6330 Learning Design and Technology (Ding Xinyi 2012878277)

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1. Own reflection of the course

1.1. Synthesis of ideas and reflection(Overall)(Google site)

1.2. Session 1 reflection(Google site)

1.3. Session 2 reflection(Google site)

1.4. Session 3 reflection(Google site)

1.5. Session 4 reflection(Google site)

1.6. Session 5 reflection(Google site)

1.7. Session 6 reflection(Google site)

1.8. Session 7 reflection(Google site)

1.9. Session 8 reflection(Google site)

2. Summarises of required Reading References

2.1. Session 1

2.1.1. 1.Reiser,R.A.(2001) A History of Instructional Design and Technology:Part 1: A History of Instructional Media. ETR&D,49(1),53-64 Format of the history Three primary means School museums Visual instruction movements Audiovisual instruction movement Use of media during Word War 2 Post-World War 2 evelopments and Media Research Theories of communications Instructional Television Shifting of terminology Computers Recent developments:Computers and Internet

2.1.2. 2.Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II:A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67. Reiser The Origins of Instructional Design:World War II More Early Developments: The Programmed Instruction Movement The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement Robert M. Gagné: Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis Sputnik: The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation Early Instructional Design Models The 1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach The 1980s: Growth and Redirection The 1990s: Changing Views and Practices

2.1.3. 3.Churchill,D(2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning.British Journal Of Education Technology,37(4),559-576 Churchill.D Abstrct Teacher's private theories Methodology Participants Study questions Procedure Results: private theories of the four cases in the study Discussion of results and recommendations Summary and recommendations for further studies

2.1.4. 4.Moallem,M.(1998).An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles:an ethnographic study.ETR&D,46(2),37-64 ID and teaching processes and teacher's thinking fundamental differences ISD a systematic model ID purpose of the study questions of the study seected teachers define an experienced master teacher the school take place in one of the seven public middle school in a city in the southeastern US data collection strategies seven months results eighth grade science classroom the teacher's experienced results

2.2. Session 2

2.2.1. 1.Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories Mergel,B What are theories and models? The Basics of the Learning Theories The History of Learning Theories in Instructional Design

2.2.2. 2.Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. the events of instruction instruct students the nature of instruction a set of communication a process of learning self-instruction and self-learner instruction and learning the purpose of instruction learning theories and instruction kinds of processing instructional events definition relation to processes of learning learning outcomes the events of instruction in a lesson a computer - based lesson

2.2.3. Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy:definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc. what is the Reusable Information Object Strategy? Training offerings need to move from large, inflexible "courses" to reusable, granular objects that can be written independent of a delivery media and accessed dynamically through a database The Reusable Information Object (RIO) Strategy describes how this is being done at Cisco Systems. Why Are RIOs Important to Cisco? Benefits for Authors Benefits for Learners What is the RLO-RIO Structure?. introduction inside the RLO Inside the RIO RIO Creation Process Design Development Delivery Evaluation Guidelines for Building the RLO. Overview Summary Assessment Guidelines for Building RIOs. Practice Items Assessment Items Cognitive Level RLO-RIO Structure Summary.

2.3. Session 3

2.3.1. 1.Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139. the promise of multimedia learning why multimedia learning? examples multimedia instructional message? definition goal How does multimedia learning work? a cognitive learning theory methods multimedia effect coherence effect with contiguity effect with presonalization effect with animation - and- narration and animation -and-text the results

2.3.2. 2.Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64. 4C/ID model It discusses the structure of training blueprints for complex learning and associated instructional methods The basic claim is that four interrelated components Complex learning involved with achieving integrated sets of learning goals— multiple performance objectives The four buleprint components

2.4. Session 4

2.4.1. 1.Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Jonassen Goals and preconditions Values Method summarize of the paper

2.4.2. 2.Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38 Duffy ,T.M Goal in this paper Constructivism Instructional Principles Problem-Based Learning Conclusion

