Cell membranes

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Cell membranes by Mind Map: Cell membranes

1. Lipids

1.1. Types

1.1.1. Fats Triglyceride triesters with glycerol

1.1.2. Waxes

1.1.3. Sterols Steroid subgroup E.g. cholesterol

1.1.4. Fat soluble vitamins

1.1.5. 1,2,3 glycerides 1,2,3 fatty acids with a glycerol group

1.1.6. Phospholipids Phosphate, glycerol, 2 fatty acid, restgroup

1.1.7. Sphingolipids Lipids with sphingoid base Long chain base Can have fatty acid rest group Amino alcohol: hydroxyl and amino group In myellin

1.1.8. Phosphatidylcholine Choline headed phospholipid Common in membranes

1.1.9. Glycolipids Extracellular layer Recognition

1.1.10. Synthesis ER Smooth Cytosolic monolayer Modification Lumen of golgi

1.2. Structures

1.2.1. Liposome

1.2.2. Micelle Only monoglycerides

1.2.3. Bilayer

2. Components

2.1. Phospholipid bilayer

2.1.1. States Gel Fluid Influenced by Temperature Chain length [Unsaturated fats]

2.1.2. Asymmetric

2.2. Cholesterol

2.2.1. Fluidity Increase in case of low fluidity by natire Decrease in case of hifh fluidity Due to fatty acid composition Length [Unsaturated] Decrease in case of hifh fluidity

2.2.2. Decrease permeability

2.3. Lipid Rafts

2.3.1. More ordered than bilayer

2.3.2. More densely packed than bilayer

2.3.3. 3-5 times as much cholesterol

2.3.4. 50% higher sphingolipids Cholesterol prefers interacting with these FIlls voids Acts as glue

2.3.5. Types Planar rafts In plane Caveolae Cavity E.g. endocytosis

2.3.6. Synthesis Adipocytes Synthesis Energy Smooth ER Bilayer Micelles

2.4. Proteins

2.4.1. Topology Location of N Terminus orientation in the membrane

3. Proteins

3.1. Structure levels

3.1.1. Primary

3.1.2. Secondary

3.1.3. Tertiary

3.1.4. Quarternary

3.2. Location

3.2.1. Integral membranes Polytopic proteins Helix bundle Beta barrel Monotopic proteins

3.2.2. Peripheral membrane proteins Bilayer attached Integral attached Anchored

3.3. Functions

3.3.1. Signalling Receptors Secondary messenger systems

3.3.2. Transport proteins Active Pumps Passive Pores Channels

3.3.3. Enzyme function

3.3.4. Cell adhesion