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6330 Learning Design and Technology (Ding Xinyi 2012878277) by Mind Map: 6330 Learning Design and
Technology
(Ding Xinyi  2012878277)
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6330 Learning Design and Technology (Ding Xinyi 2012878277)

Own reflection of the course

Synthesis of ideas and reflection(Overall)(Google site)

Session 1 reflection(Google site)

Session 2 reflection(Google site)

Session 3 reflection(Google site)

Session 4 reflection(Google site)

Session 5 reflection(Google site)

Session 6 reflection(Google site)

Session 7 reflection(Google site)

Session 8 reflection(Google site)

Summarises of required Reading References

Session 1

1.Reiser,R.A.(2001) A History of Instructional Design and Technology:Part 1: A History of Instructional Media. ETR&D,49(1),53-64, Format of the history, Three primary means, Teacher, Chalkboard, Textbook, School museums, Visual instruction movements, Audiovisual instruction movement, Use of media during Word War 2, Post-World War 2 evelopments and Media Research, Theories of communications, Instructional Television, Shifting of terminology, Computers, Recent developments:Computers and Internet

2.Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II:A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67., Reiser, The Origins of Instructional Design:World War II, More Early Developments: The Programmed Instruction Movement, The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives, The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement, Robert M. Gagné: Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis, Sputnik: The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation, Early Instructional Design Models, The 1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach, The 1980s: Growth and Redirection, The 1990s: Changing Views and Practices

3.Churchill,D(2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning.British Journal Of Education Technology,37(4),559-576, Churchill.D, Abstrct, aims, to understand and explicate areas of private theories that impede the effective design of student-centred technology-based learning., final outcome, a set of propositions for readers to examine for the possible application in their own environments., Teacher's private theories, improtance, influence how they make decisions and take actions, development, developed from observations, interactions, instruction or inferences, A variety of issues has been addressed, literature suggested, four major areas of teachers’ private theories that impact instructional decision making and technology integration, Learning, teachers, students, technology, institutional influences impact the overall instructional decision making and technology integration, the knowledge of curriculum and pedagogical content is a factor that affects instructional planning and technology integration, Notice, such reflection must be facilitated by an appropriate intervention strategy., Methodology, explored the private theories of four teachers from a large technical education institute in Singapore who engaged in the design of technology-based learning for their own classes., Participants, identified and selected for the programme by their management as exemplary technology-using teachers, six-month long programme, profile, Study questions, What interlinked areas of private theories mediate the participating teachers’ design of technology-based learning?, How do the participating teachers’ private theories change through reflection during the design of technology-based learning?, Procedure, Qualitative data collection, data collection for each of the participants included, two interviews and a collection of field notes in the initial stage of the study to identify a participant’s private theories, a collection of written reflections to explore changes in private theories, a collection of artifacts produced to understand whether private theories lead to the design of direct instruction or student-centred learning, a final meeting at the end of the study to discuss changes in private theories., The first interview, the first few days, The second interview, a few weeks later after the participant had produced a prototype of technology-based learnin, Conducted a content analysis of the interview transcripts to identify single units of private theories, A unit of a private theory comprises relevant statements, used a word processor to highlight and copy these statements in a separate document, During this time, visited the participants on many occasions, we had coffees together and engaged in casual discussions, During these experiences, took field notes with a view to identify any emerging theories., collected all the prototypes created by the participants, invited the two advisors to visit the institute and deliver a short seminar–demonstration of student-centred technology-based learnin, met with each of the participants to discuss the changes in their respective private theories, At the end of the six months, Changes in the participants’ private theories, (1) based on the changes of the prototype as noted by the two advisors and me, (2) based on change in the dominant focus area as identified by the participant, (3) based on a participant’s rejection of initial private theories as collected at the beginning of the study, Results: private theories of the four cases in the study, Participant one: Tom, his design decisions at the beginning of the study, what he indicated In the final discussion, Some more interesting theories about learning emerged from him, Participant two: Eleanor, private theories focused mostly on the area of learning from the beginning of the study, Her theories enabled her to aim for student-centred technology integration, she designed two versions of her prototype, student-centred, direct instruction as a back-up to be deployed if her critics disapproved of her student-centred approach, final design, a product of her continuous reflections in pursuit of the effective implementation of her theories on learning, Throughout the study, remained concerned about whether her approach would be accepted by her management and colleagues, in the later part of the study, more willing to take risks because of her reinforced belief that ‘in a dynamic society we must change approaches to teaching and learning towards student-centred practices’, Participant three: Nicole, she was led by her theories about students, Participant four: Jane, design was informed by her private theories on the roles of a teacher, she argued that technology could only monitor access to the content, not provide evidence of what students had learnt, Discussion of results and recommendations, Areas of the participants’ private theories, students, How the institute’s students learn, their limitations, their ability to use technology for learning and collaboration, learning, Knowledge and how it is acquired, useful teaching and learning strategies, ways learning can be evaluated, teachers, Teachers’ roles in learning in a classroom and in a technology- based environment, techhnology, Use of technology in a class before this study, ways in which technology-based learning differs from classroom learning, limitations and benefits of technology for learning, design, Selection criteria for topics determining suitability for technology- based learning, planning and design of technology-based learning, educational changes, Changes in society and their implications in education, ways in which such changes impact teachers and students, other dominant areas for each of the participants at the initial and final stages of the study, Reflections, Emerging area of constraints to student-centred design practice, the challenges for intervention with teachers, Summary and recommendations for further studies

4.Moallem,M.(1998).An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles:an ethnographic study.ETR&D,46(2),37-64, ID and teaching processes and teacher's thinking, fundamental differences, ISD, a systematic model, ID, purpose of the study, questions of the study, seected teachers, define an experienced master teacher, the school, take place in one of the seven public middle school in a city in the southeastern US, data collection strategies, seven months, results, eighth grade science classroom, the classroom physical and social context, like another social group, changed the school practice regarding to science fair project, belived more creative, however, some rules,routines and norms that were not taught explicitly and directly, the teacher's experienced results, all students are able to perform well if they put effort.