2.5. Session 5

2.5.1. 1.Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University. online learning benefits Materials for online learning Frameworks for online learning settings Instructional forms and learning Learning as knowledge construction Instructional Design for Web-based learning 1.6 Designing online settings that support knowledge construction learning tasks difinition content-based design Task-based design Task-based learning Courseware delivery systems Planning learning tasks Authentic assessment Assessment in Online Settings learning resources Content Pages Making use of the media learning supports Online learning support strategies Supporting self-regulated learning Social construction of knowledge Learning scaffolds Learning communities learning designs Situated learning Problem-based learning Case-based learning Project-based learning Inquiry-based learning Role-playing & simulations design and development strategies

2.5.2. 2.Churchill, D. (2006). Student-centered learning design: key components,technology,role and frameworks for integration. Synergy,4(1),18-­‐28. Key components of a student-centred learning design Resources Task Support . Evaluation Frameworks for technology-based integration promotes such integration in a technology-based inquiry-oriented learning experience a student-centred approach an ActiveLessons framework

2.6. Session 6

2.6.1. 1.Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered,constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators:Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse,(pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TOOLS A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology

2.6.2. 2.Jonassen, H. D. (2006). On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design. ETR&D,54(2), 177-196. SIMILARITY VIEW OF CONCEPTS Classical-Attribute Isolation View of Concepts Prototype or Probablistic View of Concepts Exemplar View of Concepts PROBLEMS WITH SIMILARITY VIEWS OF CONCEPTS OTHER VIEWS OF CONCEPTS Actional View of Concepts Theory-Based Views of Concepts CONCEPTS AND CONCEPTUAL CHANGE Implications of Conceptual Change for Concept Learning and Assessment

2.7. Session 7

2.7.1. 1.Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications.Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29. What Is Web 2.0 some suggest Web 2.0 is a transformed and more advancecl approach to applications of the Internet. Others appear critical of L'v'eb 2.0 ancl argue that there i s no such thing, but only incremental progression oi the lnternet to a new level enabled by growth in capabilities of software and hardware technologies. Read-Write Web most widely used Subscribing to Information "syndication feed "RSS" Social Spaces engaging people in collective activities in a social space The lnternet as a Platform contains tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers Open Source hackability "remixability." The Wide Spread of Web 2.0 currently millions of people across the world visit Web 1.0 sites. Wikipedia is another Web 2.0 phenomenon, housing over 4.5 million articles in over 100 languages blogs demand mention. Education and Web 2.0 Applications of Web 2.0 in teaching and learning might further promote what the author engaged in

2.8. Session 8

2.8.1. 1.Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers& Education, 46(3), 294-308. picture Introduction Related work Functionality framework Pedagogical underpinning Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications Conclusion 1. many applications currently available merely leverage off the mobility of handheld devices to replicate or augment existing learning scenarios. 2.we believe that the most appropriate use of handheld devices is to be found in the synthesis of appropriate use of the technology and sound educational underpinning.

3. Learned from the class

3.1. Session 1 -- Design of Learning/Instructional Technology Product

3.1.1. 1.Instructional Designer Definition Examples Instructional design VS. Lesson planning

3.1.2. 2.Learning Technology Products in different areas Example - LT products in educational insititutions ICT in class Partly e-learning Flexible learning Distance education Education staff development Example - LT products in commercial environment Solve own training needs Provide specialized e-training Develop digital content for sale Develop custom solutions for a client

3.1.3. 3.The Context for the development of Learning Technology Products Outsourcing In-house Buy exiting products/solutions

3.1.4. 4.The project development design (1) The stages of project development and examples (2) The kind of products we design E-learning Multimedia packages Educational digital video Educational website Blended learning packages Assessment systems Learning objects Educational Games Educational electronic devices Podcast,iTunesU,E-books (3) The project development team Project manager Instructional designer Interface designer Multimedia designer Programmer Others

3.2. Session 2 -- Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

3.2.1. Importance of ID ID as a special component of the Design Stage ID as a quality assurance ID as a project management

