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Immunology by Mind Map: Immunology
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Toll like Receptors

Leucine rich repeat motif with a cysteine-rich flanking motif and TIR domain - TLR --> MyD88 --> NF-kb --> expression of inflammatory genes: TNF, IL-1, IL-6. CCL2, CXCL8 E-selectin CD80, CD86

C-type Lectin

C-type Lectin-like receptors - plasma membranes of phatocytes - for example mannose receptor - recognices microbial surface carbohudrates with terminal mannose and fructose - recognices also lucans presente in fungi cell walls

NOD Like Receptor

NOD-like receptors: - cytoplasm receptors in phagocytes (mainly) - for example NOD1 and NOD 2 - recognices peptidoglyvans, flagellin, LPS... and products of damaged cells --> signalling complex: inflammasome .--> caspase-1 activation --> Pro-IL1b to active IL-1b

RIG-like receptors

RIG-like receptors: - cytoplasm of phagocytes and epithelial cells - recognices viral RNA (ds, ss) . induction of IFN type I production


- slow to develope, highly effective and specific, boostable - lymphocytes - immunological memory

B cells

T cells

Have antigens presented to them by MHC molecules (type I and II). They play important role in regulating the immune system.


- first line defence: fast, responsive, powerful - recognition of self and non-self - major cell types from myeloid progenitor --> mast cells, monocytes (--> macrophages and DCs), granulocytes - Specificity for structures shared by classes of microbes (PAMPs) --> different microbes but identical receptors - receptors encoded in germline: limited diversity (PPRs) - Distribution of receptors: non clonal - identical receptors on all cells of the same lineage


Non- Cellular




chemokines are used for immune cell localisation.

Lipid mediators

Vasoactive amines

co stimulation

APC = B7 T cell = CD28 B to t cells CD40

Intracellular signalling


causes inflammation, opsonisation or killing of pathogen by MAC (membrane attack complex). All pathways result in C5b being bound on the membrane and recruiting C9 into the membrane. C9 forms the pores that cause cell death

Classical Pathway

Alternative Pathway

Lectin Pathway

antigen presentation


called HLA in humans. HLA loci are alleles that different people have that affect their ability to present certain antigens. HLA is two alpha helixes with beta sheets in-between.


Routes of infection: airway, insect bites, gastrointestional tract, reproductive tract, wounds, abrasion


fungal infection

- exposure to fungi: inhalation (spores, fungal elements), skin, GI tract




Different expression of adhesion molecules allows localisation of immune cells. IL-1 and TNF alpha --> upregulation of integrins and selectins



- hypersensitivity diseases: immune responses to innocuous antigens that lead to symptomatic reactions upon reexposure to the antigen repeatedly. Undesirable (damaging) reactions. type I: immediare hypersensitivity, caused by IgE antibodies type II: antibody mediated (IgM and IgG) type III: immune complex mediated, complement and Fc receptor madiates type IV: T cell mediated


Cancer does not elicit immune response. Tumour associated antigens (TAA) Also expressed on normal cells. Tumour specific antigens (TSA) Not expressed on normal cells.


Fc receptor

binds antibodies

B cells

acts as negative feedback. Binds free antibodies which blocks signalling and further antibody production


opsonises cells for phagocytosis

Mast cells

Binds antibody so allows quicker response to antigen. associated with allergy. IgE


On complement

classical complement cascade

Allow recycling of antibodies

bind antibodies in phagosomes and mark them out for exocytosis

Medical Approach


Conventional Vaccine: killer whole organism attenuated live organism New approaches: peptides genetically engineered adjuvants


rejection can be hyperacute where elements of cells are bound and lead to complement activation. acute rejection is more thought of as being cd8+ cell recognition of foreign tissue. chronic rejection is alloantigen recognition by cd4+ cells happens.

immune tissue


Where lymphocytes develope


Where lymphocytes meet antigen and become activated Lymphatic system: - lymph - lymph nodes - lymph vessels - lymph ducts

Cell type associated cytokines


B Cells


NK cells

Proliferation induced by IL-12

Evolution of the Immune system

First evidence of specialised immune cells found is social amoeba. sentinel cells


All vertebrates and three invertebrate groups


All invertebrates