Session 2

1.Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories, Mergel,B, What are theories and models?, What is a theory?, What is a model?, The Basics of the Learning Theories, The Basics of Behaviorism, Based on observable changes in behavior, focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic., key players, Pavlov (1849 - 1936), most famous experiment involved food, a dog and a bell., Thorndike (1874 - 1949), Watson (1878 - 1958), Skinner (1904 - 1990), The Basics of Cognitivism, Based on the thought process behind the behavior., Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind, what is cognitivism?, Cognitive theorists recognize that much learning involves associations established through contiguity and repetition, Key Concepts of Cognitive Theory, Schema, Three-Stage Information Processing Model, Sensory Register, Short-Term Memory (STM), Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM), Meaningful Effects, Serial Position Effects, Practice Effects, Transfer Effects, Organization Effects, Levels of Processing Effects, State Dependent Effects, Mnemonic Effects, Schema Effects, Advance Organizers, The Basics of Constructivism, Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema., focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations., Realistic vs. Radical Construction, Realistic constructivism, Radical constructivism, The Assumptions of Constructivism - Merrill, The History of Learning Theories in Instructional Design, Behaviorism and Instructional Design, This section on behaviorism is largely a synopsis of information from Paul Saettler's book, The History of American Educational Technology, Cognitivism and Instructional Design, Constructivism and Instructional Design, Comparing The Development of Learning Theories to the Development of the Atomic Theory, Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design, Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses, Behaviorism, Weakness, the learner may find themselves in a situation where the stimulus for the correct response does not occur, therefore the learner cannot respond., A worker who has been conditioned to respond to a certain cue at work stops production when an anomaly occurs because they do not understand the system., Strength, the learner is focused on a clear goal and can respond automatically to the cues of that goal, W.W.II pilots were conditioned to react to silhouettes of enemy planes, a response which one would hope became automatic., Cognitivism, Weakness, the learner learns a way to accomplish a task, but it may not be the best way, or suited to the learner or the situation, Strengt, the goal is to train learners to do a task the same way to enable consistency, Logging onto and off of a workplace computer is the same for all employees; it may be important do an exact routine to avoid problems, Constructivism, Weakness, in a situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action may cause problems., Imagine the fun Revenue Canada would have if every person decided to report their taxes in their own way, Strength, the learner is better able to deal with real life situations, Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design?, Conclusion

2.Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers., the events of instruction, instruct students, the nature of instruction, a set of communication, a process of learning, self-instruction and self-learner, instruction and learning, the purpose of instruction, provide support to the processes of learning, learning theories and instruction, kinds of processing, attention, selective perception, rehearsal, semantic encoding, instructional events, definition, consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal process of learning, relation to processes of learning, gaining attention, informing the learner of the objective, simulating recall of prerequisite learning, presenting the stimulus material, providing learning guidance, eliciting the performance, providing feedback about performance correctness, assessing the performance, enhancing retention and transfer, learning outcomes, the events of instruction in a lesson, a computer - based lesson

Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy:definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc., what is the Reusable Information Object Strategy?, Training offerings need to move from large, inflexible "courses" to reusable, granular objects that can be written independent of a delivery media and accessed dynamically through a database, The Reusable Information Object (RIO) Strategy describes how this is being done at Cisco Systems., Why Are RIOs Important to Cisco?, Benefits for Authors, Benefits for Learners, What is the RLO-RIO Structure?., introduction, Individual RIOs can be combined to form a larger structure called a Reusable Learning Object, inside the RLO, Inside the RIO, RIO Creation Process, Design, Needs Assessment, Task Analysis, Learning Objectives, Identify the Cognitive Level, RIO Types, 7 ± 2 Rule, Detail Design Document, Development, Four typical stages in an RLO-RIO development process, Build the RLO, Build the RIOs, Conduct an Alpha Review, Conduct an Beta Review, Delivery, Three common types of delivery include:, Dynamic Web packages, CD-ROMs, Instructor-Led training materials, Evaluation, Level 1:Survey, Level 2: Assessment, Level 3:Transfer, Level 4:Impact, Guidelines for Building the RLO., Overview, Summary, Assessment, Guidelines for Building RIOs., Practice Items, Assessment Items, Cognitive Level, 1.Concept ., 2. Fact, 3. Procedure., 4. Process, 5. Principle, RLO-RIO Structure Summary.

Session 3

1.Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139., the promise of multimedia learning, why multimedia learning?, examples, words learning, Multimedia learning, multimedia instructional message?, definition, goal, foster meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work?, a cognitive learning theory, methods, multimedia effect, coherence effect with, text-and-illustrations, narration -and-animation, contiguity effect with, text - and-illystrations, text-and-anamation, presonalization effect with animation - and- narration and animation -and-text, the results

2.Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64., 4C/ID model, It discusses the structure of training blueprints for complex learning and associated instructional methods, The basic claim is that four interrelated components, (a) learning tasks, (b) supportive information, (c)just-in-time (JIT) information, (d)part-task practice, Complex learning, involved with achieving integrated sets of learning goals— multiple performance objectives, The four buleprint components, Learning Tasks, supportive information, just-in-time (JIT) information, part-task practice.

