Cell membranes

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Cell membranes by Mind Map: Cell membranes

1. Lipids

1.1. Types

1.1.1. Fats

1.1.1.1. Triglyceride triesters with glycerol

1.1.2. Waxes

1.1.3. Sterols

1.1.3.1. Steroid subgroup

1.1.3.2. E.g. cholesterol

1.1.4. Fat soluble vitamins

1.1.5. 1,2,3 glycerides

1.1.5.1. 1,2,3 fatty acids with a glycerol group

1.1.6. Phospholipids

1.1.6.1. Phosphate, glycerol, 2 fatty acid, restgroup

1.1.7. Sphingolipids

1.1.7.1. Lipids with sphingoid base

1.1.7.1.1. Long chain base

1.1.7.1.2. Can have fatty acid rest group

1.1.7.1.3. Amino alcohol: hydroxyl and amino group

1.1.7.1.4. In myellin

1.1.8. Phosphatidylcholine

1.1.8.1. Choline headed phospholipid

1.1.8.2. Common in membranes

1.1.9. Glycolipids

1.1.9.1. Extracellular layer

1.1.9.2. Recognition

1.1.10. Synthesis

1.1.10.1. ER

1.1.10.1.1. Smooth

1.1.10.1.2. Cytosolic monolayer

1.1.10.2. Modification

1.1.10.2.1. Lumen of golgi

1.2. Structures

1.2.1. Liposome

1.2.2. Micelle

1.2.2.1. Only monoglycerides

1.2.3. Bilayer

2. Components

2.1. Phospholipid bilayer

2.1.1. States

2.1.1.1. Gel

2.1.1.2. Fluid

2.1.1.3. Influenced by

2.1.1.3.1. Temperature

2.1.1.3.2. Chain length

2.1.1.3.3. [Unsaturated fats]

2.1.2. Asymmetric

2.2. Cholesterol

2.2.1. Fluidity

2.2.1.1. Increase in case of low fluidity by natire

2.2.1.2. Decrease in case of hifh fluidity

2.2.1.3. Due to fatty acid composition

2.2.1.3.1. Length

2.2.1.3.2. [Unsaturated]

2.2.1.4. Decrease in case of hifh fluidity

2.2.2. Decrease permeability

2.3. Lipid Rafts

2.3.1. More ordered than bilayer

2.3.2. More densely packed than bilayer

2.3.3. 3-5 times as much cholesterol

2.3.4. 50% higher sphingolipids

2.3.4.1. Cholesterol prefers interacting with these

2.3.4.1.1. FIlls voids

2.3.4.1.2. Acts as glue

2.3.5. Types

2.3.5.1. Planar rafts

2.3.5.1.1. In plane

2.3.5.2. Caveolae

2.3.5.2.1. Cavity

2.3.5.2.2. E.g. endocytosis

2.3.6. Synthesis

2.3.6.1. Adipocytes

2.3.6.1.1. Synthesis

2.3.6.1.2. Energy

2.3.6.2. Smooth ER

2.3.6.2.1. Bilayer

2.3.6.2.2. Micelles

2.4. Proteins

2.4.1. Topology

2.4.1.1. Location of N Terminus

2.4.1.2. orientation in the membrane

3. Proteins

3.1. Structure levels

3.1.1. Primary

3.1.2. Secondary

3.1.3. Tertiary

3.1.4. Quarternary

3.2. Location

3.2.1. Integral membranes

3.2.1.1. Polytopic proteins

3.2.1.1.1. Helix bundle

3.2.1.1.2. Beta barrel

3.2.1.2. Monotopic proteins

3.2.2. Peripheral membrane proteins

3.2.2.1. Bilayer attached

3.2.2.2. Integral attached

3.2.2.3. Anchored

3.3. Functions

3.3.1. Signalling

3.3.1.1. Receptors

3.3.1.2. Secondary messenger systems

3.3.2. Transport proteins

3.3.2.1. Active

3.3.2.1.1. Pumps

3.3.2.2. Passive

3.3.2.2.1. Pores

3.3.2.2.2. Channels

3.3.3. Enzyme function

3.3.4. Cell adhesion