaccine: killer whole organism attenuated live organism New approaches: peptides genetically engineered adjuvants


Example: peptide vaccines


Example: Hep B


rejection can be hyperacute where elements of cells are bound and lead to complement activation. acute rejection is more thought of as being cd8+ cell recognition of foreign tissue. chronic rejection is alloantigen recognition by cd4+ cells happens.

Tissue matching

Immunosuppression, Azathioprine, Corticosteriods, Cyclosporin-A, Sirolimus

immune tissue


Where lymphocytes develope

Bone Marrow

fetal liver



Where lymphocytes meet antigen and become activated Lymphatic system: - lymph - lymph nodes - lymph vessels - lymph ducts

Lymph nodes


Peyers patch

Peripheral tissue

mucosal immune tissues

Cell type associated cytokines


CD4+, Th1, IFN gamma, Th2, IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, Th17, IL-17, IL-22, Treg, IL-10, TGFbeta

CD8+, IL-2

B Cells


Dendrite and macrophage, IL-12

NK cells

Proliferation induced by IL-12

IFN gamma

Evolution of the Immune system

First evidence of specialised immune cells found is social amoeba. sentinel cells


All vertebrates and three invertebrate groups

Jawless vertebrates, Innate and acquired immunity

Jawed vertebrates, Innate and novel acquired immunity


All invertebrates

Innate immunity