Session 4

1.Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., Jonassen, Goals and preconditions, primary goal, to foster problem solving and conceptual development, intended for ill-defined or ill-structured domains, Values, Learning that is driven by an ill-defined or ill-structured problem, a problem or learning goal that is "owned" by the leaner, instruction that consists of experiences which facilitate knowledge construction, learning that is active and authentic, Method, Select an appropriate problem for learning to focus on, provide related cases or worked examples to enable case-based reasoning an enhance cognitive flexibility, provide learner-selectable information just in-time, provide social/contextual support for the learning environment, provide conversation and collaboration tools to support, provide cognitive tools, summarize of the paper, instruction, constructivist conception of learning, knowledge is individually construct and socially co-constructed by learner based on their interpretation of experience in the wolrd, main body, Models for CLEs, The model illustrates their essential components., 1.Question/case/problem/project, how can you identify problems for CLEs?, Examine the field of study,not for its topic(as in a textbook)but for what practitioners do., include three integrate components, the problem context, performance environment, Community of practitioners/performers/stakehoders, the problem representation or simulation, the representation of the problem is critical to leaner buy-in.It must be interesting,appealing and engaging.It must perturb the learner., the problem manipulation space, A critical characteristics of meaningful learner id mindful activity.In order for learners to be active,they must manipulate something and affect the environment in some way., 2..Related cases, Scaffold student memory:case-bases reasoning, recall a similar case,then try to map the previous, a rich set of related cases will help students to solve the current one, Enhance Cognitive Flexibility, multiple perspectives, themes, interpretations, 3.Information resources, should determine what kind of information the learner will need in order to understand the problem, provide learner-selectable information just-in-time, determine what kind of information learners need in order to interpret the problem, The World Wide Web, 4.Cognitive(Knowledge - Construction) Tools, a number of intellectual functions in helping learners interactive with CLES, Problem/Task representation tools, Static and dynamic knowledge modeling toos, Such as, datebases, expert systems, spredsheets, semantic networks, hypermedia construction, Contain interactive and interdependent components, Stella, PowerSim, 5.Conversation and collaboration tools, 6.Social/Contexyual support, workshop, conference, Community, Supporting Learning in CLEs, Learning activities, Exploration, Articulation, Reflection, Instructional activities, Modeling, Model performance, cognitive process, Coaching, How am I doing?, provide motivational prompts, Monitor and regulate the learner's performance, provokes reflection, Perturb learners' models, Scaffolding, support the learner, focus on the task,the environment,the teacher ,and the learner, Conclusion, Note -- the model is intended to provide guidelines for designing learning environments to support constructive learning

2.Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38, Duffy ,T.M, Goal in this paper, to provide a clear link between, the theoretical principles of constructivism,, the practice of instructional design, the practice of teaching, Constructivism, 1.Understand is in our interactions with the environment, core concept, understand is a function of the content,the context,the activity of the learner,and the goal of the learner, 2.Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned., there must some stimulus for learning, 3.Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual inderstandings, The social environment is critical to the development of our individual understanding as well as to the development of the body of propositions we call knowlege, The second role of the social environment is to develop a set of propostions we call knowledge., Constructivism is not a deconstructivist view in which all constructions are equal simply because they are personal experiences, Instructional Principles, 1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem, learning must have a purpose beyond, "It is assigned", 2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, two ways of doing this, First, we may solicit problems from the learners and use those as the stimulus for learning activities, Alternatively, we can establish a problem in such a way that the learners will readily adopt the problem as their own, 3. Design an authentic task, the learner should engage in scientific activities which present the same “type” of cognitive challenges, 4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning, 5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, Learners must have ownership of the learning or problem solving process as well as having ownership of the problem itself, 6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking., It is essential that the teacher value as well as challenge the learner's thinking, 7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts., 8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process., to develop skills of self regulation -- to become independent., Problem-Based Learning, developed in medical education in the early 1970's, strategies for implementing PBL, present a general scenario, use the medical environment as the focus, examine some of the key elements in some detail, case analsis, a few of the critical features based on the overview of the process in the medical school, Learning goals, The design of this environment is meant to simulate, and hence engage the learner in, the problem solving behavior that it is hoped a practicing physician would be engaged in., Problem Generation, two guiding forces in developing problems, First, the problems must raise the concepts and principles relevant to the content domain, Second, the problems must be "real", Problem Presentation, two critical issues involved in presenting the problem, First, if the students are to engage in authentic problem solving, then they must own the problem, Facilitator Role, Conclusion, this is not a Socratic process; nor is it a discovery learning environment in which the goal for the learner is to discover the outcome the instructor wants, The learners have ownership of the problem, The facilitation is not knowledge driven, but rather it is focused on metacognitive processes.

