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Program Planning Model by Mind Map: Program Planning
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Program Planning Model

Seven assumptions of the model. 1. Focus on learning and change. 2. Recognition of the non-sequential nature of the planning process. 3. Discerning the importance of context and negotiation. 4. Attending to pre-planning and last-minute changes. 5. Honoring and taking into account diversity and cultural differences. 6. Accepting that program planners work in different ways. 7. Understanding that program planners are learners

Discerning Context

The people, organization and wider environment

power dynamics High/low power distance factors

ethical consideration

access to resources of information about context

Building support base

engaging key constituent groups and stakeholders

establishing effective structural processes to ensure continuous organizational support

cultivate organizational culture where formal, job-embedded, and self-directed learning activities are valued

obtain and retain support from widest community through ad hoc groups and boards

build and sustain collaborative partnerships with other organizations and groups

3 Ts of economic development

Florida,R (2002)The Rise of the Creative Class: And how it's transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life.< Basic Books




Identify Program Ideas

decide what sources to use when identifying program ideas for education and training programs

Web resources. Are the same ones available in China?

Generate ideas through various techniques

ensure that highly structured needs assessment is warranted and develop a needs assessment model that is appropriate to the situation

look beyond highly structured needs assessments

consider contextual issues that may effect the generation of program ideas

Cross-cultural issues. Power-distance ratio

Understanding what is meant by "adult learners"

Understanding of what is meant by learning. Lots of different theories., Bloom's Taxonomy

Differing motivations, Autonomy, master, purpose Deci and Ryan, Flow, ROWE

prioritize and be prepared to abandon some ideas

Sorting and Prioritizing program ideas

define priorities and identify issues and problems that call for interventions other than education or training

Sort program ideas into two categories: those appropriate for educational activities and those that may require alternative interventions

Select the people responsible for prioritizing program ideas

Use quantitative and qualitative data when prioritizing program ideas

Use a clearly articulated system for prioritizing

Be prepared to recommend alternative interventions

Develop Program Objectives

Program objectives derived from Agreement document attached as a link to this node.

What will participants learn, the changes resulting from that learning, operational aspects of the program

Strategies for adult education in vocational technical programs in the United States (Teaching Philosophy/Ideology, curriculum development, overview of teaching/learning strategies/determining that learning has occurred, etc).

Philosophy, methods and approaches in vocational education

Teaching Methods (Lectures, On-line, hands-on, repetitive learning exercises, on-the-job-training strategies, developing Communities of Learners, Coaching Strategies, etc)

Developing teacher education programs for use in Shaanxi Province – Assuring Educational Effectiveness, Common issue of concern: Issue of major concern for North American scene the quality of teacher education programs. See the report on this link that discusses 9 criteria for judging teacher ed program quality., Purpose: goals reflect the needs of today's teachers schools and children. Success tied to student learning in the classrooms., Curricular Coherence: organized to teach the skills and knowledge needed by teachers at specific types of schools and at various stages of careers., Teaching is not necessarily a one-size fits all thing. If you are competent to teach K-12 does not mean that you are competent to teach adults and vice versa, Curricular Balance: between theory and practice, Faculty Composition: academics and practitioners who are expert in teaching, up to date and productive,, Admission: standards designed to recruit potential teachers with the capacity and motivation to become successful teachers., Graduation standards, Need greater supervision over certification and perhaps automatic recertification?, Research is high quality, practice driven and useful to practitioners and policy makers, Finances are adequate, Assessment: Program engages in continuing self-assessment and performance improvement.

include measurable and non-measurable program outcomes

Demonstrate acquired knowledge by teaching the learned materials to the class

Demonstrate that they can apply the learned materials and methods by developing a similar course that can be taught in their schools in China

ensure that program objectives are clearly written and understandable by all parties involved

Use program objectives to evaluate internal consistency and "do-ability"

Negotiate changes in program objectives with all parties involved

Design Instructional Plans

develop clear and understandable learning objectives for each instructional session and ensure they match program objectives

select and organize program content based on what participants "must learn"

Choose instructional techniques that match the focus of the learning outcomes, that the instructor is capable of using, and that take into account the background experience and context of the learners.

