Immunology

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Immunology by Mind Map: Immunology

1. PRR

1.1. Toll like Receptors

1.1.1. Surface TLRs

1.1.1.1. TLR 1

1.1.1.2. TLR 2

1.1.1.3. TLR 4

1.1.1.4. TLR 5

1.1.1.5. TLR 6

1.1.2. Intracellular TLRs

1.1.2.1. TLR 3

1.1.2.2. TLR 7

1.1.2.3. TLR 8

1.1.2.4. TLR 9

1.2. C-type Lectin

1.3. NOD Like Receptor

1.4. RIG-like receptors

2. Adaptive

2.1. B cells

2.1.1. B cell receptor

2.1.1.1. Co receptors

2.1.1.1.1. Ig alpha

2.1.1.1.2. Ig beta

2.1.2. B-cell development

2.1.2.1. Bone marrow

2.1.2.1.1. Ig gene rearrangement - V(D)J recombination

2.1.3. Antibody production

2.1.3.1. IgM

2.1.3.2. IgG

2.1.3.3. IgA

2.1.3.4. IgE

2.2. T cells

2.2.1. T cell development

2.2.1.1. 1. Bonemarrow

2.2.1.2. 2. Thymus

2.2.1.3. 3. Activation and proliferation in peripheral tissues

2.2.1.3.1. CD4+ Th cells

2.2.2. T cell subsets

2.2.2.1. Treg

2.2.2.1.1. Natural FOXP3+ Treg

2.2.2.1.2. Inducible iTreg

2.2.2.2. CD4+

2.2.2.2.1. TH17

2.2.2.2.2. TH1

2.2.2.2.3. TH2

2.2.2.2.4. T(FH)

2.2.2.3. CD8+

2.2.2.3.1. Cytotoxic T cells

2.2.2.4. gamma delta T cells

2.2.3. T cell receptor

2.2.3.1. Co receptors

2.2.3.1.1. CD3

2.2.3.1.2. Zeta

3. Innate

3.1. Cellular

3.1.1. Granulocyte

3.1.1.1. Neutrophils

3.1.1.2. Basophils

3.1.1.3. Eosinophils

3.1.1.3.1. histamine & leukotriene

3.1.1.4. Mast cells

3.1.2. Monocytes

3.1.2.1. Macrophage

3.1.2.2. Dendritic

3.1.3. innate-like lymphocytes

3.1.3.1. Natural Killer NK cells

3.1.3.1.1. perforin

3.1.3.2. B-1 cells

3.1.3.3. epithelial gamma:delta cells

3.1.3.4. NK T cells

3.2. Non- Cellular

3.2.1. Lysozyme

3.2.2. defensins

3.2.3. Transferrin

3.2.4. opsinisaton and complement activating proteins

3.2.4.1. Pentraxins

3.2.4.2. Collectins

3.2.4.3. Ficollins

3.2.4.4. Complement

3.2.4.5. Natural Antibodies

4. signalling

4.1. cytokines

4.1.1. anti-inflammatory

4.1.1.1. IL-10

4.1.1.2. TGF beta

4.1.1.3. IL-2

4.1.2. inflammatory

4.1.2.1. TNF

4.1.2.1.1. targets

4.1.2.2. IL 1

4.1.2.3. IL 6

4.1.2.3.1. targets

4.1.2.4. IL 12

4.1.2.5. IFN Gamma

4.1.2.6. IL 8

4.1.2.7. IL-15

4.1.2.8. IFN type 1

4.2. Chemokines

4.2.1. Lymph node localisation

4.2.1.1. CCL19 & CCL21

4.2.1.2. CXCL5

4.2.2. recruitment into the infection site

4.2.2.1. CCL2

4.2.2.2. CCL11

4.2.2.3. CXCL8

4.2.2.4. CCL5

4.2.2.5. CCL3

4.2.3. homing of naive T and B cells

4.3. Lipid mediators

4.3.1. inflammatory

4.3.1.1. Prostaglandins (PGI2)

4.3.1.2. Leukotrienes

4.3.1.3. Platelet activating factor

4.3.2. Anti-inflammatory

4.3.2.1. Glucocorticoids

4.3.2.1.1. Cortisol

4.4. Vasoactive amines

4.4.1. Histamine

4.5. co stimulation

4.5.1. B cell to T cell

4.5.1.1. CD40

4.5.2. Antigen presenting cell to T cell

4.5.2.1. Inhibitory

4.5.2.1.1. CTLR4

4.5.2.2. Activating

4.5.2.2.1. CD28

4.6. Intracellular signalling

4.6.1. initiation

4.6.2. general principles

4.6.2.1. 1) Receptor Activation

4.6.2.2. 2) Tyrosine Kinase (TK) Activation

4.6.2.2.1. TK Structure

4.6.2.3. 3) Transcription factors

4.6.3. BCR, TCR and TLR

4.6.3.1. TCR complex

4.6.3.1.1. Mechanism