Session 5

1.Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University., online learning, benefits, flexibility, Economy, Enhanced learning, Materials for online learning, a. Information Access, useful, a broad array of resources, a variety of different perspectives, a variety of media forms, large amounts of information, an important element of literacy, b. Interactive Learning, support learning in online settings, c. Networked Learning, communication, · email, bulletin boards w, discussion forums, chat sessions, audioconferencing and videoconferencing, d. Materials Development & Publication, Frameworks for online learning settings, examples, Instructional forms and learning, a. Initial Knowledge, b. Advanced Knowledge, c. Expertise, Learning as knowledge construction, Learning environments that support knowledge construction, Cunningham, Duffy & Knuth (1993), Lebow (1993, Savery & Duffy (1995), Grabinger (1996, Electronic Performance Support Systems, · Resources, · Tools, Scaffolding, Instructional Design for Web-based learning, a. Learning Tasks, b. Learning Resources, c. Learning Supports, Approaches to Instructional Design The framework described above discusses th, Resource-based learning, Teacher-centred learning:, Task-based learning, 1.6 Designing online settings that support knowledge construction, a. Learning Tasks, b. Learning Resources, c. Learning Support, learning tasks, difinition, content-based design, Task-based design, Task-based learning, a. learning tasks, b. learning resources, c. presentation, Courseware delivery systems, Planning learning tasks, Authentic assessment, Assessment in Online Settings, case-based activities;, problem-solving;, product submissions, peer assessment; and, collaborative elements, learning resources, Content Pages, face to face, online, Making use of the media, sound, vedio, Virtual reality, pdf documents, creative ideas for designing online resources, learning supports, Online learning support strategies, a. Learning Guides, b. Learning Contracts, c. Learning Schedules, Supporting self-regulated learning, a. Metacognition and self-concept, b. Self-monitoring and motivation, c. Volitional and Cognitive Strategy formation, Social construction of knowledge, Learning scaffolds, Learning communities, learning designs, Situated learning, Problem-based learning, Case-based learning, Project-based learning, Inquiry-based learning, Role-playing & simulations, design and development strategies

2.Churchill, D. (2006). Student-centered learning design: key components,technology,role and frameworks for integration. Synergy,4(1),18-­‐28., Key components of a student-centred learning design, Resources, three types of resources are useful in learning, technical tools used in a process -, informational resources which provide some information, physical material that is transformed into a product, some more specific examples of applications of technologybased technical tools in the context of learning, 1. Capture Tools, 2. Media Design Tools, 3. Presentation Development Tools, 4. Authoring Tools, 5. Data Analysis Tools, 6. Publishing Tool, 7. Collaboration Too! -, Task, A suitably designed task is a structured, dynamic and authentic engagement that requires students, A task provides a focus for students to engage in a goal-directed set of sub-tasks, picture, Support, includes a set of conditions integrated into a student-centred design to facilitate learning experience, examples, presenting students with the task in an appropriate way;, directing them to relevant resources;, scaffolding their process of task completion;, promoting student involvement in supporting each other or independently seeking ways to negotiate their learning bottlenecks, etc., . Evaluation, Formative evaluation of student leaning is a critical component of the successful centred learning experience, incorporated in the task must be a way to materialise the resulting product(s) as evidence of students' knowledge, Evaluation should also, when possible, involve students, Frameworks for technology-based integration, promotes such integration in a technology-based inquiry-oriented learning experience, a student-centred approach, an ActiveLessons framework, 1. Students are presented with a scenario through a short multimedia sequence that introduces a task. The scenario presents a reason and motive for engaging in the task., 2. Students are requested to work in small groups and collaborate on the task by taking roles and responsibilities., 3. Links to informational resources are provided, although students might be encouraged to search for additional sources of information in their own. Resources are utilised as a means of completing the task., 4. An organising framework is provided, 5.The task usually requires students to use nology tools, 6. Students might also conduct presentations and exhibitions, upload their artefacts for class critique, and otherwise deliver their final artefact produced through involvement in the task, 7. Artefacts are evaluated and some additional intervention, if necessary, takes place as a follow up to the ActiveLesson.

Session 6

1.Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered,constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators:Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse,(pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum., THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TOOLS, A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology, what is learner -centered technology looks like?, 14LCPs form APA, A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, cognitive constructivistic teaching practices and principles, social constructivistic teaching practices and principles, tools like CSCL, Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology, Mediation, Zone of Proximal development, internalization, Cognitive apprenticeship, assisted learning, teleapprenticeship, scaffolded instruction, intersubjectivity, activity setting as unit of analysis, activity setting as unit of analysis, distributed intelligence in a learning community

2.Jonassen, H. D. (2006). On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design. ETR&D,54(2), 177-196., SIMILARITY VIEW OF CONCEPTS, Classical-Attribute Isolation View of Concepts, limitations, Prototype or Probablistic View of Concepts, probabilistic view, prototype view, Exemplar View of Concepts, conservative about discarding information taht facilitates predictions, PROBLEMS WITH SIMILARITY VIEWS OF CONCEPTS, OTHER VIEWS OF CONCEPTS, Actional View of Concepts, Theory-Based Views of Concepts, CONCEPTS AND CONCEPTUAL CHANGE, Implications of Conceptual Change for Concept Learning and Assessment, Implications for Assessment: Propositions, Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Similarity ratings, Card sort., Representing Conceptual Patterns In order to statistically and visual, Cognitive maps., Pathfinder networks., Concept Maps, Implications for Instruction: Propositions, Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use, Semistructured Interviews, Think-Aloud Problem Solving, Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use

Session 7

1.Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications.Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29., What Is Web 2.0, some suggest Web 2.0 is a transformed and more advancecl approach to applications of the Internet., Others appear critical of L'v'eb 2.0 ancl argue that there i s no such thing, but only incremental progression oi the lnternet to a new level enabled by growth in capabilities of software and hardware technologies., Read-Write Web, most widely used, A blog, Wiki, Subscribing to Information, "syndication feed, "RSS", Social Spaces, engaging people in collective activities in a social space, MySpace, The lnternet as a Platform, contains tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers, Google Docs, Open Source, hackability, "remixability.", The Wide Spread of Web 2.0, currently millions of people across the world visit Web 1.0 sites., Wikipedia is another Web 2.0 phenomenon, housing over 4.5 million articles in over 100 languages, blogs demand mention., Education and Web 2.0, Applications of Web 2.0 in teaching and learning might further promote, (1) new forms of assessment such as digits portfolios, (2) use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces, (3) new models and methods for design of learning objects and other kinds of digital curriculun~ materials that utilize emerging forms of multimedia expressions, open source, and remix~ng of data, (4) new models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers, (5) new generations of learning management systems(LMS), or possibly no LMS at all, but rather,modular content and services management platforms that allow various Web 2.0 services to beselected and integrated into a customized solution, what the author engaged in, (a) use of a blog to support teaching and learning in a graduate university course, (b) social spaces and repositories ior teachers.