3.2.2. LT/ID product development stage Analysis Needs assessment User/Audience analysis System/Technology analysis Content analysis Feasibity analysis Risk analysis Design Development Implementation

3.2.3. ID design models 1.Linear Model by Dick & Carey(1990) 2.Spiral Model by Romiszowski(1981) 3.Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp&Bichelmeyer 4.Oval Model by Kemp,1985 5.Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden(1996)

3.2.4. Learning theories 1.Behaviorism 2.Cogniton 3.Constructivism 4.Other Learning Theoies Situated Learning Cooperative Learning Blended Learning Brain Based Learning

3.2.5. Learning form Technology Instructivist Models Drill and Practice Computer-based Tutorials Intelligent tutorial systems Reusable Learning Objects Gange's 9-events of Instruction

3.2.6. Learning with technology constructivist Models Learning environments Technology as a tool in a learning activity Inquiries and problem solving Congnitive tolls On-line collaboration and knowledge Web Quest and active Lesson Interactive learning objects

3.2.7. Project proposal the aim of the proposal what to proposal what is should cover general introduction Statement of the client’s needs General Treatment Variation of Treatment Outline Diagram of the Structure Human Resources Work Breakdown and Schedule Cost/Payment Limitations of the Proposal

3.3. Session 3 - Designing Instructional/Learning Technology Product I

3.3.1. LT/ID Products development stages (ADDIE) model factors of ADDIE Analysis Design1 Design2 Development Implementation Evaluation

3.4. Session 4 - Designing Instructional/Learning Technology Product 2

3.4.1. Design2 Develop a set of flowcharts Develop storyboards Evaluation Storyboards Write design specifications document Screen area presentation Authoring platform Quality and format of graphics,vidoes,audio,and other media Pedagogical considerations Develop a prototype Review and evaluation project documentation

3.5. Session 5 - Development of a Product

3.5.1. The key LTD framworks Multimedia Learning Theory Mayer,2003 Learning by doing models 4C/ID model Case-based reasoning Learning Cycle Learning by doing Resource-based learning Jonassen's Constructivist learning

3.6. Session 6 - Designing for Concept Learning

3.6.1. Prototype Definition a working model and a representation of your final project Provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final oruduct Used as important evolution toll Interface design Layout Size of display area Resolution Color Interaction design Buttons Hot-spot areas Clickable Key press and shortcuts Pull-down menus Text entry Drag&drop Sliders,Dialer Check boxes,Radio boxes,lists Haptic devices Presentation design Information design General treatments Media design Typography Prototype Evaluation Evaluation by a client Evaluation by real users Evaluation by development team There must be some kind of sign-off Issues to consider futhur How deliver via web influences overall design How delivery via mobile devices influences overall design? What are requirements for design when mashing content? Important name Don Norman Ben Shneiderman Jacob Nielsen

3.7. Session 7 - Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

3.7.1. Definition User control of information News form of expression Web as a point of presence Internet-mediated social/collective activities Web as a platform Rich use experiences Some speaker of media revolution

3.7.2. Collection of web 2.0 sites

3.7.3. examples Blog,bolgging,blogger,blogsphere Defininition Blog tools Wiki Definition wikipedia wikitools Social bookmarking Social respositories RSS Feeds and aggregator Podcasting Social networking Web as a platform Open sources Syndications,design for hackability and remixability System that gets better when more people are using it(and improving it) API for Mashups Googlemaps Flicker Tou tube Amazon Virtualearth eBay 411Sync Yahoomaps Yahoo Google

3.8. Session 8 - Designing Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

3.8.1. Implications for Instructional/Learning Design User generated content Collaboration Social Networking Beyond a single device

3.8.2. Web services are moving to mobile devices

4. Additional resources and examples

4.1. Session 1

4.2. Session 2

4.2.1. 1.ID design models (Further explanation) 1.Linear Model by Dick & Carey(1990) Picture of it 2.Spiral Model by Romiszowski(1981) Picture of it 3.Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp&Bichelmeyer Picture of it 4.Oval Model by Kemp,1985 Picture of it 5.Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden(1996) Picture of it