4.6.3.2. BCR complex

4.6.3.2.1. Mechanism

4.6.3.3. regulation of TCR / BCR signaling

4.6.3.4. TLR Mechanism

5. complement

5.1. Classical Pathway

5.1.1. Antibodies + Complement

5.2. Alternative Pathway

5.2.1. Microbe surface element + complement

5.3. Lectin Pathway

5.3.1. Mannose binding lectin + complement

6. antigen presentation

6.1. MHC

6.1.1. MHC class I

6.1.1.1. Production

6.1.2. MHC class II

6.1.2.1. production

7. Pathogens

7.1. Parasites

7.1.1. Trypanosomai Brucei

7.1.2. Schitosomiasis spp.

7.2. fungal infection

7.2.1. Aspergillus Fumigatus

7.2.2. Cryptococcus neoformans

7.2.3. Candida Albicans

7.2.4. Immune responses against fungal infections

7.3. Viruses

7.3.1. Innate immune response

7.3.1.1. IFN type I

7.3.1.2. NK cells

7.3.2. Adaptive immune response

7.3.2.1. Antibodies

7.3.2.2. Cytotoxic T cells

7.3.3. Retroviruses

7.3.3.1. Human T lymphotropic VIrus (HTLV) 1

7.3.3.2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

8. localisation

8.1. Adhesion

8.1.1. integrin

8.1.1.1. LFA-1

8.1.1.1.1. Also help cell to cell adhesion for MHC sampling

8.1.2. selectin

8.1.2.1. E-selectin

8.1.2.2. P-selectin

8.1.2.3. L-selectin

9. Disorders

9.1. Hypersensitivity

9.1.1. Type I: IgE mediated

9.1.1.1. Anaphylaxis

9.1.1.2. Allergy

9.1.1.3. Atopy

9.1.1.4. Allergic Asthma

9.1.2. Type II: IgM and IgG mediated

9.1.3. Type III: immune complex mediated

9.1.4. type IV: T cell mediated

9.1.4.1. multiple sclerosis

9.1.4.2. type I diabetes

9.1.4.3. contact sensitivity

9.2. Cancer

9.2.1. Tumour Antigens

9.2.2. Vaccines against oncogenic DNA Viruses

9.2.3. Immune responses against cancer

9.2.3.1. NK cells

9.2.3.2. Macrophages

9.2.3.3. CD8+ T cells

9.3. Autoimmunity

10. Fc receptor

10.1. B cells

10.2. Phagocytes

10.3. Mast cells

10.4. Triggering

10.4.1. High affinity

10.4.2. Low affinity

10.5. On complement

10.6. Allow recycling of antibodies

11. Medical Approach

11.1. vaccines

11.1.1. Features

11.1.2. Example: peptide vaccines

11.1.3. Adjuvants

11.1.4. Example: Hep B

11.2. Transplant

11.2.1. Tissue matching

11.2.2. Immunosuppression

11.2.2.1. Azathioprine

11.2.2.2. Corticosteriods

11.2.2.3. Cyclosporin-A

11.2.2.4. Sirolimus

12. immune tissue

12.1. Primary

12.1.1. Bone Marrow

12.1.2. fetal liver

12.1.3. Thymus

12.2. Seconday

12.2.1. Lymph nodes

12.2.2. Spleen

12.2.3. Peyers patch

12.2.4. Peripheral tissue

12.2.5. mucosal immune tissues

13. Cell type associated cytokines

13.1. T-cells

13.1.1. CD4+

13.1.1.1. Th1

13.1.1.1.1. IFN gamma

13.1.1.2. Th2

13.1.1.2.1. IL-4

13.1.1.2.2. IL-13

13.1.1.2.3. IL-5

13.1.1.3. Th17

13.1.1.3.1. IL-17

13.1.1.3.2. IL-22

13.1.1.4. Treg

13.1.1.4.1. IL-10

13.1.1.4.2. TGFbeta

13.1.2. CD8+

13.1.2.1. IL-2

13.2. B Cells

13.3. Innate

13.3.1. Dendrite and macrophage

13.3.1.1. IL-12

13.4. NK cells

13.4.1. IFN gamma

14. Evolution of the Immune system

14.1. Deutrostromes

14.1.1. Jawless vertebrates

14.1.1.1. Innate and acquired immunity

14.1.2. Jawed vertebrates

14.1.2.1. Innate and novel acquired immunity

14.2. Protosomes

14.2.1. Innate immunity