Session 8

1.Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers& Education, 46(3), 294-308., picture, Introduction, Related work, the most popular applications for handheld, referential or presentational in nature, with dictionaries and organizers commonly available, Functionality framework, picture, Administration, Administrative applications focusing on information storage and retrieval are widely available, ‘Due Yesterday Student Organiser’., Reference, ‘office style’ tools, dictionaries, translators and e-books, Interactive, applications transcend information management and content delivery by focusing on engaging users through a ‘response and feedback’ approach., Microworld, construct their own knowledge through experimentation in constrained models of real world domains, Data collection, Scientific:, Reflective:, Multimedia:, Location aware, aim to contextualise learning activities by enabling the learners to interact appropriately with their environment; they make use of the unique attributes of handhelds and are, occasionally, collaborative in nature., Collaborative, encourage knowledge sharing while making use of the learner’s physical context and mobility, Pedagogical underpinning, picture, Administration, little pedagogical philosophy underpinning their implementation, Referential, built upon an instructional philosophy of learning, Interactive, Tools with a creative focus, Microworld, Data collection, Location aware, Collaborative, Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications, TxtIT, Mapping challenge:, SortIT, Conclusion, 1. many applications currently available merely leverage off the mobility of handheld devices to replicate or augment existing learning scenarios., 2.we believe that the most appropriate use of handheld devices is to be found in the synthesis of appropriate use of the technology and sound educational underpinning.

Learned from the class

Session 1 -- Design of Learning/Instructional Technology Product

1.Instructional Designer, Definition, Examples, Instructional design VS. Lesson planning

2.Learning Technology Products in different areas, Example - LT products in educational insititutions, ICT in class, Partly e-learning, Flexible learning, Distance education, Education staff development, Example - LT products in commercial environment, Solve own training needs, Provide specialized e-training, Develop digital content for sale, Develop custom solutions for a client

3.The Context for the development of Learning Technology Products, Outsourcing, In-house, Buy exiting products/solutions

4.The project development design, (1) The stages of project development and examples, (2) The kind of products we design, E-learning, Multimedia packages, Educational digital video, Educational website, Blended learning packages, Assessment systems, Learning objects, Educational Games, Educational electronic devices, Podcast,iTunesU,E-books, (3) The project development team, Project manager, Instructional designer, Interface designer, Multimedia designer, Programmer, Others

Session 2 -- Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

Importance of ID, ID as a special component of the Design Stage, ID as a quality assurance, ID as a project management

LT/ID product development stage, Analysis, Needs assessment, User/Audience analysis, System/Technology analysis, Content analysis, Feasibity analysis, Risk analysis, Design, Development, Implementation

ID design models, 1.Linear Model by Dick & Carey(1990), 2.Spiral Model by Romiszowski(1981), 3.Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp&Bichelmeyer, 4.Oval Model by Kemp,1985, 5.Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden(1996)

Learning theories, 1.Behaviorism, 2.Cogniton, 3.Constructivism, 4.Other Learning Theoies, Situated Learning, Cooperative Learning, Blended Learning, Brain Based Learning

Learning form Technology Instructivist Models, Drill and Practice, Computer-based Tutorials, Intelligent tutorial systems, Reusable Learning Objects, Gange's 9-events of Instruction

Learning with technology constructivist Models, Learning environments, Technology as a tool in a learning activity, Inquiries and problem solving, Congnitive tolls, On-line collaboration and knowledge, Web Quest and active Lesson, Interactive learning objects

Project proposal, the aim of the proposal, what to proposal, what is should cover, general introduction, Statement of the client’s needs, General Treatment, Variation of Treatment, Outline Diagram of the Structure, Human Resources, Work Breakdown and Schedule, Cost/Payment, Limitations of the Proposal

Session 3 - Designing Instructional/Learning Technology Product I

LT/ID Products development stages (ADDIE) model, factors of ADDIE, Analysis, Needs assessment, User/Audience analysis, System/Technology analysis, Content analysis, Feasibity analysis, Risk analysis, Design1, Define a goal(s), Conduct instructional analysis, Performance analysis, Task analysis, Analysis of job description, Analysis of job-related documents, Observation of people at work directly or via recording, Discussion with people about specific jobs, Extrapolation of task from a customer's stated training needs, Content analysis, Analyze learners and context, Write performance/Learning objectives, Also known as, performance objectives, Instructional objectives, Behavioural objectives, Specific instructional objectives, Learning outcomes, Develop assessment strategy, Drill and Practice, Essays, Problem Solving, Tasks, Develop instructional strategy, Arrange instructional events, Events of instruction, Gaining Attention, Informing Learner of the objective, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Presenting the stimulus, Eliciting performance, Providing learning guidance, Providing feedback about prformance, Enhancing retention and tranfer, Assessing the performance, CISCO RLO Strategy, Design2, Develop a set of flowcharts, Develop storyboards, Write design specifications document, Develop a prototype, Review and evaluation project documentation, Development, Implementation, Evaluation

