Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories:

1.1. Cognitivism:

1.1.1. Refers to the study of mind and how it obtains, processes and stores information.

1.1.1.1. Motto: the mind is a computer

1.1.2. Learning is shaped by previous experiences and knowledge. Acquired learning strategies and prior knowledge and attitudes are referred to as schemas.

1.1.3. Learners are active participants in their learning. Memory is used to encode, store, and retireve information. information comes in as input, the mind processes the infomration for the time being, and then stores the information which can later be retrieved.

1.1.3.1. Cognitive Load Theory: processing information can over or under load working memory.

1.1.3.1.1. Extraneous Cognitive Load: imposed by the manner in which information is presented to learners

1.1.3.1.2. Intrinsic Cognitive Load: imposed by the learning task

1.1.3.1.3. Germane Cognitive Load: devoted to processing information, constructing and automating schemas

1.1.4. Views learning as Teacher-Centered: in order to achieve the most efficient learning information but be presented in an organized manner

1.1.4.1. Types of learning best explained by this theory are reasoning, clear objectives, and problem solving.

1.1.4.1.1. Well suited for problem solving - complex concepts can be broken down into easier to process smaller parts - the learner is able to link these smaller parts to previous knowledge (schemas) which allows stronger comprehension

1.1.4.1.2. Weakness: it may be difficult to adapt to changes in what has already been learned and processed as this way of learning is very structured

1.2. Constructivism:

1.2.1. The study of a learner's own construction of knowledge

1.2.1.1. This knowledge is constructed through one's own experiences and interactions

1.2.1.2. New information is taken in, and given meaning by referring to attitudes, beliefs and previous experiences

1.2.2. Instructor serves as a facilitator and the learner is an active participant in the construction of knowledge

1.2.2.1. Problem-Based Learning: when learners take control of the learnign situation - they engage themselves in an activity and in doing so develop an understanding of the problem, comprehend the relevance of the topic and construct knowledge through their experiences

1.2.2.1.1. Weakness: individual experiences and attitudes can vary. A specific desired outcome may not always be achieved when different people approach the problem or task. Time consuming, difficult to assess learning

1.2.2.2. Key Ideas: problem-based learning, project-based learning, active learning, authentic tasks, discovery learning, collaborative learning

1.2.3. Learning influenced by engagement, participation, social and cultural factors.

1.3. Connectivism:

1.3.1. Learning is the process of creating connections and developing a network. Motto: a learning theory for the digital age - forget about trying to know everything and instead build your network of knowledge sources which are accessible whenever needed

1.3.2. Knowledge is seen as existing outside of the learner. Connections are made between information to build knowledge. These connections help learners to create their own learning network. Siemens outlines the major ideas of connectivism as:

1.3.2.1. learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

1.3.2.2. learning is the process of connecting specialized nodes or information sourcing

1.3.2.3. Learning may reside in non-human appliances

1.3.2.4. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

1.3.2.5. the ability to identify connections between concepts is important - nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate learning

1.3.2.6. Purpose of connectivist activities is maintaining current and accurate knowledge - decision-making is a learning process as information can change and what is viewed as correct one day may be incorrect the next

1.3.3. With all the resources available online, learners can build a learning network that is constantly growing and can receive up-to-date information on topics

1.3.3.1. since learning is networked and connected to a variety of sources, information can be obtained easily and instantly

1.3.3.1.1. Weakness: because of the extensive amounts of sources that exist, it can be difficult to determine which are reliable and legitimate sources

2. Technology Theories:

2.1. Media Ecology:

2.1.1. The Study of media as environments

2.1.1.1. Ecology: implies the study of environments, their structure, content and impact on people

2.1.1.1.1. Media Ecology: tries to find out what roles media force us to play, how media structure what we are seeing and why media make as feel and act as we do

2.1.2. Media Ecology Theory: centers on the principles that technology not only influences society but impacts all aspects of life.

2.1.2.1. Study of how media and communication processes affect human perception and understanding

2.1.2.1.1. Hot (low involvement) and Cool (high involvement) Media

2.1.3. The Media Ecology Association:

2.1.3.1. "the study of media environments, the idea that technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs"

2.1.3.1.1. Media infuse every act and action in society, media fix our perceptions and organize our expereinces, media tie the world together

2.2. SCOT: Social Construction of Technology

2.2.1. Society and human action influence technology

2.2.1.1. Social Constructivists argue that technology does not determine human action, but rather, human action shapes technology.

2.2.2. Not only a theory but also a methodology: it formalizes the steps and princples to follow when one wants to analyze the causes of technological failures or successes

3. Frameworks

3.1. TPACK

3.1.1. Consists of 3 knowledge elements and the interplay between them: Content = knowledge about the subject area. Pedagogical = knowledge about how to teach. Technological = knowledge of the different types of technology tools that can be integrated into teaching and how to use them

3.1.2. These three elements all work together to help deliver a good lesson plan and to help accommodate to the different needs of the students.

3.1.3. The importance of each knowledge element may vary depending on the lesson they are being applied to - in some cases having more pedagogical knowledge may be more important than technology aspect but they do not work seperately from each other - they intersect and connect together. Integrating all three elements together allows students to get the most out of the lecture/assignments

3.2. Philosophy of Teachnology:

3.2.1. Philsophy of Teaching is your beliefs about your teaching practices, whereas Philosophy of Teachnology is your beliefs and ideas about how technology can be used in your teaching practices

3.2.2. Should consist of the three elements of TPACK - content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge and the importance you place on teach of them and how you believe they interact with each other for optimal learning for students