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Educational Simulations by Mind Map: Educational Simulations
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Educational Simulations

research of literature by Nico Rutten

in general

Simulations ...

features that help better learning of difficult concepts of science:



Cognitive theory

Domain models

Instructional Design theories

Conversation theory


Gagné and Briggs


Alessi and Trollip

Component Design theory

Inquiry Teaching theory

Elaboration theory

Reigeluth and Schwartz



Klahr and Dunbar


computer simulation

computer simulation: a program that constrains a model of a system or a process.

Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

In order to create an instructional computer simulation, one must ...


learning support



ways in which guidance can be provided:

problem-solving strategies:




conceptual change

Alternative conceptions have the general characteristics of ...

Educational conditions that promote conceptual change:

Children often resolve their misconceptions with the goal of ...

before/after instruction



multiple representations

Combining different representations in one interface may have several advantages:

When learning with multiple representations, learners are faced with four tasks:

Problems learners may encounter when learning with multiple representations:

Ways to make relations between representations explicit for the learner:

scientific discovery learning

scientific discovery: the processes of mindful coordination between hypothesized theories and evidence collected by experiments

The content of a domain is not explicitly stated to learners.

Learners experiment and construct knowledge as ‘scientists’:

A technique that has proven useful in eliciting inquiry learning processes is by the use of computer simulations.

It leads to knowledge that ...



influence on effectiveness


computer-mediated collaboration


epistemic motivation: one’s beliefs toward knowledge and the process of building knowledge

Epistemologically less mature students ...

Students with greater epistemological sophistication ...


metacognition: both the knowledge about one’s own cognitive processes and the control over these processes

Metacognition appears to be ...

metacognitive knowledge: knowledge about the interplay between ...

metacognitive skills: self-regulatory activities actually being performed by a learner in order to structure the problem solving process. operationalizations:


instructional measures: either instructional strategies or actions

instructional principles: common rules of thumb which can be implemented in particular features of the environment

instructional approach: the overall policy involved

instructional features: both the more passive features of the environment as well as the active measures taken by the instructional agent

learning goal

dimensions on which a particular learning goal can be classified:

cognitive load


To maximize learning, instructors must minimize cognitive load by ...

locus of control

For learners who are anxious and less able and who report an external locus of control, system controlled instruction is more effective.

For more able, secure learners who report an internal locus of control, learner controlled instruction is more profitable.