Session 4 - Designing Instructional/Learning Technology Product 2

Design2, Develop a set of flowcharts, Develop storyboards, Evaluation Storyboards, To be reviewed by, Your project team, Editor, A content mater expert, A representative of a real user(rare), A client, Be evaluated for, Content accuracy, appropriateness, completeness, coverage, Media, presentation, interface, interaction treatment,, Pedagogical quality/Instructional design, Technical issues, Write design specifications document, Screen area presentation, Authoring platform, Quality and format of graphics,vidoes,audio,and other media, Pedagogical considerations, Develop a prototype, Review and evaluation project documentation

Session 5 - Development of a Product

The key LTD framworks, Multimedia Learning Theory, Mayer,2003, Split-attention principle, Words and picture should be physically and temporally integrated, Segmenting principle, Multimedia messages should be presented in student-paced segments., Pre-training principle, Names and characteristics of main concepts should be familiar to students., Coherence, Extraneous material should be excluded., Signalling, cues should be used to highlight the organization of the essential material., Redundancy principle, The same information should not be resented in more than one format, Modality principle, words should be spoken rather then written., Multimedia principle, The learning objects should integrate visual and verbal information,not verbal alone., Learning by doing models, 4C/ID model, Van Merroenboer.Clark.&Croock.2002, Case-based reasoning, Schaak,berman&MaoPhersoon,1999, Goals, Mission, Cover story, Role, Activities, Resources, Feedbacks, Learning Cycle, Kolb, Learning by doing, Dufour, Resource-based learning, Chuichill,2006, Jonassen's Constructivist learning, Jonassen's learning model, Jonassen's constructivist learning environment, Leading environment as a problem, Logical problem, Algorithms, Story problmes, Rule-using Problem, Decision-making problems, Troubleshooting problems, Diagnosis-solution problems, Strategic performance, Situated case-policy problmes, Design problems, Dilemmas problems

Session 6 - Designing for Concept Learning

Prototype, Definition, a working model and a representation of your final project, Provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final oruduct, Used as important evolution toll, Interface design, Layout, Size of display area, Resolution, Color, Interaction design, Buttons, Hot-spot areas, Clickable, Key press and shortcuts, Pull-down menus, Text entry, Drag&drop, Sliders,Dialer, Check boxes,Radio boxes,lists, Haptic devices, Presentation design, Information design, diagrams, icons, images&photographs, tables&graphs, metaphors&analogies, spaces&lines, General treatments, Media design, Typography, Prototype Evaluation, Evaluation by a client, Evaluation by real users, Evaluation by development team, There must be some kind of sign-off, Issues to consider futhur, How deliver via web influences overall design, How delivery via mobile devices influences overall design?, What are requirements for design when mashing content?, Important name, Don Norman, Design of everyday things, Ben Shneiderman, Human computer interaction laboratory, Jacob Nielsen, Usability

Session 7 - Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

Definition, User control of information, News form of expression, Web as a point of presence, Internet-mediated social/collective activities, Web as a platform, Rich use experiences, Some speaker of media revolution

Collection of web 2.0 sites

examples, Blog,bolgging,blogger,blogsphere, Defininition, blog is a web-based publication, Blog can contain text,media ,links, There are blogs,mob-logs,v-logs,audi-log, Blogsphere is a community of bloggers, No technical skills to create your won blog, Blog tools, Wiki, Definition, Wiki is social software that allows collaborative development of an article of common interest to its authors, wikipedia, wikitools, Social bookmarking, Social respositories, RSS Feeds and aggregator, Podcasting, Social networking, Web as a platform, Open sources, Syndications,design for hackability and remixability, System that gets better when more people are using it(and improving it), API for Mashups, Googlemaps, Flicker, Tou tube, Amazon, Virtualearth, eBay, 411Sync, Yahoomaps, Yahoo, Google

Session 8 - Designing Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

Implications for Instructional/Learning Design, User generated content, Collaboration, Social Networking, Beyond a single device