4.2.2. 2.Learning theories (Attached further resources) 1.Behaviorism Core Idea Development Approach Instructional implications Application 2.Cogniton Core Idea Development Approach Instructional inplication Application 3.Constructivism Core idea Development Approach Application Variation 4.Other Learning Theoies Situated Learning Cooperative Learning Blended Learning Brain Based Learning

4.2.3. 3.Learning form Technology Instructivist Models Explanation of Gange's 9-events of Instruction Gaining Attention Informing the learner of the objective Stimulation recall of prerequisite learning Presenting the stimulus material Providing learning guidance Eliciting the performance Providing feedback about perfoamnce Assessing the perfoamance Enhancing retention and transfer

4.2.4. 4.Questionnaire for the design preparation website:SurveyMonkey Client-centred Scoping Questionnaire example

4.3. Session 3

4.3.1. 1.ADDIE Timeline 1975 Early 80s Mid 80s 1995 1997 2000s

4.3.2. 2.LT/ID Products development stages (ADDIE) model factors of ADDIE Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation Some useful websites of it

4.4. Session 4

4.4.1. about flowcharts What is flowchart? Defination Common Flowchart Symbols How to make a flowchart? Setting Up The Environment Creating the Flowchart Editing the Flowchart Aligning the Flowchart Some useful tools and websites for making flowchart Examples 1 2

4.4.2. about storyboads The definition of storyboard graphic organizers illustrations or images the purpose of pre-visualizing How to make a storyboard? Define the project First clip and first drawing. Manage your storyboard Storyboard's aspect Change your storyboard's view Turn a storyboard into an animatic Export your storyboard / animatic Some useful tools for making storyboard The Easy Storyboard Creator Storyboard Template Digital storytelling storyboard template Examples 1 2

4.5. Session 5

4.5.1. The key LTD framworks Multimedia Learning Theory Mayer,2003 Learning by doing models 4C/ID model Case-based reasoning Learning Cycle Learning by doing Resource-based learning Jonassen's Constructivist learning

4.6. Session 6

4.6.1. prototype Some addition resources links wiki knowledge Ibook Youtube knowlege design framworks how to do a better prototype 12 Useful Techniques For Good User Interface Design 17 Examples of Great Presentation Design User Interface Design Tips, Techniques, and Principles Basic prototype categories Proof-of-Principle Prototype (Model) Form Study Prototype (Model). Form Study Prototype (Model). Visual Prototype (Model) Functional Prototype (Model) Differences between a prototype and a production design Materials. Processes. Lower fidelity. Characteristics and limitations of prototypes

4.7. Session 7

4.7.1. web 2.0 Web 2.0 technologies in action Impact of web 2.0 on learning and teaching Stimulating new modes of enquiry Supporting collaboration Engaging with new literacies Generating publication Implementation:Barriers, tensions and facilitators Teachers’ Web 2.0 orientation: Use and attitudes E-safety and security Technical issues Other implementation issues: Legal, content, portability Useful references

4.8. Session 8

4.8.1. mobile learning Advances in mobile learning current state of mobile learning a model for framing mobile learning Research on mobile learning Mobile Distance Learners Using Mobile Learning to Enhance the Quality Informal Learning Evidence in Online Communities of Mobile Device Enthusiasts M-learning: Positioning Educators for a Mobile, Connected Future Applications of Mobile Learning Practitioners as Innovators: Emergent Practice in Personal Mobile Teaching, Learning, Work, and Leisure Design and Development of Multimedia Learning Objects for Mobile Phones Design and Development of Multimedia Learning Objects for Mobile Phones MobilED – Mobile Tools and Services Platform for Formal and Informal Learning MobilED – Mobile Tools and Services Platform for Formal and Informal Learning Using Mobile Technologies for Multimedia Tours in a Traditional Museum Setting Use of Mobile Technology for Teacher Training