Online learning and virtual Instruction, Free range projects, LMS, Moodle rooms, Translation

Select or develop instructional resources that enhance the learning effort

Choose an assessment component for each instructional segment

Use instructional assessment data for formative and summative instructional and program evaluation

Prepare clear and concise instructional plans

ensure instructors are competent and committed

Design Transfer of Learning Plans

See Haskel for three levels of transfer of learning. Non-specific-based on previous knowledge Application transfer-applying what one has learned to a specific situation Contextual transfer.Learing applied across contexts Near transfer-applying learning to similar contexts Far transfer-wehere situations are significantly different displacement or creative transfer.

be aware of major factors that influence the transfer of learning

Program participants, program design and execution, program content, changes required to apply learning, organizational context, community and societal forces

Decide if transfer of learning strategies should be employed before, after or during a program

Online web resources, F2F instruction, Web-based contact.

See Haskel's (1998, 2001) Eleven principles for facilitating transfer.

Determine the key players involved in transfer of learning

Teach learners, supervisors, and other interested parties about transfer of learning techniques and strategies

Individual learning plans


Job rotation, guided internships


One-legged conference, brief conversations

Job aids

Portfolios, blogs, wikis

application notebook

Transfer teams

Tuning protocols

Support groups

Follow up sessions


Action research

Reflective practice

Chat rooms

Choose transfer of learning strategies that will be most useful to participants

Help participants select transfer of learning techniques that are most useful to them when applying learning

Negotiate and change the content, skills, and/or beliefs that are to be transfered

Formulate Evaluation Plans

develop systematic program evaluation procedures

11 Elements of Systematic Evaluation= Element>Operational Guideline>example Cafferella (2002) pp. 231-234

Use informal and unplanned evaluation opportunities to collect formative and summative evaluation data

Specify the evaluation approach to be used

Determine how evaluation data are to be collected

Moodle discussion forums offer systematic evaluation of contribution that is defined in a rubric and scored if required for grading, Discussion forum subject line must contain, must clearly identify the main theme of your comment, reader must be able to discern main idea from subject line, Discussion forum comment field must contain, accuracy=, novelty=add something new, informative, relevant, copy and paste must have citation, contribute to the academic atmpshere +/-

determine process for data analysis

Describe how judgments will be made about the program

Making Recommendations and Communicating Results

examine program successes and failures

Tell the story through carefully crafted program reports

Select a format for reports

Time the release of the report for optimal impact

follow up with appropriate individuals

Selecting Formats, Schedules, and Staff Needs

choose most appropriate format or combination of formats

take into account the desire to build a community of learners

Devise a program schedule

Identify staff requirements

determine if staff will be internal or external consultants

Make careful choices about instructors or learning facilitators

Preparing Budgets and Marketing Plans

Estimate expenses of the project including costs of development, delivery and evaluation of the program

Determine program financing and estimates of program income

Manage program budget and keep accurate budget records

Build and maintain credibility, success, and market niches when marketing

Conduct target audience analysis

Use existing data or generate contextual information to help frame marketing plans

Select and prepare promotional materials for the program

Prepare a targeted and lively promotional campaign

Ascertain and strengthen promotional assets and capabilities

Coordinate Facilities and On-site events

Obtain suitable facilities and arrange for instructional materials and equipment

Ensure that facilities accommodate all participants

Oversee all on-site program arrangments

Create a positive environment for learning the moment participants arrive

Provide a system for monitoring programs

Gather data for program evaluations

Give recognition to program participants and thank staff members

Tie up loose ends when program complete

Understanding by Design

The highly anticipated second edition of Understanding by Design poses the core, essential questions of understanding and design, and provides readers with practical solutions for the teacher-designer. The book opens by analyzing the logic of backward design as an alternative to coverage and activity-oriented plans. Though backward from habit, this approach brings more focus and coherence to instruction. The book proposes a multifaceted approach, with the six “facets” of understanding. The facets combine with backward design to provide a powerful, expanded array of practical tools and strategies for designing curriculum, instruction, and assessments that lead students at all grade levels to genuine understanding. The second edition, a refined work, has been thoroughly and extensively revised, updated, and expanded, including improvement of the UbD Template, the key terms of UbD, dozens of worksheets, and some of the larger concepts. The authors have successfully put together a text that demonstrates what best practice in the design of learning looks like, enhancing for its audience their capability for creating more engaging and effective learning, whether the student is a third grader, a college freshman, or a faculty member. Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. ASCD.

Backward design process

1. Identify desired results

2. Determine Acceptable Evidence

3. Plan Learning experiences