Web services are moving to mobile devices

Additional resources and examples

Session 1

Session 2

1.ID design models (Further explanation), 1.Linear Model by Dick & Carey(1990), Picture of it, The characteristics of it, Punished in 1978, leaner-centered, mainly design for the purpose of serving the classroom setting in educational institutions, Based on behaviorist view, The model consists of nine steps, 1. Assess need to identify instructional goals to identify what it is the learners are expect to able to do., 2. Conduct instructional analysis to determine step by step what learners are doing., 3. Analyze learners and context to identify learners’ present skills, 4. Write performance objectives to specific what it is learners will be able to do., 5. Develop assessment instruction to develop a criteria referenced assessment., 6. Develop instructional strategy to develop strategies in pre- instructional activities., 7. Develop and select instruction to use instructional strategies to produce the instruction., 8. Design and conduct formative evaluation to collect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction., 9. Revise instruction to use the data., The advantages of it, Provides emphasis on sequencing and organizing content., Provides guidance through the design phase of instruction., Adjusts well for changes in theory and technology., Applied in nearly any content., The disadvantages of it, Learning is non-linear., Presumes that learning can be predictable and reliable., Does not allow for mistakes., Too rigid and too many stages., 2.Spiral Model by Romiszowski(1981), Picture of it, The characteristics of it, It comprises of other models SDLC, Be able to reduce risks as well as follow systematic approahc, The advantages of it, 1. Spiral Life Cycle Model is one of the most flexible SDLC models in place. Development phases can be determined by the project manager, according to the complexity of the project., 2. Project monitoring is very easy and effective. Each phase, as well as each loop, requires a review from concerned people. This makes the model more transparent., 3. Risk management is one of the in-built features of the model, which makes it extra attractive compared to other models., 4.Changes can be introduced later in the life cycle as well. And coping with these changes isn’t a very big headache for the project manager., 5.Project estimates in terms of schedule, cost etc become more and more realistic as the project moves forward and loops in spiral get completed., 6. It is suitable for high risk projects, where business needs may be unstable., 7.A highly customized product can be developed using this., The disadvantages of it, 1.Cost involved in this model is usually high., 2.It is a complicated approach especially for projects with a clear SRS., 3.Skills required, to evaluate and review project from time to time, need expertise., 4.Rules and protocols should be followed properly to effectively implement this model. Doing so, through-out the span of project is tough., 5.Due to various customizations allowed from the client, using the same prototype in other projects, in future, is difficult., 6. It is not suitable for low risk projects., 7.Meeting budgetary and scheduling requirements is tough if this development process is followed., 8.Amount of documentation required in intermediate stages makes management of project very complex affair., 3.Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp&Bichelmeyer, Picture of it, The characteristic of it, used for it's very difficult to obtain exact requirements from the customer, keep feedback on, The advantages of it, 1.When prototype is shown to the user, he gets a proper clarity and 'feel' of the functionality of the software and he can suggest changes and modifications., 2.This type of approach of developing the software is used for non-IT-literate people. They usually are not good at specifying their requirements, nor can tell properly about what they expect from the software., 3.When client is not confident about the developer's capabilities, he asks for a small prototype to be built. Based on this model, he judges capabilities of developer., 4.Sometimes it helps to demonstrate the concept to prospective investors to get funding for project., 5.It reduces risk of failure, as potential risks can be identified early and mitigation steps can be taken., 6.Iteration between development team and client provides a very good and conductive environment during project., 7.Time required to complete the project after getting final the SRS reduces, since the developer has a better idea about how he should approach the project., The disadvantages of it, 1. the start-up cost of building the development team, focused on making prototype, is high., 2.Once we get proper requirements from client after showing prototype model, it may be of no use. That is why, sometimes we refer to the prototype as "Throw-away" prototype., 3. It is a slow process., 4.Too much involvement of client, is not always preferred by the developer., 5.Too many changes can disturb the rhythm of the development team., 4.Oval Model by Kemp,1985, Picture of it, Nine key elements, 1.Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program., 2.Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning., 3.Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes., 4.State instructional objectives for the learner., 5.Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning., 6.Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives., 7.Plan the instructional message and delivery., 8.Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives., 9.Select resources to support instruction and learning activities, 5.Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden(1996), Picture of it

2.Learning theories (Attached further resources), 1.Behaviorism, Core Idea, S-R,S-R-S, Drill&Practice, Information in--Behavior out, Development, Paviov Experiment, Conditioned Reflex;Lab animal artificial tasks, Watson, The idea of "conditioning" as an automaic form of learning, Thomodike, Connectionsm;S-R-law of learning;readlness,exercise,and effect, Skinner, S-R-S;reinforcement, Alvert Bandura, Social Learning Theoty, Approach, The role of the environment, Instructional implications, Teacher role:dispenser of reward or punishment, Students role: redplent of reward or punishment, Teaching method :drilling,practicing basic skills, Application, Sports training;Maths, 2.Cogniton, Core Idea, S-O-R, input-recode-process-output, input/output(mental), Development, J.S.Bruner, Cognitive Discovery, H.Simon, Information Processing Theory, Vygotsky, Social Cognition, Piaget, Development Stage Theory, David P.Ausubel, Meaningful Learning:Characterization study,the concept of learning and proposltions larning, Approach, The role of the information processing, Instructional inplication, teacher role:information dispenser,transmltter, students role:information receiver,processor, Teaching method:lecturing and presenting of textbooks, Application, Cognitive tools:Excel,Authonware,Facedemo,Mindmeister, 3.Constructivism, Core idea, Past knowledge/experience based, Actively construct, Social interaction, Development, Vygotsky, Culture-Historic Psychology, Neisser, Thinking Dualty, Intertional, Clear, Piaget, Four stages of children cognitive structure, Bruner, Student as infomation processor, Approach, Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, Application, Child development, Mathematic, Social Science, Language, Variation, Bonwell&Eison, Active Learning, Bruner, Discovery Learning, Bereiter&Scardamlia, Knowledge Buiding, 4.Other Learning Theoies, Situated Learning, Cooperative Learning, Blended Learning, Brain Based Learning

3.Learning form Technology Instructivist Models, Explanation of Gange's 9-events of Instruction, Gaining Attention, Reception of patterns of neural ipulses, Informing the learner of the objective, Activating a process of executive control, Stimulation recall of prerequisite learning, Retrieval of prior learning to working memory, Presenting the stimulus material, Emphasizing features for selective perception, Providing learning guidance, Semantic encoding:Cues for retrieval, Eliciting the performance, Activating response orgnization, Providing feedback about perfoamnce, Establishing reinforcement, Assessing the perfoamance, Activating retrieval;making reinforcement possible, Enhancing retention and transfer, Providing cues and strategies for retrieval

4.Questionnaire for the design preparation, website:SurveyMonkey, Client-centred Scoping Questionnaire example

Session 3

1.ADDIE Timeline, 1975, Early 80s, Mid 80s, 1995, 1997, 2000s

2.LT/ID Products development stages (ADDIE) model, factors of ADDIE, Analysis, Design, Define a goal(s), Conduct instructional analysis, Analyze learners and context, Write performance/Learning objectives, Also known as, performance objectives, Instructional objectives, Behavioural objectives, Specific instructional objectives, Learning outcomes, SOLO Taxonomy, Pre-structural, Unistructural, Multistructural, Relational, Extended abstract, How to write learning outcomes?, Definition of it, some useful websites, Develop assessment strategy, Drill and Practice, Multiple Choice, True False, Fill in the blank, Short answer, Drag, Drop, Essays, Problem Solving, Tasks, Develop instructional strategy, Arrange instructional events, Events of instruction, Gaining Attention, Informing Learner of the objective, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Presenting the stimulus, Eliciting performance, Providing learning guidance, Providing feedback about prformance, Enhancing retention and tranfer, Assessing the performance, CISCO RLO Strategy, Development, Implementation, Evaluation, Some useful websites of it

Session 4

about flowcharts, What is flowchart?, Defination, Common Flowchart Symbols, Terminator, An oval flow chart shape indicating the start or end of the process., Process, A rectangular flow chart shape indicating a normal process flow step, Decision, A diamond flow chart shape indication a branch in the process flow., Connector, A small, labeled, circular flow chart shape used to indicate a jump in the process flow., Data, A parallelogram that indicates data input or output (I/O) for a process, Document, Used to indicate a document or report, How to make a flowchart?, Setting Up The Environment, Creating a Grid (Optional), Enabling Snap, Page Layout, Creating the Flowchart, Inserting a Flowchart Shape, Adding More Flowchart Shapes, Adding Text to a Shape, Adding Connector Arrows Between Shapes, Adding Labels and Callouts, Formatting the Flowchart, Formatting Shapes, Formatting Connector Lines, Other Formatting Tips, Editing the Flowchart, Selecting Shapes, Aligning the Flowchart, Aligning the Flowchart, Some useful tools and websites for making flowchart, Examples, 1, 2

about storyboads, The definition of storyboard, graphic organizers, illustrations or images, the purpose of pre-visualizing, a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence, How to make a storyboard?, Define the project, First clip and first drawing., Manage your storyboard, Create scenes and clips, Change scenes and clips, Storyboard's aspect, Rename a clip, Assign a group to a clip, Hide a clip, Move a clip, Change your storyboard's view, Turn a storyboard into an animatic, Give a duration to your clips, Add sound, Making a camera movement, Configure your camera, Export your storyboard / animatic, Some useful tools for making storyboard, The Easy Storyboard Creator, Storyboard Template, Digital storytelling storyboard template, Examples, 1, 2

Session 5

The key LTD framworks, Multimedia Learning Theory, Mayer,2003, Split-attention principle, Words and picture should be physically and temporally integrated, Segmenting principle, Multimedia messages should be presented in student-paced segments., Pre-training principle, Names and characteristics of main concepts should be familiar to students., Coherence, Extraneous material should be excluded., Signalling, cues should be used to highlight the organization of the essential material., Redundancy principle, The same information should not be resented in more than one format, Modality principle, words should be spoken rather then written., Multimedia principle, The learning objects should integrate visual and verbal information,not verbal alone., Learning by doing models, 4C/ID model, Van Merroenboer.Clark.&Croock.2002, Case-based reasoning, Schaak,berman&MaoPhersoon,1999, Goals, Mission, Cover story, Role, Activities, Resources, Feedbacks, Learning Cycle, Kolb, Learning by doing, Dufour, Resource-based learning, Chuichill,2006, Jonassen's Constructivist learning, Jonassen's learning model, Jonassen's constructivist learning environment, Leading environment as a problem, Logical problem, Algorithms, Story problmes, Rule-using Problem, Decision-making problems, Troubleshooting problems, Diagnosis-solution problems, Strategic performance, Situated case-policy problmes, Design problems, Dilemmas problems

Session 6

prototype, Some addition resources links, wiki knowledge, Ibook, Youtube knowlege, design framworks, how to do a better prototype, 12 Useful Techniques For Good User Interface Design, 17 Examples of Great Presentation Design, User Interface Design Tips, Techniques, and Principles, Basic prototype categories, Proof-of-Principle Prototype (Model), Form Study Prototype (Model)., Form Study Prototype (Model)., Visual Prototype (Model), Functional Prototype (Model), Differences between a prototype and a production design, Materials., Processes., Lower fidelity., Characteristics and limitations of prototypes

Session 7

web 2.0, Web 2.0 technologies in action, Impact of web 2.0 on learning and teaching, Stimulating new modes of enquiry, Supporting collaboration, Engaging with new literacies, Generating publication, Implementation:Barriers, tensions and facilitators, Teachers’ Web 2.0 orientation: Use and attitudes, E-safety and security, Technical issues, Other implementation issues: Legal, content, portability, Useful references

Session 8

mobile learning, Advances in mobile learning, current state of mobile learning, a model for framing mobile learning, Research on mobile learning, Mobile Distance Learners, Using Mobile Learning to Enhance the Quality, Informal Learning Evidence in Online Communities of Mobile Device Enthusiasts, M-learning: Positioning Educators for a Mobile, Connected Future, Applications of Mobile Learning, Practitioners as Innovators: Emergent Practice in Personal Mobile Teaching, Learning, Work, and Leisure, Design and Development of Multimedia Learning Objects for Mobile Phones, Design and Development of Multimedia Learning Objects for Mobile Phones, MobilED – Mobile Tools and Services Platform for Formal and Informal Learning, MobilED – Mobile Tools and Services Platform for Formal and Informal Learning, Using Mobile Technologies for Multimedia Tours in a Traditional Museum Setting, Use of Mobile Technology for Teacher Training